Kennedy A.S.,Sarah Cannon Research Institute
Current oncology reports | Year: 2014
The most common non-surgical approaches for the treatment of localized hepatocellular carcinoma remain hepatic artery-delivered particles laden with chemotherapy (TACE), or radioactive microparticles (TARE). External beam radiotherapy has been an effective option in many parts of the world for selected HCC patients, but now has an expanded role with stereotactic and proton beam technologies. This review focuses on existing evidence and current guidance for utilizing these modalities for localized, but unresectable, non-transplantable HCC patients.x.
Yardley D.A.,Sarah Cannon Research Institute
Breast Cancer: Basic and Clinical Research | Year: 2013
Improvements in survival of patients with breast cancer have been attributed to the development of agents that target key components of dysregulated pathways involved in oncogenesis and progression of breast cancer. Aberrant mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) activation has been implicated in oncogenesis, angiogenesis, and the development of estrogen independence and resistance to chemotherapy in breast tumors. Several mTOR inhibitors (sirolimus, everolimus, temsirolimus, and ridaforolimus) have demonstrated antitumor activity in breast cancer cells. Combining mTOR inhibitors with endocrine therapies has demonstrated clinical antitumor activity in patients with metastatic breast cancer. In addition, mTOR inhibitor combinations with various targeted biologic agents or cytotoxic chemotherapeutic agents are being examined in more than 40 clinical trials with some early promising results. Combination therapies targeting multiple components of these central signaling pathways may be an optimal treatment strategy for patients with advanced breast cancer. © the author(s), publisher and licensee Libertas Academica Ltd.
Spigel D.R.,Sarah Cannon Research Institute
Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology | Year: 2013
Increased hepatocyte growth factor/MET signaling is associated with poor prognosis and acquired resistance to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) -targeted drugs in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We investigated whether dual inhibition of MET/EGFR results in clinical benefit in patients with NSCLC. Patients with recurrent NSCLC were randomly assigned at a ratio of one to one to receive onartuzumab plus erlotinib or placebo plus erlotinib; crossover was allowed at progression. Tumor tissue was required to assess MET status by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Coprimary end points were progression-free survival (PFS) in the intent-to-treat (ITT) and MET-positive (MET IHC diagnostic positive) populations; additional end points included overall survival (OS), objective response rate, and safety. There was no improvement in PFS or OS in the ITT population (n = 137; PFS hazard ratio [HR], 1.09; P = .69; OS HR, 0.80; P = .34). MET-positive patients (n = 66) treated with erlotinib plus onartuzumab showed improvement in both PFS (HR, .53; P = .04) and OS (HR, .37; P = .002). Conversely, clinical outcomes were worse in MET-negative patients treated with onartuzumab plus erlotinib (n = 62; PFS HR, 1.82; P = .05; OS HR, 1.78; P = .16). MET-positive control patients had worse outcomes versus MET-negative control patients (n = 62; PFS HR, 1.71; P = .06; OS HR, 2.61; P = .004). Incidence of peripheral edema was increased in onartuzumab-treated patients. Onartuzumab plus erlotinib was associated with improved PFS and OS in the MET-positive population. These results combined with the worse outcomes observed in MET-negative patients treated with onartuzumab highlight the importance of diagnostic testing in drug development.
Berdeja J.G.,Sarah Cannon Research Institute
Frontiers in Bioscience - Landmark | Year: 2014
Lorvotuzumab mertansine (LM) is an ADC composed of an anti CD56 humanized N901 monoclonal antibody conjugated via a stable disulfide linker to the maytansinoid DM1. CD56 is expressed in up to 78% of multiple myelomas. LM displays antitumor activity in preclinical models of multiple myeloma. In a phase I study of MM, the MTD of single-agent LM was 112 mg/m2. The dose-limiting toxicities were grade 3 fatigue and grade 3 acute, reversible, renal failure. 2 PRs and 4 MRs were observed at various dose levels starting at 60 mg/m2. Building on the single agent experience, a phase II study of LM in combination with lenalidomide and dexamethasone was conducted. The optimal dose of LM was 75 mg/m2 in the combination. The ORR was 56.4%. The most common treatment-related AE was peripheral neuropathy (PN), mostly grade 2 or less, with the majority of patients having a grade 1 PN at baseline. Continued evaluation of optimal dosing levels and schedules will be important to better define the utility of this promising treatment.
Burris III H.A.,Sarah Cannon Research Institute
Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy | Year: 2011
Introduction: Trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1) is an antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) that combines intracellular delivery of the potent cytotoxic agent, DM1 (a derivative of maytansine) with the antitumor activity of trastuzumab. While there are several ADCs in Phase III development, T-DM1 is the only one in which the targeting antibody has antitumor properties. T-DM1 is also the only ADC that is directed toward the human EGFR 2 (HER2). Effective therapies are limited in HER2-positive advanced or metastatic breast cancer (MBC), particularly following progression on available HER2-targeted therapies. Areas covered: The mechanisms of action, preclinical efficacy and clinical profile of T-DM1 are reported. The latest preclinical and clinical data for T-DM1 are examined. Expert opinion: T-DM1 has significant antitumor potency in vitro and in vivo, which is maintained in tumors resistant to trastuzumab or lapatinib. In Phase I and II trials, T-DM1 provided objective tumor responses and was well tolerated across various lines of therapy in patients with HER2-positive MBC. In addition, it showed similar efficacy to trastuzumab plus docetaxel in first-line MBC. Ongoing trials (including two Phase III studies) are investigating T-DM1 as single-agent therapy or combined with other chemotherapeutic or biologic agents, and the results should help to define the place of T-DM1 within current treatment algorithms for HER2-positive disease. © Informa UK, Ltd.