Sarawak Museum

Kuching, Malaysia

Sarawak Museum

Kuching, Malaysia
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Huber B.A.,Alexander Koenig Research Museum of Zoology | Nuneza O.M.,Mindanao State University - Iligan Institute of Technology | Leh Moi Ung C.,Sarawak Museum
European Journal of Taxonomy | Year: 2016

We revise the Southeast Asian Pholcus bicornutus group in which males are characterized by a unique pair of horns on their ocular area, each of which carries at its tip a brush of hairs. In two species, the two hair brushes are ‘glued’ or ‘waxed’ together by an unidentified substance into a very consistently curved and pointed single median tip. In the other five species known, the hairs are unglued. We present a first revision of ocular modifications in Pholcidae and identify twenty supposedly independent origins. Most cases are in Pholcinae, and all but one case are limited to the male, suggesting sexual selection as the main driving force in the evolution of ocular modifications in Pholcidae. Previously, the Pholcus bicornutus group consisted of four species limited to the Philippines. We describe four new species, including three species from the Philippines (P. olangapo Huber, sp. nov.; P. kawit Huber, sp. nov.; P. baguio Huber, sp. nov.) and the first representative from outside the Philippines (P. mulu Huber, sp. nov. from Sarawak, NE Borneo) and provide new records and SEM data for three previously described species. © 2016, Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle. All rights reserved.

Toma T.,University of Ryukyus | Miyagi I.,University of Ryukyus | Miyagi I.,11 Health | Okazawa T.,Kanazawa University | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Science and Technology in the Tropics | Year: 2012

Redescriptions and illustrations of the pupae and larvae of Armigeres (Leicesteria) annulipalpis (Theobald) and Ar. (Lei.) flavus (Leicester) were made based on the specimens collected in Sarawak, Malaysia. Illustrations of abdominal ornamentation of adults and male genitalia were also given. The larvae of Ar. annulipalpis were found mainly In water accumulation of green bamboo stumps and splits. Armigeres flavus was commonly found in bamboo stumps and containers with very turbid water in mountain forests.

Leh M.U.C.,Sarawak Museum | Sasekumar A.,University of Malaya | Chew L.-L.,University of Malaya
Raffles Bulletin of Zoology | Year: 2012

Food habits of the eel catfish, Plotosus canius Hamilton 1822, were investigated in two localities, a mangrove estuary and a mudflat, on the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia for approximately two years. The eel catfish is associated with mangrove estuaries, creeks, mudflats, and shallow coastal waters, and is a commercially valuable food fish that is exploited by artisanal fishermen using hook and line, and commercial barrier nets operated on intertidal mudflats. Within the mangrove estuary Sungai [= river] Sementa Kecil, the gut contents of eel catfish consisted predominantly of crustaceans living in the mangrove shore or adjoining mudflats. The fish consumed an average of about 70% by volume of brachyuran crabs comprising of Sesarmidae, and penaeid prawns. At the Sungai Buloh mudflat, 40% of its diet consisted of bivalves such as the blood cockle, Anadara granosa (L.), Xenostrobus and Placuna sp., while other items consumed include fish Stolephorus sp., and Glossogobius sp. The study indicates that eel catfish living in mangrove estuaries and mudflats consumes resident invertebrates thus utilising benthic resources of the intertidal zone. © National University of Singapore.

Leh C.M.U.,Sarawak Museum | Datan I.,Sarawak Museum
Raffles Bulletin of Zoology | Year: 2013

This paper reviews the state of zooarchaeology in Sarawak in the new century and presents preliminary observations on the establishment of a database system to register and curate some 750,000 zoological specimens from archaeological digs in Sarawak. Following the initial exploration of caves in Sarawak by A. H. Everett in 1873-1879, there was a long hiatus until Banks reported on megaliths in the Kelabit country. Tom Harrisson arrived at the Sarawak Museum in 1947; he first visited the Niah Caves in that year but actual field excavations in Niah Caves only began in 1954 and were carried through to 1962 by Tom Harrisson himself. By 1957, Lord Medway, who started as technical assistant for the project, was so engrossed in the zooarchaeology of excavated materials from the Niah caves that he spent much of his time studying them. He has continued this work until today. The last research before the turn of the century was a study on the pre-ceramic levels of West Mouth Niah by Zuraina Majid. The shortage of data and difficulties in identification of our zooarchaeological materials, arising partly from the huge task of curating the archive of specimens, has resulted in the general disinterest of local Malaysian biologists to add research and cultural value to our archaeological resources. © National University of Singapore.

Cranbrook E.,Sarawak Museum
Biodiversity and Conservation | Year: 2010

The Quaternary has been a period of repeated, oscillating patterns of climate change. Global fluctuations in sea level affected the island status of Borneo, which was probably joined to continental Asia for more than half of the last 250,000 years. Alternating connection and isolation, coupled with the ecological barrier of a savanna corridor running from the Malay Peninsula to Java during periods of marine recession, are reflected in the present mammal fauna of Borneo. 38% of mammal species (excluding bats) are endemic, and some distinctive species or subspecies are confined to the north of the island. No known sites in Borneo match the Early and Middle Pleistocene regional sources in eastern Java. However, caves at Niah, Sireh and Jambusan, Sarawak, and Madai, Sabah, provide a zooarchaeological record covering the past 50,000 years. The Late Pleistocene mammals of Borneo included ten species also present among a Javan Middle Pleistocene savanna-adapted assemblage. Of these, four are categorised as 'megafuana': a giant pangolin, Javan rhinoceros, Malay tapir and tiger; the Sumatran rhinoceros can be added. In addition, there are less secure Pleistocene records of Asian elephant from Sarawak and Brunei. Holocene canid remains from Madai could either be the dhole or an early domestic dog. Palynological data combined with the mammal fauna confirm that around 45,000 years ago the vicinity of Niah was vegetated by closed forest. The continuous presence of a suite of arboreal specialists, including large primates, indicates that forest cover persisted through the terminal Pleistocene. Among local extinctions, the giant pangolin apparently disappeared early in this period, but tiger, Javan rhinoceros and tapir probably survived into the last millennium. Human predation of juveniles may account for the loss of the large ungulates, but the disappearance of tiger needs another explanation. Despite hunting pressure throughout the terminal Pleistocene and Holocene, a population of orangutan survived at Niah until perhaps the last millennium. Size diminution observed among large, medium and small mammal species is interpreted as the selective impact of environmental change. Once more is known about their ecology, changes in the bat fauna of Niah cave may provide indicators of environmental impacts affecting the wider mammal community during the later Holocene. In conclusion, it is recommended that the three nations, Brunei Darussalam, Malaysia and Indonesia, should support the WWF sponsored 'Heart of Borneo' as the most hopeful project to provide sustainable management of the rare and threatened forest-adapted wild mammals of the island. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009.

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