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Menzies A.M.,University of Sydney | Ashworth M.T.,University of California at San Francisco | Swann S.,Glaxosmithkline | Kefford R.F.,University of Sydney | And 16 more authors.
Annals of Oncology | Year: 2015

Combined dabrafenib and trametinib (CombiDT) is an approved therapy for advanced BRAFV600E/K-mutant melanoma patients. This study shows that pyrexia is frequent and recurrent with CombiDT, but is not associated with baseline characteristics or drug efficacy. The etiology is unclear but may involve drug exposure. This requires further research, as do strategies to prevent recurrent pyrexia. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved.

Yardley D.A.,Sarah Cannon Research Institute Tennessee Oncology PLLC | Tripathy D.,University of Southern California | Brufsky A.M.,University of Pittsburgh | Rugo H.S.,University of California at San Francisco | And 7 more authors.
British Journal of Cancer | Year: 2014

Background:Data characterising long-term survivors (LTS) with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive metastatic breast cancer (MBC) are limited. This analysis describes LTS using registHER observational study data.Methods:A latent class modelling (LCM) approach was used to identify distinct homogenous patient groups (or classes) based on progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival, and complete response. Demographics, clinicopathologic factors, first-line treatment patterns, and clinical outcomes were described for each class. Class-associated factors were evaluated using logistic regression analysis.Results:LCM identified two survivor groups labelled as LTS (n=244) and short-term survivors (STS; n=757). Baseline characteristics were similar between groups, although LTS were more likely to be white (83.6% vs 77.8%) with oestrogen receptor-positive (ER+) or progesterone receptor-positive (PgR+) disease (59.4% vs 50.9%). Median PFS in LTS was 37.2 (95% confidence interval (CI): 32.9-40.5) vs 7.3 months (95% CI: 6.8-8.0) in STS. Factors associated with long-term survival included ER+ or PgR+ disease, metastasis to node/local sites, first-line trastuzumab use, and first-line taxane use.Conclusions:Prognostic variables identified by LCM define a HER2-positive MBC patient profile and therapies that may be associated with more favourable long-term outcomes, enabling treatment selection appropriate to the patient's disease characteristics. © 2014 Cancer Research Uk.

Tannir N.M.,MD | Forero-Torres A.,University of Alabama at Birmingham | Ramchandren R.,Barbara Ann Karmanos Cancer Institute | Pal S.K.,City of Hope | And 8 more authors.
Investigational New Drugs | Year: 2014

Summary Purpose This first-in-human study evaluated the CD70-targeted antibody-drug conjugate SGN-75 in patients with relapsed or refractory CD70-positive non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) or metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Methods SGN-75 was administered intravenously to 58 patients (39 RCC, 19 NHL) every 3 weeks (Q3Wk; doses escalated from 0.3 to 4.5 mg/kg) or on Days 1, 8, and 15 of 28-day cycles (weekly; doses of 0.3 or 0.6 mg/kg). Dose-limiting toxicities were evaluated during Cycle 1; treatment response was monitored every 2 cycles. Results The maximum tolerated dose of SGN-75 in RCC patients was 3 mg/kg Q3Wk. Due to toxicity concerns (idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura in 2 NHL patients treated weekly), dose escalation in the weekly schedule was terminated; no regimen was recommended for NHL patients. The most common adverse events reported in patients treated Q3Wk (N = 47) were fatigue (40 %), dry eye (32 %), nausea (30 %), and thrombocytopenia (26 %). The nadir for thrombocytopenia typically occurred during Cycle 1. Ocular adverse events (e.g., corneal epitheliopathy, dry eye) were reported for 57 % of patients treated Q3Wk and were generally reversible. Antitumor activity in patients treated Q3Wk included 1 complete response, 2 partial responses, and 20 stable disease. SGN-75 exposures were approximately dose proportional, with a mean terminal half-life of 10 days. Substantial depletions of CD70-positive peripheral blood lymphocytes were observed after SGN-75 treatment. Conclusions Modest single-agent activity and generally manageable adverse events were observed in heavily pretreated RCC and NHL patients. Administration Q3Wk was better tolerated than weekly dosing. Targeted ablation of CD70-positive lymphocytes was demonstrated. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

Rini B.,Cleveland Clinic | Redman B.,University of Michigan | Garcia J.A.,Cleveland Clinic | Burris H.A.,Sarah Cannon Research Institute Tennessee Oncology PLLC | And 5 more authors.
Annals of Oncology | Year: 2014

Background: This phase I/II study was conducted to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD), safety, and efficacy of lenalidomide plus sunitinib in metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC) patients. Patients and methods: Patients with histologically confirmed, metastatic RCC were treated with 10 mg/day lenalidomide plus 37.5 mg/day sunitinib, orally in 21-day cycles. Doses were escalated to determine the MTD in phase I, with additional patients planned at this dose in phase II. Primary end points were MTD and response rate. Results: Sixteen patients received a median of 2, 3, and 5 cycles in cohort 1 [lenalidomide 10 mg (days 1-21) and sunitinib 37.5 mg (days 1-21)], cohort 2 [lenalidomide 10 mg (days 1-21) and sunitinib 37.5 mg (days 1-14)], and cohort 3 [lenalidomide 15 mg (days 1-21) and sunitinib 37.5 mg (days 1-14)], respectively. Median treatment durations were 41, 63, and 97 days for lenalidomide; and 41, 57, and 97.5 days for sunitinib. The MTD was found to be continuous dosing of lenalidomide 10 mg/day plus sunitinib 37.5 mg/day for 14 of 21 days. Dose-limiting toxicities included neutropenia, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, asthenia, atrial fibrillation, and increased transaminases. The most frequent grade 3-4 treatment-emergent adverse events were hematologic, including neutropenia and leukopenia. One patient achieved partial response, and seven had stable disease of which three were confirmed at subsequent tumor assessments. B cells and several T-cell subsets were modulated versus baseline. Conclusion: The dose schedules of lenalidomide and sunitinib evaluated in this study were not well tolerated; cumulative toxicity precluded enrollment at the MTD. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved.

Hamilton E.,Sarah Cannon Research Institute Tennessee Oncology PLLC | Infante J.R.,Sarah Cannon Research Institute Tennessee Oncology PLLC
Cancer Treatment Reviews | Year: 2016

The cyclin D-cyclin dependent kinase (CDK) 4/6-inhibitor of CDK4 (INK4)-retinoblastoma (Rb) pathway controls cell cycle progression by regulating the G1-S checkpoint. Dysregulation of the cyclin D-CDK4/6-INK4-Rb pathway results in increased proliferation, and is frequently observed in many types of cancer. Pathway activation can occur through a variety of mechanisms, including gene amplification or rearrangement, loss of negative regulators, epigenetic alterations, and point mutations in key pathway components. Due to the importance of CDK4/6 activity in cancer cells, CDK4/6 inhibitors have emerged as promising candidates for cancer treatment. Moreover, combination of a CDK4/6 inhibitor with other targeted therapies may help overcome acquired or de novo treatment resistance. Ongoing studies include combinations of CDK4/6 inhibitors with endocrine therapy and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway inhibitors for hormone receptor-positive (HR+) breast cancers, and with selective RAF and MEK inhibitors for tumors with alterations in the mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway such as melanoma. In particular, the combination of CDK4/6 inhibitors with endocrine therapy, such as palbociclib's recent first-line approval in combination with letrozole, is expected to transform the treatment of HR+ breast cancer. Currently, three selective CDK4/6 inhibitors have been approved or are in late-stage development: palbociclib (PD-0332991), ribociclib (LEE011), and abemaciclib (LY2835219). Here we describe the current preclinical and clinical data for these novel agents and discuss combination strategies with other agents for the treatment of cancer. © 2016.

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