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PubMed | National Hospital Organization Osaka National Hospital, Oncology and Haematology Service, National Oncology Institute, University of Edinburgh and 12 more.
Type: | Journal: European journal of cancer (Oxford, England : 1990) | Year: 2016

MERiDiAN evaluated plasma vascular endothelial growth factor-A (pVEGF-A) prospectively as a predictive biomarker for bevacizumab efficacy in metastatic breast cancer (mBC).In this double-blind placebo-controlled randomised phase III trial, eligible patients had HER2-negative mBC previously untreated with chemotherapy. pVEGF-A was measured before randomisation to paclitaxel 90mg/mOf 481 patients randomised (242 placebo-paclitaxel; 239 bevacizumab-paclitaxel), 471 received study treatment. The stratified PFS hazard ratiowas 0.68 (99% confidence interval, 0.51-0.91; log-rank p=0.0007) in the intent-to-treat population (median 8.8 months with placebo-paclitaxel versus 11.0 months with bevacizumab-paclitaxel) and 0.64 (96% confidence interval, 0.47-0.88; log-rank p=0.0038) in the pVEGF-AThe significant PFS improvement with bevacizumab is consistent with previous placebo-controlled first-line trials in mBC. Results do not support using baseline pVEGF-A to identify patients benefitting most from bevacizumab.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01663727.


Palanca-Wessels M.C.A.,Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center | Czuczman M.,Roswell Park Cancer Institute | Salles G.,University of Lyon | Assouline S.,Jewish General Hospital | And 17 more authors.
The Lancet Oncology | Year: 2015

Background: Patients with relapsed or refractory B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) have an unfavourable prognosis with few treatment options. Polatuzumab vedotin is an antibody-drug conjugate containing an anti-CD79B monoclonal antibody conjugated to the microtubule-disrupting agent monomethyl auristatin E. We aimed to assess the safety and clinical activity of polatuzumab vedotin in relapsed or refractory B-cell NHL and chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL). Methods: In this phase 1, multicentre, open-label study, we enrolled patients with documented NHL or CLL expected to express CD79B (confirmation of CD79B expression was not required) and for whom no suitable therapy of curative intent or higher priority existed from 13 centres. The primary endpoints of the study were to assess safety and tolerability, determine the maximum tolerated dose, and identify the recommended phase 2 dose of polatuzumab vedotin as a single agent and in combination with rituximab. A 3 + 3 dose-escalation design was used in which we treated patients with polatuzumab vedotin (0·1-2·4 mg/kg every 21 days) in separate dose-escalation cohorts for NHL and CLL. After determination of the recommended phase 2 dose, we enrolled patients with relapsed or refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and relapsed or refractory indolent NHL into indication-specific cohorts. We also enrolled patients with relapsed or refractory NHL into an additional cohort to assess the feasibility of the combination of polatuzumab vedotin and rituximab 375 mg/m2. Patients who received any dose of polatuzumab vedotin were available for safety analyses. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01290549. Findings: Between March 21, 2011, and Nov 30, 2012, we enrolled 95 patients (34 to the NHL dose-escalation cohort, 18 to the CLL dose-escalation cohort, 34 with NHL to the expansion cohort at the recommended phase 2 dose, and nine with NHL to the rituximab combination cohort; no expansion cohort of CLL was started due to lack of activity in the dose-escalation cohort). The recommended phase 2 dose in NHL was 2·4 mg/kg as a single agent and in combination with rituximab; the maximum tolerated dose in CLL was 1·0 mg/kg as a result of dose-limiting toxic effects reported in two of five patients given 1·8 mg/kg. Grade 3-4 adverse events were reported in 26 (58%) of 45 patients with NHL treated at the single-agent recommended phase 2 dose, and the most common grade 3-4 adverse events were neutropenia (18 [40%] of 45), anaemia (five [11%]), and peripheral sensory neuropathy (four [9%]). Serious adverse events were reported in 17 (38%) of 45 patients, and included diarrhoea (two patients), lung infection (two patients), disease progression (two patients), and lung disorder (two patients). Seven (77%) of nine patients in the rituximab combination cohort had a grade 3-4 adverse event, with neutropenia (five [56%]), anaemia (two [22%]), and febrile neutropenia (two [22%]) reported in more than one patient. 11 (12%) of 95 patients died during the study: eight with relapsed or refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (due to progressive disease in four patients, infections in three patients [two treatment related], and treatment-related worsening ascites in one patient) and three with relapsed or refractory CLL (due to progressive disease, pulmonary infection, and pneumonia; none thought to be treatment-related). At the recommended phase 2 dose, objective responses were noted in 23 of 42 activity-evaluable patients with NHL given single-agent polatuzumab vedotin (14 of 25 with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, seven of 15 with indolent NHL, and two with mantle-cell lymphoma) and seven of nine patients treated with polatuzumab vedotin combined with rituximab. No objective responses were observed in patients with CLL. Interpretation: Polatuzumab vedotin has an acceptable safety and tolerability profile in patients with NHL but not in those with CLL. Its clinical activity should be further assessed in NHL. Funding: Genentech. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.


Brahmer J.,Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center at Johns Hopkins | Reckamp K.L.,City of Hope Comprehensive Cancer Center | Baas P.,Netherlands Cancer Institute | Crino L.,University of Perugia | And 21 more authors.
New England Journal of Medicine | Year: 2015

BACKGROUND Patients with advanced squamous-cell non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who have disease progression during or after first-line chemotherapy have limited treatment options. This randomized, open-label, international, phase 3 study evaluated the efficacy and safety of nivolumab, a fully human IgG4 programmed death 1 (PD-1) immune-checkpoint-inhibitor antibody, as compared with docetaxel in this patient population. METHODS We randomly assigned 272 patients to receive nivolumab, at a dose of 3 mg per kilogram of body weight every 2 weeks, or docetaxel, at a dose of 75 mg per square meter of body-surface area every 3 weeks. The primary end point was overall survival. RESULTS The median overall survival was 9.2 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 7.3 to 13.3) with nivolumab versus 6.0 months (95% CI, 5.1 to 7.3) with docetaxel. The risk of death was 41% lower with nivolumab than with docetaxel (hazard ratio, 0.59; 95% CI, 0.44 to 0.79; P<0.001). At 1 year, the overall survival rate was 42% (95% CI, 34 to 50) with nivolumab versus 24% (95% CI, 17 to 31) with docetaxel. The response rate was 20% with nivolumab versus 9% with docetaxel (P = 0.008). The median progression-free survival was 3.5 months with nivolumab versus 2.8 months with docetaxel (hazard ratio for death or disease progression, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.47 to 0.81; P<0.001). The expression of the PD-1 ligand (PD-L1) was neither prognostic nor predictive of benefit. Treatment-related adverse events of grade 3 or 4 were reported in 7% of the patients in the nivolumab group as compared with 55% of those in the docetaxel group. CONCLUSIONS Among patients with advanced, previously treated squamous-cell NSCLC, overall survival, response rate, and progression-free survival were significantly better with nivolumab than with docetaxel, regardless of PD-L1 expression level. Copyright © 2015 Massachusetts Medical Society.


PubMed | Masaryk Memorial Cancer Institute, National University Hospital Singapore, Sarah Cannon Research Institute and Tennessee Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and 14 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The Lancet. Oncology | Year: 2016

Inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) is a promising approach to overcome resistance to endocrine therapy in breast cancer. Pictilisib is an oral inhibitor of multiple PI3K isoforms. The aim of this study is to establish if addition of pictilisib to fulvestrant can improve progression-free survival in oestrogen receptor-positive, endocrine-resistant breast cancer.In this two-part, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 2 study, we recruited postmenopausal women aged 18 years or older with oestrogen receptor-positive, HER2-negative breast cancer resistant to treatment with an aromatase inhibitor in the adjuvant or metastatic setting, from 123 medical centres across 21 countries. Part 1 included patients with or without PIK3CA mutations, whereas part 2 included only patients with PIK3CA mutations. Patients were randomly allocated (1:1 in part 1 and 2:1 in part 2) via a computer-generated hierarchical randomisation algorithm to daily oral pictilisib (340 mg in part 1 and 260 mg in part 2) or placebo starting on day 15 of cycle 1, plus intramuscular fulvestrant 500 mg on day 1 and day 15 of cycle 1 and day 1 of subsequent cycles in both groups. In part 1, we stratified patients by presence or absence of PIK3CA mutation, primary or secondary aromatase inhibitor resistance, and measurable or non-measurable disease. In part 2, we stratified patients by previous aromatase inhibitor treatment for advanced or metastatic disease or relapse during or within 6 months of an aromatase inhibitor treatment in the adjuvant setting and measurable or non-measurable disease. All patients and those administering treatment and assessing outcomes were masked to treatment assignment. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival in the intention-to-treat population for both parts 1 and 2 and also separately in patients with PIK3CA-mutated tumours in part 1. Tumour assessment (physical examination and imaging scans) was investigator-assessed and done at screening and after 8 weeks, 16 weeks, 24 weeks, and 32 weeks of treatment from day 1 of cycle 1 and every 12 weeks thereafter. We assessed safety in as-treated patients who received at least one dose of study medication. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01437566.In part 1, between Sept 27, 2011, and Jan 11, 2013, we randomly allocated 168 patients to the pictilisib (89 [53%]) or placebo (79 [47%]) group. In part 2, between March 18, 2013, and Jan 2, 2014, we randomly allocated 61 patients to the pictilisib (41 [67%]) or placebo (20 [33%]) group. In part 1, we found no difference in median progression-free survival between the pictilisib (66 months [95% CI 39-98]) and placebo (51 months [36-73]) group (hazard ratio [HR] 074 [95% CI 052-106]; p=0096). We also found no difference when patients were analysed according to presence (pictilisib 65 months [95% CI 37-98] vs placebo 51 months [26-104]; HR 073 [95% CI 042-128]; p=0268) or absence (58 months [36-111] vs 36 months [28-73]; HR 072 [042-123]; p=023) of PIK3CA mutation. In part 2, we also found no difference in progression-free survival between groups (54 months [95% CI 38-83] vs 100 months [36-130]; HR 107 [95% CI 053-218]; p=084). In part 1, grade 3 or worse adverse events occurred in 54 (61%) of 89 patients in the pictilisib group and 22 (28%) of 79 in the placebo group. 19 serious adverse events related to pictilisib treatment were reported in 14 (16%) of 89 patients. Only one (1%) of 79 patients reported treatment-related serious adverse events in the placebo group. In part 2, grade 3 or worse adverse events occurred in 15 (36%) of 42 patients in the pictilisib group and seven (37%) of 19 patients in the placebo group. Four serious adverse events related to pictilisib treatment were reported in two (5%) of 42 patients. One treatment-related serious adverse event occurred in one (5%) of 19 patients in the placebo group.Although addition of pictilisib to fulvestrant did not significantly improve progression-free survival, dosing of pictilisib was limited by toxicity, potentially limiting its efficacy. For future assessment of PI3K inhibition as an approach to overcome resistance to hormonal therapy, inhibitors with greater selectivity than that of pictilisib might be needed to improve tolerability and potentially increase efficacy. No further investigation of pictilisib in this setting is ongoing.F Hoffmann-La Roche.


PubMed | Stony Brook Cancer Center, Complutense University of Madrid, University of Houston, Sarah Cannon Research Institute and Tennessee Oncology and 9 more.
Type: | Journal: European journal of cancer (Oxford, England : 1990) | Year: 2016

Analyses of phase III trials showed that denosumab was superior to zoledronic acid (ZA) in preventing skeletal-related events (SREs) irrespective of age, history of SREs, or baseline pain status. This analysis assessed the risk of SREs across additional baseline characteristics.Patients (N=5543) from three phase III trials who had breast cancer, prostate cancer, or other solid tumours and one or more bone metastasis were included. Superiority of denosumab versus ZA in reducing risk of first SRE and first and subsequent SREs was assessed in subgroups defined by the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (ECOG PS), bone metastasis location, bone metastasis number, visceral metastasis presence/absence, and urinary N-telopeptide (uNTx) level using Cox proportional hazards and Anderson-Gill models. Subgroups except bone metastasis location were also assessed for each solid tumour type.Compared with ZA, denosumab significantly reduced the risk of first SRE acrossallsubgroups (hazard ratio [HR] ranges: ECOG PS, 0.79-0.84; bone metastasis location, 0.78-0.83; bone metastasis number, 0.78-0.84; visceral metastasis presence/absence, 0.80-0.82; uNTx level, 0.73-0.86) and reduced the risk of first and subsequent SREs in all subgroups (HR ranges: ECOG PS, 0.76-0.83; bone metastasis location, 0.78-0.84; bone metastasis number, 0.79-0.81; visceral metastasis presence/absence, 0.79-0.81; uNTx level, 0.74-0.83). Similar results were observed in subgroups across tumour types.Denosumab was superior to ZA in preventing SREs in patients with bone metastases from advanced cancer, regardless of ECOG PS, bone metastasis number, baseline visceral metastasis presence/absence, and uNTx level.


PubMed | University of Amsterdam, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Sarah Cannon Research Institute and Tennessee Oncology, Stanford University and 10 more.
Type: Clinical Trial, Phase I | Journal: The Lancet. Oncology | Year: 2015

Patients with relapsed or refractory B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) have an unfavourable prognosis with few treatment options. Polatuzumab vedotin is an antibody-drug conjugate containing an anti-CD79B monoclonal antibody conjugated to the microtubule-disrupting agent monomethyl auristatin E. We aimed to assess the safety and clinical activity of polatuzumab vedotin in relapsed or refractory B-cell NHL and chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL).In this phase 1, multicentre, open-label study, we enrolled patients with documented NHL or CLL expected to express CD79B (confirmation of CD79B expression was not required) and for whom no suitable therapy of curative intent or higher priority existed from 13 centres. The primary endpoints of the study were to assess safety and tolerability, determine the maximum tolerated dose, and identify the recommended phase 2 dose of polatuzumab vedotin as a single agent and in combination with rituximab. A 3+3 dose-escalation design was used in which we treated patients with polatuzumab vedotin (01-24 mg/kg every 21 days) in separate dose-escalation cohorts for NHL and CLL. After determination of the recommended phase 2 dose, we enrolled patients with relapsed or refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and relapsed or refractory indolent NHL into indication-specific cohorts. We also enrolled patients with relapsed or refractory NHL into an additional cohort to assess the feasibility of the combination of polatuzumab vedotin and rituximab 375 mg/m(2). Patients who received any dose of polatuzumab vedotin were available for safety analyses. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01290549.Between March 21, 2011, and Nov 30, 2012, we enrolled 95 patients (34 to the NHL dose-escalation cohort, 18 to the CLL dose-escalation cohort, 34 with NHL to the expansion cohort at the recommended phase 2 dose, and nine with NHL to the rituximab combination cohort; no expansion cohort of CLL was started due to lack of activity in the dose-escalation cohort). The recommended phase 2 dose in NHL was 24 mg/kg as a single agent and in combination with rituximab; the maximum tolerated dose in CLL was 10 mg/kg as a result of dose-limiting toxic effects reported in two of five patients given 18 mg/kg. Grade 3-4 adverse events were reported in 26 (58%) of 45 patients with NHL treated at the single-agent recommended phase 2 dose, and the most common grade 3-4 adverse events were neutropenia (18 [40%] of 45), anaemia (five [11%]), and peripheral sensory neuropathy (four [9%]). Serious adverse events were reported in 17 (38%) of 45 patients, and included diarrhoea (two patients), lung infection (two patients), disease progression (two patients), and lung disorder (two patients). Seven (77%) of nine patients in the rituximab combination cohort had a grade 3-4 adverse event, with neutropenia (five [56%]), anaemia (two [22%]), and febrile neutropenia (two [22%]) reported in more than one patient. 11 (12%) of 95 patients died during the study: eight with relapsed or refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (due to progressive disease in four patients, infections in three patients [two treatment related], and treatment-related worsening ascites in one patient) and three with relapsed or refractory CLL (due to progressive disease, pulmonary infection, and pneumonia; none thought to be treatment-related). At the recommended phase 2 dose, objective responses were noted in 23 of 42 activity-evaluable patients with NHL given single-agent polatuzumab vedotin (14 of 25 with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, seven of 15 with indolent NHL, and two with mantle-cell lymphoma) and seven of nine patients treated with polatuzumab vedotin combined with rituximab. No objective responses were observed in patients with CLL.Polatuzumab vedotin has an acceptable safety and tolerability profile in patients with NHL but not in those with CLL. Its clinical activity should be further assessed in NHL.Genentech.


PubMed | University of Houston, Sarah Cannon Research Institute and Tennessee Oncology, Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Barbara Ann Karmanos Cancer Institute and 5 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology | Year: 2017

368 Background: SGN-75 is an antibody-drug conjugate composed of a humanized anti-CD70 mAb conjugated to the microtubule-disrupting agent MMAF via a plasma-stable linker. Upon binding to CD70, SGN-75 internalizes and releases cysmcMMAF which binds tubulin and induces G2/M arrest and apoptosis.A phase 1, dose-escalation, multicenter study was initiated to investigate the safety, tolerability, PK, and antitumor activity of SGN-75 monotherapy in pts with CD70-positive metastatic RCC or relapsed/refractory NHL (ClinicalTrials.gov #NCT01015911). SGN-75 was administered IV in cohort-specific doses using 2 schedules [every 3 weeks (q3wk) or weekly (days 1, 8, 15 q28 days)] at doses of 0.3-4.5 mg/kg. Pts were eligible to receive treatment until PD.A total of 58 pts (39 RCC/19 NHL) with a median age of 60.5 yrs (range 30-82) were treated. The MTD was 3 mg/kg q3wk; 2 pts had DLTs at 4.5 mg/kg q3wk (NHL pt had neutropenia and RCC pt had proteinuria). Weekly dosing (N=11) was terminated at the 0.6 mg/kg dose level after 2 pts with NHL developed idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura. At the MTD, adverse events (AEs) in 30% of RCC pts (N=21) were fatigue (52%), dry eye (48%), nausea (38%), constipation (33%), and corneal epithelium defect (33%). AEs Grade 3 in >10% of RCC pts treated at the MTD were corneal epithelium defect (19%) and thrombocytopenia (14%). PK analysis suggested that SGN-75 exposure was approximately dose-proportional with a mean terminal half-life of 6-11 days. Among the 32 pts with RCC treated in the q3wk schedule, all had prior nephrectomy and a median of 3 prior therapies (range 1-6). All pts had clear cell RCC, with the exception of 2 pts who had papillary RCC. Most pts had high CD70 expression by central IHC analysis (2 or 3+, 80-100% of cells). The best clinical responses of RCC pts treated q3wk were 2 PR, 12 SD, 12 PD, and 6 were not evaluable. Durations of response for the 2 responding pts were 23 and 41 weeks. The median duration of disease control (PR and SD) was 46.4 weeks [95% CI (12, 46)].SGN-75 monotherapy was generally well tolerated in pts with metastatic RCC. Evidence of antitumor activity was observed in heavily pretreated RCC pts and further studies of SGN-75 in RCC are warranted.NCT01015911.


PubMed | MacroGenics, U.S. National Cancer Institute, Sarah Cannon Research Institute and Tennessee Oncology and Seoul National University
Type: | Journal: Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology | Year: 2017

Margetuximab is an anti-HER2 antibody that binds with elevated affinity to both the lower and higher affinity forms of CD16A, an Fc-receptor important for antibody dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) against tumor cells. A Phase 1 study was initiated to evaluate the toxicity profile, maximum tolerated dose (MTD), pharmacokinetics, and antitumor activity of margetuximab in patients with HER2-overexpressing carcinomas.Patients with HER2-positive breast or gastric cancer, or other carcinomas that overexpress HER2, for whom no standard therapy was available, were treated with margetuximab by intravenous infusion at doses of 0.1 - 6.0mg/kg for 3 of every 4 weeks (Regimen A) or once every 3 weeks (10 - 18mg/kg) (Regimen B).Sixty-six patients received margetuximab (34 patients for Regimen A and 32 patients for Regimen B). The MTD was not reached for either regimen. Treatment was well-tolerated, with mostly Grade 1 and 2 toxicities consisting of constitutional symptoms such as pyrexia, nausea, anemia, diarrhea, and fatigue. Among 60 response-evaluable patients, confirmed partial responses and stable disease were observed in 7 (12%) and 30 (50%) patients, respectively; 26 (70%) of these patients had received prior HER2-targeted therapy. Tumor reductions were observed in over half (18/23, 78%) of response-evaluable patients with breast cancer including durable (>30 weeks) responders. Ex-vivo analyses of patient peripheral blood mononuclear cell samples confirmed the ability of margetuximab to support enhanced ADCC compared to trastuzumab.Margetuximab was well-tolerated and has promising single-agent activity. Further development efforts of margetuximab as single agent and in combination with other therapeutic agents are ongoing.


Xie J.,Analysis Group Inc. | Hao Y.,Novartis | Li N.,Analysis Group Inc. | Lin P.L.,Analysis Group Inc. | And 5 more authors.
Current Medical Research and Opinion | Year: 2015

Background: Everolimus-based therapy and endocrine monotherapy are used among postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 negative (HR+/HER2-) metastatic breast cancer (mBC) whose disease progressed or recurred on a non-steroidal aromatase inhibitor (NSAI). However, limited evidence exists regarding the real-world comparative effectiveness of these agents. Methods: This retrospective chart review examined postmenopausal HR+/HER2-mBC patients in community-based oncology practices who received everolimus-based therapy or endocrine monotherapy (index therapy) as any line of therapy for mBC between 1 July 2012 and 15 April 2013 after NSAI failure. Time on treatment (TOT), progression-free survival (PFS), and time to chemotherapy (TTC) from index therapy initiation were compared using Kaplan-Meier analyses and Cox proportional hazards models adjusting for baseline characteristics. Results: A total of 243 and 270 patients received everolimus-based therapy or endocrine monotherapy in a quota-based sample. Patients treated with everolimus-based therapy had a higher proportion of visceral metastases, high tumor burden, and use of prior chemotherapies for mBC. After adjusting for baseline characteristics, everolimus-based therapy was associated with significantly longer TOT (HR = 0.67, 95% CI: 0.51-0.87) and PFS (HR = 0.75, 95% CI: 0.57-0.98) than endocrine monotherapy. No significant difference was found between everolimus-based therapy and endocrine monotherapy in TTC (HR = 0.81, 95% CI: 0.52-1.27). Results stratified by line of therapy were generally consistent with the overall results. Limitations: Limitations include recall and information bias with potentially absent or erroneous chart data, unobserved factors due to non-randomization, inability to measure outcome assessments paired with measuring outcomes prior to exposures, and potential patient selection bias associated with chart review. Conclusions: Among a nationwide sample of postmenopausal HR+/HER2-mBC patients treated in community oncology settings, treatment with everolimus-based therapy was associated with significantly longer TOT and PFS compared to endocrine monotherapy. © 2015 Informa UK Ltd.

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