Sapporo Gakuin University
Ebetsu, Japan

Sapporo Gakuin University is a private university in Ebetsu, Hokkaido, Japan. The predecessor of the school, a vocational school, was founded in 1946. It was chartered as a junior college in 1950. A four-year college opened in 1968; it adopted the name "Sapporo Gakuin University" in 1984. The junior college was closed in 1979. Wikipedia.

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Sasaki T.,Sapporo Gakuin University
Science Reports of the Tohoku University, Series 7: Geography | Year: 2012

The objective of this paper is to clarify the regional characteristics and patterns of formation for farmer households with high sales in Japanese agriculture. Toward this, using agricultural sales as the central axis, this paper examines the correlation between different sectors, regions, management structures, and size of cultivated areas. In particular, due to the rapid fall in the price of rice, the paper explores what survival patters have been taken by highly anticipated, large-scale farming organizations in the last 10 years, and the period for the investigation is from 1995 onwards.

Doi N.,Sapporo Gakuin University
Journal of Air Transport Management | Year: 2014

This paper empirically investigates the mutual influence of traffic volumes across routes serving the same airport. Regression analysis using the data on Japan's domestic air transport market reveals that an increase in passengers on a given route has a positive effect on the number of passengers on other routes that share an endpoint airport with the given route. This result implies that a change in policy for an airport is likely to influence routes that do not serve that airport as well as the routes that do. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Ciofi degli Atti C.,University of Perugia | Kaptari L.P.,University of Perugia | Morita H.,Sapporo Gakuin University | Scopetta S.,University of Perugia
Few-Body Systems | Year: 2011

Recent BNL and Jlab data provided new evidence on two nucleon correlations (2NC) in nuclei. The data confirm the validity of the convolution model, describing the spectral function (SF) of a correlated pair moving in the mean field with high and low relative and center-of-mass (cm) momenta, respectively. The model is built assuming that the wave function (WF) of a nucleus A, describing a configuration where the cm momentum of a correlated pair is low and its relative momentum is high, factorizes into the product of the two-body WF and that of the A-2 system. Such a factorization has been shown to occur in nuclear matter (NM). Here it is shown that few-body systems exhibit factorization, which seems to be therefore a general property, to be reproduced also in studies of the WF of finite nuclei. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.

Miura K.,Kitami Institute of Technology | Akama K.,Hokkaido University | Mabuchi H.,Iwate Prefectural University | Koike H.,Sapporo Gakuin University
International Journal of Innovative Computing, Information and Control | Year: 2013

To propose methods for making Equivalent Transformation (ET) rules is important for generating correct and sufficiently efficient programs from a specification which is a set of logical formulas. An ET rule is a procedure for replacing a clause set with another one while preserving declarative meaning. This paper proposes a new method for making ET rules via a Logical Equivalence (LE) from a specification. An LE describes an equivalence relationship between two logical formulas under some specified preconditions. We newly formulate an LE and define the correctness of LEs with respect to a specification. It is guaranteed by the method of this paper that an ET rule can be made from a correct LE. The method is useful for the generation of various programs. Many ET rules included in programs which solve constraint satisfaction problems, can e made by the method. © 2013 ICIC International.

To examine reliability and validity of Kano Test for Social Nicotine Dependence (KTSND), a scale assessing the psychosocial acceptability of smoking, and to develop a new version when validity or reliability of KTSND was not acceptable. We carried out a self-administered cross-sectional survey on undergraduate university students. The participants completed the KTSND, and supplemented three questions on the attitudes toward tobacco control policies and smoking states. Using daily smokers, we examined the relationship between the KTSND and Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND). In each study, we examined test-retest reliability and construct validity, discriminant and convergent validity, and factor validity. Although the KTSND had high internal consistency (Cronbach's a 0.82) and high test-retest reliability (r=0.72), the results of factor analysis were unacceptable; we expected three factors to be extracted, however, only two factors of "Overestimate of smoking usefulness" and "Allege smoking as a taste and/or culture" were extracted. Using the Kano's Test for Assessing Acceptability of Smoking (KTAAS), the new version of KTSND in which a question was replaced with another one, the third factor of "Neglect of harm of tobacco smoking" was extracted adding to the above-mentioned two. KTAAS had also both high internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha 0.82) and test-retest reliability (r=0.66). Overall, the KTSND and the KTAAS score differed according to smoking states, and the nonsmokers' scores were the lowest. The KTSND was a popular questionnaire in Japan, however, its validity assessed using factor analysis was not acceptable, while KTAAS had sufficient reliability and validity, and might assess the cognition and attitude affirming or accepting tobacco smoking among university students.

Hinkelman D.,Sapporo Gakuin University | Gruba P.,University of Melbourne
Language Learning and Technology | Year: 2012

As blended language learning environments evolve within tertiary foreign language institutions, issues of power with regards to the privileging of electronic technologies come to the fore. Blended learning, or the principled mix of online and classroom-based activities, challenges the practices of traditional CALL and face-to-face teaching within newly emerging, hybrid learning environments. The aim of this study is to examine the role of power in relation to the design of these environments. To achieve this aim, a research team conducted a longitudinal study at two Japanese universities which employed blended learning practices in their EFL programs. We analyzed ethnographic and action research data using postmodern, critical, and ecological perspectives on technology, to explore hegemony in facility planning (online vs. face-to-face), control of materials development (publisher-based vs. teacher-based authorship), and development of software designs (proprietary ownership vs. distributed teacher initiatives). Results of the study reveal three significant changes in power: (a) the construction of classrooms shifted from single-purpose CALL laboratories to blended face-to-face/online spaces, (b) the production of teaching materials emphasized locally authored multimedia materials with a decreasing reliance on mass-market course books, and (c) the design of software modules was controlled by teaching teams for rapid customization. Overall, the process of innovation in institutional programs requires a collaborative management culture to be appropriate and sustainable in university contexts. © 2012.

Ueno G.,The Institute of Statistical Mathematics of Tokyo | Ueno G.,Japan Science and Technology Agency | Nakamura N.,Sapporo Gakuin University
Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society | Year: 2014

We present an iterative algorithm for estimating the observation-noise covariance matrix Rt for ensemble-based data assimilation. The proposed algorithm enables us to estimate parameters in Rt, the number of which may become exceedingly large for data assimilation. The optimal Rt is estimated based on the maximum likelihood and the algorithm can be described as an expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm. The key to constructing the algorithm is to obtain the optimality condition of Rt in a closed form. The proposed method estimates Rt, which is adaptive to the current observation yt. We present an application of the proposed method to a coupled atmosphere-ocean model and find that only a few iterations are necessary for convergence. We also find that Rt needs to have some kind of structure to obtain a reasonable covariance matrix using the proposed algorithm. © 2013 Royal Meteorological Society.

Alvioli M.,European Center for Theoretical Studies in Nuclear Physics and Related Areas | Ciofi Degli Atti C.,National Institute of Nuclear Physics, Italy | Kaptari L.P.,University of Perugia | Kaptari L.P.,Joint Institute for Nuclear Research | And 4 more authors.
Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics | Year: 2013

The nucleon momentum distribution nA(k) for A=2, 3, 4, 16, and 40 nuclei is systematically analyzed in terms of wave functions resulting from advanced solutions of the nonrelativistic Schrödinger equation, obtained within different many-body approaches based upon different realistic bare nucleon-nucleon (NN) interactions featuring similar short-range repulsion and tensor interactions. Particular attention is paid to the separation of the momentum distributions into the mean-field and short-range correlation (SRC) contributions. It is shown that although at high values of the momentum k different approaches lead to some quantitative differences, these do not hinder the general conclusion that the high-momentum behavior (k 1.5-2 fm-1) of all nuclei considered are very similar, exhibiting the well-known scaling behavior with the mass number A, independently of the used many-body approach and the details of the bare NN interaction. To analyze and understand the frequently addressed question concerning the relationships between the nucleus, nA(k), and the deuteron, nD(k), momentum distributions, the spin (S)-isospin (T) structure of few-nucleon systems and complex nuclei is analyzed in terms of realistic NN interactions and many-body approaches. To this end, the number of NN pairs in a given (ST) state, viz., (ST)=(10), (00), (01), and (11), and the contribution of these states to the nucleon momentum distributions are calculated. It is shown that, apart from the (00) state, which has very small effects, all other spin-isospin states contribute to the momentum distribution in a wide range of momenta. It is shown that for all nuclei considered the momentum distributions in the states T=0 and T=1 exhibit at k 1.5-2 fm-1 very similar behaviors, which represents strong evidence of the A-independent character of SRCs. The ratio nA(k)/ nD(k) is analyzed in detail, stressing that in the SRC region it always increases with the momentum and the origin of such an increase is discussed and elucidated. The relationships between the one- and two-body momentum distributions, considered in a previous paper, are discussed and clarified, pointing out the relevant role played by the center-of-mass motion of a correlated pair in the (10) state. Eventually, the values of the the probability of high-momentum components in nuclei and the per nucleon probability a2 of deuteronlike configurations in nuclei are calculated, and the relationship of the present approach with the many-body methods based upon low-momentum effective interactions is briefly discussed. © 2013 American Physical Society.

Alvioli M.,CNR Institute of Neuroscience | Ciofi Degli Atti C.,National Institute of Nuclear Physics, Italy | Kaptari L.P.,Joint Institute for Nuclear Research | Mezzetti C.B.,National Institute of Nuclear Physics, Italy | And 3 more authors.
International Journal of Modern Physics E | Year: 2013

By analyzing recent microscopic many-body calculations of few-nucleon systems and complex nuclei performed by different groups in terms of realistic nucleon-nucleon (NN) interactions, it is shown that NN short-range correlations (SRCs) have a universal character, in that the correlation hole that they produce in nuclei appears to be almost A-independent and similar to the correlation hole in the deuteron. The correlation hole creates high-momentum components, missing in a mean-field (MF) description and exhibiting several scaling properties and a peculiar spin-isospin structure. In particular, the momentum distribution of a pair of nucleons in spin-isospin state (ST) = (10), depending upon the pair relative (krel) and center-of-mass (c.m.) (Kc.m.) momenta, as well as upon the angle Θ between them, exhibits a remarkable property: in the region krel2 fm-1 and Kc.m.≲1 fm-1, the relative and c.m. motions are decoupled and the two-nucleon momentum distribution factorizes into the deuteron momentum distribution and an A-dependent momentum distribution describing the c.m. motion of the pair in the medium. The impact of these and other properties of one- and two-nucleon momentum distributions on various nuclear phenomena, on ab initio calculations in terms of low-momentum interactions, as well as on ongoing experimental investigations of SRCs, are briefly commented. © 2013 World Scientific Publishing Company.

Alvioli M.,European Center for Theoretical Studies in Nuclear Physics and Related Areas | Ciofi Degli Atti C.,National Institute of Nuclear Physics, Italy | Kaptari L.P.,University of Perugia | Kaptari L.P.,Joint Institute for Nuclear Research | And 3 more authors.
Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics | Year: 2012

Using realistic wave functions, the proton-neutron and proton-proton momentum distributions in 3He and 4He are calculated as a function of the relative, k rel, and center of mass, K c.m., momenta and the angle between them. For large values of k rel 2 fm -1 and small values of K c.m.1.0 fm -1, both distributions are angle independent and decrease with increasing K c.m., with the pn distribution factorizing into the deuteron momentum distribution times a rapidly decreasing function of K c.m., in agreement with the two-nucleon (2N) short-range correlation (SRC) picture. When K c.m. and k rel are both large, the distributions exhibit a strong angle dependence, which is evidence of three-nucleon (3N) SRC. The predicted center of mass and angular dependence of 2N and 3N SRC should be observable in two-nucleon knock-out processes A(e,e ′pN)X. © 2012 American Physical Society.

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