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Sapporo, Japan

Sapporo Medical University is a public university in Chūō-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaidō, Japan. The precursor of the school was founded in 1945, and it was chartered as a university in 1950. Wikipedia.


Wanibuchi M.,Sapporo Medical University
Neurosurgery | Year: 2012

Trigeminal schwannomas make up 0.8% to 8% of all intracranial schwannomas. To analyze our surgical experience with trigeminal schwannomas. We performed 107 operations on 105 patients harboring trigeminal schwannomas over the past 30 years. We classified the tumors as peripheral, ganglion cavernous, posterior fossa root, and dumbbell types according to the portion of the nerve that gave rise to the tumor. Fourteen were peripheral-type tumors (13.1%), 39 (36.4%) were ganglion cavernous type, 22 (20.6%) were posterior fossa root type, and 32 (30.0%) were dumbbell type. Sixty-five tumors were solid, 35 were mixed, and only 7 were cystic. Among solid tumors, 14 were vascular, fibrous, and adherent to adjacent structures. Total or near-total removal was performed in 86 cases (81.9%), and subtotal removal was achieved in 18 (17.1%). The most common symptom was facial hypesthesia, occurring in 69 patients. This symptom improved in 11 patients, persisted in 50 patients, and worsened in 8 patients after surgery. New postoperative hypesthesia was observed in 8 patients. The second most common symptom was facial pain, observed in 24 patients. Facial pain subsided in 22 and persisted in 2 patients after surgery. Diplopia was observed in 21 patients. This symptom improved postoperatively in 14 patients, persisted in 6 patients, and worsened in 1 patient. The present series demonstrates acceptable results using microsurgical treatment to remove trigeminal schwannomas. Pain and diplopia may be relieved after surgery; however, hypesthesia frequently remains or may be worsened by surgery. Source


Imidafenacin is an antimuscarinic agent with high affinity for the M3 and M1 muscarinic receptor subtypes and low affinity for the M2 subtype, and is used to treat overactive bladder. Several animal studies have demonstrated that imidafenacin has organ selectivity for the bladder over the salivary glands, colon, heart, and brain. In Phase I studies in humans, the approximately 2.9-hour elimination half-life of imidafenacin was shorter than that of other antimuscarinics such as tolterodine and solifenacin. Imidafenacin was approved for clinical use in overactive bladder in Japan in 2007 after a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled Phase II study and a propiverine-controlled Phase III study conducted in Japanese patients demonstrated that imidafenacin 0.1 mg twice daily was clinically effective for treating overactive bladder and was not inferior to propiverine for reduction of episodes of incontinence, with a better safety profile than propiverine. Several short-term clinical studies have demonstrated that imidafenacin also improves sleep disorders, nocturia, and nocturia-related quality of life. In addition, it is speculated that addon therapy with imidafenacin is beneficial for men with benign prostatic hyperplasia whose overactive bladder symptoms are not controlled by alpha-1 adrenoceptor antagonists. No cognitive impairment or influence of imidafenacin on the QTc interval has been observed. Although there have been very few relevant long-term clinical studies, the available information suggests the long-term efficacy, safety, and tolerability of imidafenacin, with less frequent severe adverse events, such as dry mouth and constipation. In addition, imidafenacin can be used safely for a long time even for cognitively vulnerable elderly patients with symptoms of overactive bladder. Thus, it is highly likely that imidafenacin is safe, efficacious, and tolerable to control symptoms of overactive bladder even over the long term. However, it remains unknown if the practical effectiveness of imidafenacin is applicable to ethnic groups other than Japanese. © 2013 Masumori, publisher and licensee Dove Medical Press Ltd. Source


Hori Y.S.,Sapporo Medical University
PloS one | Year: 2013

Excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) induce apoptosis and are associated with various diseases and with aging. SIRT1 (sirtuin-1), an NAD+-dependent protein deacetylase, decreases ROS levels and participates in cell survival under oxidative stress conditions. SIRT1 modulates the transcription factors p53, a tumor suppressor and inducer of apoptosis, and the forkhead O (FOXO) family, both of which play roles for cell survival and cell death. In this study, we aimed to know which is working greatly among p53 and FOXOs transcription factors in SIRT1's cell protective functions under oxidative stress conditions. The antimycin A-induced increase in ROS levels and apoptosis was enhanced by SIRT1 inhibitors nicotinamide and splitomicin, whereas it was suppressed by a SIRT1 activator, resveratrol, and a SIRT1 cofactor, NAD+. SIRT1-siRNA abolished the effects of splitomicin and resveratrol. p53-knockdown experiment in C2C12 cells and experiment using p53-deficient HCT116 cells showed that splitomicin and resveratrol modulated apoptosis by p53-dependent and p53-independent pathways. In p53-independent cell protective pathway, we found that FOXO1, FOXO3a, and FOXO4 were involved in SOD2's upregulation by resveratrol. The knockdown of these three FOXOs by siRNAs completely abolished the SOD2 induction, ROS reduction, and anti-apoptotic function of resveratrol. Our results indicate that FOXO1, FOXO3a and FOXO4, are indispensable for SIRT1-dependent cell survival against oxidative stress, although deacetylation of p53 has also some role for cell protective function of SIRT1. Source


Matsumura H.,Sapporo Medical University | Oxenham M.F.,Australian National University
American Journal of Physical Anthropology | Year: 2014

The aim of this study is to examine and assess the nonmetric dental trait evidence for the population history of East and Southeast Asia and, more specifically, to test the two-layer hypothesis for the peopling of Southeast Asia. Using a battery of 21 nonmetric dental traits we examine 7,247 individuals representing 58 samples drawn from East and Southeast Asian populations inhabiting the region from the late Pleistocene, through the Neolithic, Bronze Age, Iron Age, and into the historic and modern periods. The chief data reduction technique is a neighbor-joining tree generated from the triangular matrix of mean measure of divergence values. Principal findings indicated a major dichotomization of the dataset into (1) an early Southeast Asian sample with close affinities to modern Australian and Melanesian populations and (2) a very distinct grouping of ancient and modern Northeast Asians. Distinct patterns of clinal variation among Neolithic and post-Neolithic Mainland Southeast Asian samples suggest a center to periphery spread of genes into the region from Northeast Asia. This pattern is consistent with archaeological and linguistic evidence for demic diffusion that accompanied agriculturally driven population expansion in the Neolithic. Later Metal Age affinities between Island and Mainland coastal populations with Northeast Asian series is likely a consequence of a South China Sea interaction sphere operating from at least 500 BCE, if not from the Neolithic. Such results provide extensive support for the two-layer hypothesis to account for the population history of the region. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source


Sawada N.,Sapporo Medical University
Pathology International | Year: 2013

Tight junctions are intercellular junctions adjacent to the apical ends of paracellular spaces. They have two classical functions, the barrier function and the fence function. The former regulates the passage of ions, water and various molecules through paracellular spaces, and is thus related to edema, jaundice, diarrhea and blood-borne metastasis. The latter function maintains cell polarity by forming a fence to prevent intermixing of molecules in the apical membrane with those in the lateral membrane. This function is deeply involved in cancer cell properties in terms of loss of cell polarity. Recently, two novel aspects of tight junctions have been reported. One is their involvement in signal transduction. The other is that fact that tight junctions are considered to be a crucial component of innate immunity. In addition, since some proteins comprising tight junctions work as receptors for viruses and extracellular stimuli, pathogenic bacteria and viruses target and affect the tight junction functions, leading to diseases. In this review, the relationship between tight junctions and human diseases will be described. © 2012 The Author. Pathology International © 2012 Japanese Society of Pathology and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd. Source

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