Sarah Cannon Research Institute Tennessee Oncology PLLC

Nashville, TN, United States

Sarah Cannon Research Institute Tennessee Oncology PLLC

Nashville, TN, United States
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Menzies A.M.,University of Sydney | Ashworth M.T.,University of California at San Francisco | Swann S.,Glaxosmithkline | Kefford R.F.,University of Sydney | And 16 more authors.
Annals of Oncology | Year: 2015

Combined dabrafenib and trametinib (CombiDT) is an approved therapy for advanced BRAFV600E/K-mutant melanoma patients. This study shows that pyrexia is frequent and recurrent with CombiDT, but is not associated with baseline characteristics or drug efficacy. The etiology is unclear but may involve drug exposure. This requires further research, as do strategies to prevent recurrent pyrexia. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved.


PubMed | University of Houston, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Vanderbilt Ingram Cancer Center, UCT and 18 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The Lancet. Oncology | Year: 2016

Treatments for small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) after failure of platinum-based chemotherapy are limited. We assessed safety and activity of nivolumab and nivolumab plus ipilimumab in patients with SCLC who progressed after one or more previous regimens.The SCLC cohort of this phase 1/2 multicentre, multi-arm, open-label trial was conducted at 23 sites (academic centres and hospitals) in six countries. Eligible patients were 18 years of age or older, had limited-stage or extensive-stage SCLC, and had disease progression after at least one previous platinum-containing regimen. Patients received nivolumab (3 mg/kg bodyweight intravenously) every 2 weeks (given until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity), or nivolumab plus ipilimumab (1 mg/kg plus 1 mg/kg, 1 mg/kg plus 3 mg/kg, or 3 mg/kg plus 1 mg/kg, intravenously) every 3 weeks for four cycles, followed by nivolumab 3 mg/kg every 2 weeks. Patients were either assigned to nivolumab monotherapy or assessed in a dose-escalating safety phase for the nivolumab/ipilimumab combination beginning at nivolumab 1 mg/kg plus ipilimumab 1 mg/kg. Depending on tolerability, patients were then assigned to nivolumab 1 mg/kg plus ipilimumab 3 mg/kg or nivolumab 3 mg/kg plus ipilimumab 1 mg/kg. The primary endpoint was objective response by investigator assessment. All analyses included patients who were enrolled at least 90 days before database lock. This trial is ongoing; here, we report an interim analysis of the SCLC cohort. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01928394.Between Nov 18, 2013, and July 28, 2015, 216 patients were enrolled and treated (98 with nivolumab 3 mg/kg, three with nivolumab 1 mg/kg plus ipilimumab 1 mg/kg, 61 with nivolumab 1 mg/kg plus ipilimumab 3 mg/kg, and 54 with nivolumab 3 mg/kg plus ipilimumab 1 mg/kg). At database lock on Nov 6, 2015, median follow-up for patients continuing in the study (including those who had died or discontinued treatment) was 1985 days (IQR 1630-4640) for nivolumab 3 mg/kg, 302 days (IQR not calculable) for nivolumab 1 mg/kg plus ipilimumab 1 mg/kg, 3610 days (2730-4700) for nivolumab 1 mg/kg plus ipilimumab 3 mg/kg, and 2605 days (2480-2880) for nivolumab 3 mg/kg plus ipilimumab 1 mg/kg. An objective response was achieved in ten (10%) of 98 patients receiving nivolumab 3 mg/kg, one (33%) of three patients receiving nivolumab 1 mg/kg plus ipilimumab 1 mg/kg, 14 (23%) of 61 receiving nivolumab 1 mg/kg plus ipilimumab 3 mg/kg, and ten (19%) of 54 receiving nivolumab 3 mg/kg plus ipilimumab 1 mg/kg. Grade 3 or 4 treatment-related adverse events occurred in 13 (13%) patients in the nivolumab 3 mg/kg cohort, 18 (30%) in the nivolumab 1 mg/kg plus ipilimumab 3 mg/kg cohort, and ten (19%) in the nivolumab 3 mg/kg plus ipilimumab 1 mg/kg cohort; the most commonly reported grade 3 or 4 treatment-related adverse events were increased lipase (none vs 5 [8%] vs none) and diarrhoea (none vs 3 [5%] vs 1 [2%]). No patients in the nivolumab 1 mg/kg plus ipilimumab 1 mg/kg cohort had a grade 3 or 4 treatment-related adverse event. Six (6%) patients in the nivolumab 3 mg/kg group, seven (11%) in the nivolumab 1 mg/kg plus ipilimumab 3 mg/kg group, and four (7%) in the nivolumab 3 mg/kg plus ipilimumab 1 mg/kg group discontinued treatment due to treatment-related adverse events. Two patients who received nivolumab 1 mg/kg plus ipilimumab 3 mg/kg died from treatment-related adverse events (myasthenia gravis and worsening of renal failure), and one patient who received nivolumab 3 mg/kg plus ipilimumab 1 mg/kg died from treatment-related pneumonitis.Nivolumab monotherapy and nivolumab plus ipilimumab showed antitumour activity with durable responses and manageable safety profiles in previously treated patients with SCLC. These data suggest a potential new treatment approach for a population of patients with limited treatment options and support the evaluation of nivolumab and nivolumab plus ipilimumab in phase 3 randomised controlled trials in SCLC.Bristol-Myers Squibb.


Yardley D.A.,Sarah Cannon Research Institute Tennessee Oncology PLLC | Tripathy D.,University of Southern California | Brufsky A.M.,University of Pittsburgh | Rugo H.S.,University of California at San Francisco | And 7 more authors.
British Journal of Cancer | Year: 2014

Background:Data characterising long-term survivors (LTS) with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive metastatic breast cancer (MBC) are limited. This analysis describes LTS using registHER observational study data.Methods:A latent class modelling (LCM) approach was used to identify distinct homogenous patient groups (or classes) based on progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival, and complete response. Demographics, clinicopathologic factors, first-line treatment patterns, and clinical outcomes were described for each class. Class-associated factors were evaluated using logistic regression analysis.Results:LCM identified two survivor groups labelled as LTS (n=244) and short-term survivors (STS; n=757). Baseline characteristics were similar between groups, although LTS were more likely to be white (83.6% vs 77.8%) with oestrogen receptor-positive (ER+) or progesterone receptor-positive (PgR+) disease (59.4% vs 50.9%). Median PFS in LTS was 37.2 (95% confidence interval (CI): 32.9-40.5) vs 7.3 months (95% CI: 6.8-8.0) in STS. Factors associated with long-term survival included ER+ or PgR+ disease, metastasis to node/local sites, first-line trastuzumab use, and first-line taxane use.Conclusions:Prognostic variables identified by LCM define a HER2-positive MBC patient profile and therapies that may be associated with more favourable long-term outcomes, enabling treatment selection appropriate to the patient's disease characteristics. © 2014 Cancer Research Uk.


Tolcher A.W.,South Texas Accelerated Research Therapeutics LLC | Bendell J.C.,Sarah Cannon Research Institute Tennessee Oncology PLLC | Papadopoulos K.P.,South Texas Accelerated Research Therapeutics LLC | Burris H.A.,Sarah Cannon Research Institute Tennessee Oncology PLLC | And 9 more authors.
Annals of Oncology | Year: 2015

Background: This phase Ib trial investigated the safety, tolerability, and recommended phase II dose and schedule of the MEK inhibitor trametinib in combination with the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor everolimus. Secondary objectives included pharmacokinetic (PK) characterization and evaluation of clinical activity. Patients and methods: A total of 67 patients with advanced solid tumors were enrolled in this open-label, single-arm, dose-escalation study. Dose escalation followed a 3 + 3 design. Patients were assigned to one of 10 different cohorts, involving either daily dosing with both agents or daily dosing with trametinib and intermittent everolimus dosing. This included an expansion cohort comprising patients with pancreatic tumors. PKs samples were collected predose, as well as 1, 2, 4, and 6 h post-dose on day 15 of the first treatment cycle. Results: Concurrent treatment with trametinib and everolimus resulted in frequent treatment-related adverse events, including mucosal inflammation (40%), stomatitis (25%), fatigue (54%), and diarrhea (42%). PK assessment did not suggest drug-drug interactions between these two agents. Of the 67 enrolled patients, 5 (7%) achieved partial response (PR) to treatment and 21 (31%) displayed stable disease (SD). Among the 21 patients with pancreatic cancer, PR was observed in 1 patient (5%) and SD in 6 patients (29%). Conclusions: This study was unable to identify a recommended phase II dose and schedule of trametinib in combination with everolimus that provided an acceptable tolerability and adequate drug exposure. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved.


Falchook G.S.,University of Houston | Lewis K.D.,Aurora University | Infante J.R.,Sarah Cannon Research Institute Tennessee Oncology PLLC | Gordon M.S.,Pinnacle Oncology Hematology | And 19 more authors.
The Lancet Oncology | Year: 2012

Background: MEK is a member of the MAPK signalling cascade that is commonly activated in melanoma. Direct inhibition of MEK blocks cell proliferation and induces apoptosis. We aimed to analyse safety, efficacy, and genotyping data for the oral, small-molecule MEK inhibitor trametinib in patients with melanoma. Methods: We undertook a multicentre, phase 1 three-part study (dose escalation, cohort expansion, and pharmacodynamic assessment). The main results of this study are reported elsewhere; here we present data relating to patients with melanoma. We obtained tumour samples to assess BRAF mutational status, and available tissues underwent exploratory genotyping analysis. Disease response was measured by Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors, and adverse events were defined by common toxicity criteria. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00687622. Findings: 97 patients with melanoma were enrolled, including 81 with cutaneous or unknown primary melanoma (36 BRAF mutant, 39 BRAF wild-type, six BRAF status unknown), and 16 with uveal melanoma. The most common treatment-related adverse events were rash or dermatitis acneiform (n=80; 82%) and diarrhoea (44; 45%), most of which were grade 2 or lower. No cutaneous squamous-cell carcinomas were recorded. Of 36 patients with BRAF mutations, 30 had not received a BRAF inhibitor before; two complete responses (both confirmed) and ten partial responses (eight confirmed) were noted in this subgroup (confirmed response rate, 33%). Median progression-free survival of this subgroup was 5·7 months (95% CI 4·0-7·4). Of the six patients who had received previous BRAF inhibition, one unconfirmed partial response was recorded. Of 39 patients with BRAF wild-type melanoma, four partial responses were confirmed (confirmed response rate, 10%). Interpretation: Our data show substantial clinical activity of trametinib in melanoma and suggest that MEK is a valid therapeutic target. Differences in response rates according to mutations indicate the importance of mutational analyses in the future. Funding: GlaxoSmithKline. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Infante J.R.,Sarah Cannon Research Institute Tennessee Oncology PLLC | Fecher L.A.,University of Pennsylvania | Falchook G.S.,University of Houston | Nallapareddy S.,Aurora University | And 15 more authors.
The Lancet Oncology | Year: 2012

Background: Inhibition of MEK stops cell proliferation and induces apoptosis; therefore, this enzyme is a key anticancer target. Trametinib is a selective, orally administered MEK1/MEK2 inhibitor. We aimed to define the maximum tolerated dose and recommended phase 2 dose of trametinib and to assess its safety, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and response rate in individuals with advanced solid tumours. Methods: We undertook a multicentre phase 1 study in patients with advanced solid tumours and adequate organ function. The study was in three parts: dose escalation to define the maximum tolerated dose; identification of the recommended phase 2 dose; and assessment of pharmacodynamic changes. Intermittent and continuous dosing regimens were analysed. Blood samples and tumour biopsy specimens were taken to assess pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic changes. Adverse events were defined with common toxicity criteria, and tumour response was measured by Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00687622. Findings: We enrolled 206 patients (median age 58·5 years, range 19-92). Dose-limiting toxic effects included rash (n=2), diarrhoea (n=1), and central serous retinopathy (n=2). The most common treatment-related adverse events were rash or dermatitis acneiform (n=165; 80%) and diarrhoea (87; 42%), most of which were grade 1 and 2. The maximum tolerated dose was 3 mg once daily and the recommended phase 2 dose was 2 mg a day. The effective half-life of trametinib was about 4 days. At the recommended phase 2 dose, the exposure profile of the drug showed low interpatient variability and a small peak:trough ratio of 1·81. Furthermore, mean concentrations in plasma were greater than the preclinical target concentration throughout the dosing interval. Pathway inhibition and clinical activity were seen, with 21 (10%) objective responses recorded. Interpretation: The recommended phase 2 dose of 2 mg trametinib once a day is tolerable, with manageable side-effects. Trametinib's inhibition of the expected target and clinical activity warrants its further development as a monotherapy and in combination. Funding: GlaxoSmithKline. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Hamilton E.,Sarah Cannon Research Institute Tennessee Oncology PLLC | Infante J.R.,Sarah Cannon Research Institute Tennessee Oncology PLLC
Cancer Treatment Reviews | Year: 2016

The cyclin D-cyclin dependent kinase (CDK) 4/6-inhibitor of CDK4 (INK4)-retinoblastoma (Rb) pathway controls cell cycle progression by regulating the G1-S checkpoint. Dysregulation of the cyclin D-CDK4/6-INK4-Rb pathway results in increased proliferation, and is frequently observed in many types of cancer. Pathway activation can occur through a variety of mechanisms, including gene amplification or rearrangement, loss of negative regulators, epigenetic alterations, and point mutations in key pathway components. Due to the importance of CDK4/6 activity in cancer cells, CDK4/6 inhibitors have emerged as promising candidates for cancer treatment. Moreover, combination of a CDK4/6 inhibitor with other targeted therapies may help overcome acquired or de novo treatment resistance. Ongoing studies include combinations of CDK4/6 inhibitors with endocrine therapy and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway inhibitors for hormone receptor-positive (HR+) breast cancers, and with selective RAF and MEK inhibitors for tumors with alterations in the mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway such as melanoma. In particular, the combination of CDK4/6 inhibitors with endocrine therapy, such as palbociclib's recent first-line approval in combination with letrozole, is expected to transform the treatment of HR+ breast cancer. Currently, three selective CDK4/6 inhibitors have been approved or are in late-stage development: palbociclib (PD-0332991), ribociclib (LEE011), and abemaciclib (LY2835219). Here we describe the current preclinical and clinical data for these novel agents and discuss combination strategies with other agents for the treatment of cancer. © 2016.


Rini B.,Cleveland Clinic | Redman B.,University of Michigan | Garcia J.A.,Cleveland Clinic | Burris H.A.,Sarah Cannon Research Institute Tennessee Oncology PLLC | And 5 more authors.
Annals of Oncology | Year: 2014

Background: This phase I/II study was conducted to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD), safety, and efficacy of lenalidomide plus sunitinib in metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC) patients. Patients and methods: Patients with histologically confirmed, metastatic RCC were treated with 10 mg/day lenalidomide plus 37.5 mg/day sunitinib, orally in 21-day cycles. Doses were escalated to determine the MTD in phase I, with additional patients planned at this dose in phase II. Primary end points were MTD and response rate. Results: Sixteen patients received a median of 2, 3, and 5 cycles in cohort 1 [lenalidomide 10 mg (days 1-21) and sunitinib 37.5 mg (days 1-21)], cohort 2 [lenalidomide 10 mg (days 1-21) and sunitinib 37.5 mg (days 1-14)], and cohort 3 [lenalidomide 15 mg (days 1-21) and sunitinib 37.5 mg (days 1-14)], respectively. Median treatment durations were 41, 63, and 97 days for lenalidomide; and 41, 57, and 97.5 days for sunitinib. The MTD was found to be continuous dosing of lenalidomide 10 mg/day plus sunitinib 37.5 mg/day for 14 of 21 days. Dose-limiting toxicities included neutropenia, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, asthenia, atrial fibrillation, and increased transaminases. The most frequent grade 3-4 treatment-emergent adverse events were hematologic, including neutropenia and leukopenia. One patient achieved partial response, and seven had stable disease of which three were confirmed at subsequent tumor assessments. B cells and several T-cell subsets were modulated versus baseline. Conclusion: The dose schedules of lenalidomide and sunitinib evaluated in this study were not well tolerated; cumulative toxicity precluded enrollment at the MTD. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved.


Bendell J.C.,Sarah Cannon Research Institute Tennessee Oncology PLLC | Hong D.S.,University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center | Burris III H.A.,Sarah Cannon Research Institute Tennessee Oncology PLLC | Naing A.,University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center | And 7 more authors.
Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology | Year: 2014

Purpose: To determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and biologic activity of OPB-31121, an oral inhibitor of STAT3, administered twice daily (BID) to subjects with advanced solid tumors. Methods: Subjects received escalating doses of OPB-31121 BID for the first 21 days of each 28-day cycle in a standard 3 + 3 design. Dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs), safety, pharmacokinetics, and antitumor activity were assessed. Results: Thirty subjects were treated twice daily with OPB-31121 at 6 dose levels: 50 mg (n = 4); 70 mg (n = 3); 140 mg (n = 3); 200 mg (n = 4); 300 mg (n = 9); 350 mg (n = 7). There were no DLTs observed until 300 mg BID (Grade 3 lactic acidosis). At the next dose level (350 mg BID), two subjects had DLTs (Grade 3 vomiting and Grade 3 diarrhea). Thus, 300 mg BID was declared the MTD. OPB-31121-related adverse events included nausea (80 %), vomiting (73 %), diarrhea (63 %), and fatigue (33 %), all of which were primarily grade 1/2. Pharmacokinetics demonstrated high inter-subject variability with exposures 146- to 4,788-fold lower than target concentrations from tumor-bearing mouse models. No objective responses were observed, and all subjects who completed two cycles of treatment had disease progression at their first assessment. Conclusions: Twice-daily administration of OPB-31121 was feasible up to doses of 300 mg. The pharmacokinetic profile was unfavorable, and no objective responses were observed. © 2014 Springer-Verlag.


Villanueva J.,Wistar Institute | Infante J.R.,Sarah Cannon Research Institute Tennessee Oncology PLLC | Krepler C.,Wistar Institute | Reyes-Uribe P.,Wistar Institute | And 24 more authors.
Cell Reports | Year: 2013

Although BRAF and MEK inhibitors have proven clinical benefits in melanoma, most patients develop resistance. We report a de novo MEK2-Q60P mutation and BRAF gain in a melanoma from a patient who progressed on the MEK inhibitor trametinib and did not respond to the BRAF inhibitor dabrafenib. We also identified the same MEK2-Q60P mutation along with BRAF amplification in a xenograft tumor derived from a second melanoma patient resistant to the combination of dabrafenib and trametinib. Melanoma cells chronically exposed to trametinib acquired concurrent MEK2-Q60P mutation and BRAF-V600E amplification, which conferred resistance to MEK and BRAF inhibitors. The resistant cells had sustained MAPK activation and persistent phosphorylation of S6K. A triple combination of dabrafenib, trametinib, and the PI3K/mTOR inhibitor GSK2126458 led to sustained tumor growth inhibition. Hence, concurrent genetic events that sustain MAPK signaling can underlie resistance to both BRAF and MEK inhibitors, requiring novel therapeutic strategies to overcome it

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