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Chuo-ku, Japan

Sapporo City University is a public university with campuses in Chuo-ku and Minami-ku, Sapporo, Japan. The predecessor of the school was established in 1991, and it was chartered as a university in 2006 when it merged with a nursing school. Wikipedia.

Koseki N.,Hokkaido University | Kaiho M.,Hokkaido University | Kikuta H.,Pediatric Clinic | Oba K.,Hokkaido University | And 3 more authors.
Influenza and other Respiratory Viruses | Year: 2014

Objectives: To evaluate the clinical effectiveness of the two inhaled neuraminidase inhibitors (NAIs), zanamivir (ZN) and laninamivir octate (LO), for influenza A(H3N2) and B virus infections. Design: A prospective, multicenter observational study was conducted from January to April in 2012. Setting: Outpatients aged 5-18 years who had a temperature of 37.5°C or higher and were diagnosed as having influenza based on an immunochromatographic assay were enrolled. Sample: A total of 338 patients treated with ZN and 314 patients treated with LO were compared. Main outcome measures: The duration of fever after administration of the first dose of each NAI was evaluated as a primary endpoint. The secondary endpoint was episodes of biphasic fever. Results: No statistically significant difference in the duration of fever was found between the ZN and LO groups (log-rank test, P = 0.117). A logistic regression model showed that episodes of biphasic fever increased by 1.19 times for every decrease of 1 year of age (P = 0.016) and that the number of biphasic fever episodes in patients treated with LO was 5.80-times greater than that in patients treated with ZN (P < 0.001). Conclusions: Although the duration of fever in the LO group was comparable to that in the ZN group, episodes of biphasic fever were more frequent in younger children and in the LO group than in the ZN group. © 2013 The Authors. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Source

When compared to the Western countries, unfortunately, the progress toward the eradication of vaccine-preventable diseases in Japan has been relatively slow and hampered by some problems inherent to Japan. Concerning this, I have been working on the vaccine-preventable diseases, that is, measles, influenza, Haemophilus influenzae, and Streptcoccus pneumoniae infections. My first work was to produce monoclonal antibodies against measles virus proteins, and by using these antibodies, I established the immunofluorescent measles virus detection system in tissue samples. I constructed the 'Hokkaido measles-zero strategy' to eliminate measles from Hokkaido prefecture, the northernmost island of Japan, within 5 years since 2001 with very kind efforts of pediatricians in Hokkaido and those who are engaged in political activities. Coworkers and I established the disease entity of influenza-associated encephalopathy. And finally, I worked as a member of some groups that accumulated the basic data on the occurrence of bacterial meningitis in Japan and urged the government to introduce the H. influenzae type b conjugate vaccine and the pediatric 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in Japan. I would like to express many thanks to all of my colleagues for their contributions to these achievements. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Mikami T.,Sapporo Medical University | Mikami T.,Sapporo City University | Miyashita H.,Sapporo Medical University | Takatsuka S.,Sapporo Medical University | And 2 more authors.
Gene | Year: 2012

Toll-like receptors (TLRs) that initiate an innate immune response contain an extracellular leucine rich repeat (LRR) domain and an intracellular Toll IL-receptor (TIR) domain. There are fifteen different TLRs in vertebrates. The LRR domains, which adopt a solenoid structure, usually have higher rates of evolution than do the TIR globular domains. It is important to understand the molecular evolution and functional roles of TLRs from this standpoint. Both pairwise genetic distances and Ka/. Ks's (the ratios between non synonymous and synonymous substitution rates) were compared between the LRR domain and the TIR domain of 366 vertebrate TLRs from 96 species (from fish to primates). In fourteen members (TLRs 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 11/12, 13, 14, 21, and 22/23) the LRR domains evolved significantly more rapidly than did the corresponding TIR domains. The evolutionary rates of the LRR domains are significantly different among these members; LRR domains from TLR3 and TLR7 from primates to fishes have the lowest rate of evolution. In contrast, the fifteenth member, TLR10, shows no significant differences; its TIR domain is not highly conserved. The present results suggest that TLR10 may have a different function in signaling from those other members and that a higher conservation of TLR3 and TLR7 may reflect a more ancient mechanism and/or structure in the innate immune response system. Gene conversions are suggested to have occurred in platypus TLR6 and TLR10. This study provides new insight about structural and functional diversification of vertebrate TLRs. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. Source

Mitani A.,Sapporo City University
Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Engineering and Product Design Education: Design Education for Future Wellbeing, EPDE 2012 | Year: 2012

This paper described outline of the mechatronics class in the Product Design Course of the School of Design, Sapporo City University, Japan. The mechatronics is an essential technology for various industrial products. In the curriculum of product design education, there are few classes regarding mechatronics to realize functions embedded in products, whereas many classes regarding design expressions using computer software. To propose an effective design to the mechatronics-embedded products, the mechatronics lectures should be included in the curriculum of product design education. For the mechatronics class I offered, a printed circuit substrate was developed to study electronic devices and a PIC processor for design expressions. The lecture included PIC assembler programs for LED blink control, feedback from sensors and switches, the driving of servomotor, and the sequential feedback. This class was done by an assignment to produce an actual model for an interaction design with human actions using these skills. Source

Harai M.,Sapporo City University
[Nihon kōshū eisei zasshi] Japanese journal of public health | Year: 2013

Urination diseases--particularly urinary incontinence (UI)--strongly affect individuals' quality of life (QOL). It is important to maintain overall QOL in societies with an increasing number of long-living elderly people, such as in Japan. Thus, this study aims to clarify the risk factors concerning UI in elderly women. For this study, we obtained the approval of the Ethical Committee of Sapporo Medical University. In October 2010, we randomly selected 1,600 women, aged between 65 and 74 years, from the registry of Sapporo city residents and mailed out a self-administered questionnaire. Our questionnaire consisted of five subsections (24 items in total), including fundamental attributes, health condition, past history, present illness, and the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-Short Form (ICIQ-SF). The self-reported prevalence of UI was defined as frequent UI being at least once a week. A logistic regression analysis was used to assess the risk factors for UI. Among those who received the questionnaire, 802 women (response rate: 50.1%) returned a completed questionnaire with written informed consent. Their mean age (+/- standard deviation) was 69.8 +/- 2.6 years, and the prevalence of UI was found to be 29.7%. The mean scores (+/- standard deviation) of ICIQ-SF were 1.7 +/- 2.9 for all participating subjects, and 5.55 +/- 2.50 and 0.09 +/- 0.53 for the groups with or without UI, respectively. The results of the multiple logistic regression analysis were as follows: the odds ratio (95% confidence interval) was 1.94 (1.32, 2.85) for a past maximum weight heavier than or equal to 60 kg; 1.98 (1.18, 3.32) for a smoking index more than or equal to 300; 2.54 (1.47, 4.39) for a poor self-perceived health status; 1.62 (1.09, 2.40) for having a past history of bladder diseases; 1.72 (1.11, 2.69) for having a past history of hemorrhoidal disease; and 2.05 (1.36, 3.10) for a history of UI in one's mother. The self-reported prevalence rate of UI was 29.7% in women aged 65-74 years. In the future, we plan to conduct a follow-up survey to further clarify the risk factors of UI that have been implicated in this cross-sectional study. Source

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