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Nijlen, Belgium

Luna M.,Polytechnic University of Turin | Gastone F.,Polytechnic University of Turin | Tosco T.,Polytechnic University of Turin | Sethi R.,Polytechnic University of Turin | And 6 more authors.
Journal of contaminant hydrology | Year: 2015

The paper reports a pilot injection test of microsized zerovalent iron (mZVI) dispersed in a guar gum shear thinning solution. The test was performed in the framework of the EU research project AQUAREHAB in a site in Belgium contaminated by chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAHs). The field application was aimed to overcome those critical aspects which hinder mZVI field injection, mainly due to the colloidal instability of ZVI-based suspensions. The iron slurry properties (iron particles size and concentration, polymeric stabilizer type and concentration, slurry viscosity) were designed in the laboratory based on several tests (reactivity tests towards contaminants, sedimentation tests and rheological measurements). The particles were delivered into the aquifer through an injection well specifically designed for controlled-pressure delivery (approximately 10 bars). The well characteristics and the critical pressure of the aquifer (i.e. the injection pressure above which fracturing occurs) were assessed via two innovative injection step rate tests, one performed with water and the other one with guar gum. Based on laboratory and field preliminary tests, a flow regime at the threshold between permeation and preferential flow was selected for mZVI delivery, as a compromise between the desired homogeneous distribution of the mZVI around the injection point (ensured by permeation flow) and the fast and effective injection of the slurry (guaranteed by high discharge rates and injection pressure, resulting in the generation of preferential flow paths). A monitoring setup was designed and installed for the real-time monitoring of relevant parameters during injection, and for a fast determination of the spatial mZVI distribution after injection via non-invasive magnetic susceptibility measurements. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source


Flores Orozco A.,Vienna University of Technology | Velimirovic M.,Flemish Institute for Technological Research | Velimirovic M.,University of Vienna | Tosco T.,Polytechnic University of Turin | And 5 more authors.
Environmental Science and Technology | Year: 2015

The injection of microscale zerovalent iron (mZVI) particles for groundwater remediation has received much interest in recent years. However, to date, monitoring of mZVI particle injection is based on chemical analysis of groundwater and soil samples and thus might be limited in its spatiotemporal resolution. To overcome this deficiency, in this study, we investigate the application of complex electrical conductivity imaging, a geophysical method, to monitor the high-pressure injection of mZVI in a field-scale application. The resulting electrical images revealed an increase in the induced electrical polarization (∼20%), upon delivery of ZVI into the targeted area, due to the accumulation of metallic surfaces at which the polarization takes place. Furthermore, larger changes (>50%) occurred in shallow sediments, a few meters away from the injection, suggesting the migration of particles through preferential flowpaths. Correlation of the electrical response and geochemical data, in particular the analysis of recovered cores from drilling after the injection, confirmed the migration of particles (and stabilizing solution) to shallow areas through fractures formed during the injection. Hence, our results demonstrate the suitability of the complex conductivity imaging method to monitor the transport of mZVI during subsurface amendment in quasi real-time. © 2015 American Chemical Society. Source


Luna M.,Polytechnic University of Turin | Gastone F.,Polytechnic University of Turin | Tosco T.,Polytechnic University of Turin | Sethi R.,Polytechnic University of Turin | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Contaminant Hydrology | Year: 2015

The paper reports a pilot injection test of microsized zerovalent iron (mZVI) dispersed in a guar gum shear thinning solution. The test was performed in the framework of the EU research project AQUAREHAB in a site in Belgium contaminated by chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAHs). The field application was aimed to overcome those critical aspects which hinder mZVI field injection, mainly due to the colloidal instability of ZVI-based suspensions. The iron slurry properties (iron particles size and concentration, polymeric stabilizer type and concentration, slurry viscosity) were designed in the laboratory based on several tests (reactivity tests towards contaminants, sedimentation tests and rheological measurements). The particles were delivered into the aquifer through an injection well specifically designed for controlled-pressure delivery (approximately 10 bars). The well characteristics and the critical pressure of the aquifer (i.e. the injection pressure above which fracturing occurs) were assessed via two innovative injection step rate tests, one performed with water and the other one with guar gum. Based on laboratory and field preliminary tests, a flow regime at the threshold between permeation and preferential flow was selected for mZVI delivery, as a compromise between the desired homogeneous distribution of the mZVI around the injection point (ensured by permeation flow) and the fast and effective injection of the slurry (guaranteed by high discharge rates and injection pressure, resulting in the generation of preferential flow paths). A monitoring setup was designed and installed for the real-time monitoring of relevant parameters during injection, and for a fast determination of the spatial mZVI distribution after injection via non-invasive magnetic susceptibility measurements. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. Source


Carniato L.,Technical University of Delft | Schoups G.,Technical University of Delft | Van De Giesen N.,Technical University of Delft | Seuntjens P.,Flemish Institute for Technological Research | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Contaminant Hydrology | Year: 2015

In this study a numerical groundwater reactive transport model of a shallow groundwater aquifer contaminated with volatile organic compounds is developed. In addition to advective-dispersive transport, the model includes contaminant release from source areas, natural attenuation, abiotic degradation by a permeable reactive barrier at the site, and dilution by infiltrating rain. Aquifer heterogeneity is parameterized using pilot points for hydraulic conductivity, specific yield and groundwater recharge. A methodology is developed and applied to estimate the large number of parameters from the limited data at the field site (groundwater levels, groundwater concentrations of multiple chemical species, point-scale measurements of soil hydraulic conductivity, and lab-scale derived information on chemical and biochemical reactions). The proposed methodology relies on pilot point parameterization of hydraulic parameters and groundwater recharge, a regularization procedure to reconcile the large number of spatially distributed model parameters with the limited field data, a step-wise approach for integrating the different data sets into the model, and high performance computing. The methodology was proven to be effective in reproducing multiple contaminant plumes and in reducing the prior parameter uncertainty of hydraulic conductivity and groundwater recharge. Our results further indicate that contaminant transport predictions are strongly affected by the choice of the groundwater recharge model and flow parameters should be identified using both head and concentration measurements. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source


Velimirovic M.,Flemish Institute for Technological Research | Velimirovic M.,University of Antwerp | Velimirovic M.,University of Vienna | Tosco T.,Polytechnic University of Turin | And 12 more authors.
Journal of Contaminant Hydrology | Year: 2014

A pilot injection test with guar gum stabilized microscale zerovalent iron (mZVI) particles was performed at test site V (Belgium) where different chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAHs) were present as pollutants in the subsurface. One hundred kilograms of 56 μm-diameter mZVI (~ 70 g L - 1) was suspended in 1.5 m3 of guar gum (~ 7 g L - 1) solution and injected into the test area. In order to deliver the guar gum stabilized mZVI slurry, one direct push bottom-up injection (Geoprobe) was performed with injections at 5 depths between 10.5 and 8.5 m bgs. The direct push technique was preferred above others (e.g. injection at low flow rate via screened wells) because of the limited hydraulic conductivity of the aquifer, and to the large size of the mZVI particles. A final heterogeneous distribution of the mZVI in the porous medium was observed explicable by preferential flow paths created during the high pressure injection. The maximum observed delivery distance was 2.5 m. A significant decrease in 1,1,1-TCA concentrations was observed in close vicinity of spots where the highest concentration of mZVI was observed. Carbon stable isotope analysis (CSIA) yielded information on the success of the abiotic degradation of 1,1,1-TCA and indicated a heterogeneous spatio-temporal pattern of degradation. Finally, the obtained results show that mZVI slurries stabilized by guar gum can be prepared at pilot scale and directly injected into low permeable aquifers, indicating a significant removal of 1,1,1-TCA. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. Source

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