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Araujo S.A.,Sao Paulo State University | Clark A.,University of the West of England
Computers and Industrial Engineering | Year: 2013

In many production processes, a key material is prepared and then transformed into different final products. The lot sizing decisions concern not only the production of final products, but also that of material preparation in order to take account of their sequence-dependent setup costs and times. The amount of research in recent years indicates the relevance of this problem in various industrial settings. In this paper, facility location reformulation and strengthening constraints are newly applied to a previous lot-sizing model in order to improve solution quality and computing time. Three alternative metaheuristics are used to fix the setup variables, resulting in much improved performance over previous research, especially regarding the use of the metaheuristics for larger instances. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Fioretto J.R.,Sao Paulo State University | De Carvalho W.B.,University of Sao Paulo
Jornal de Pediatria | Year: 2013

Objective: to review the evolution of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) definitions and present the current definition for the syndrome. Data source: a literature review and selection of the most relevant articles on ARDS definitions was performed using the MEDLINE®/PubMed® Resource Guide database (last ten years), in addition to including the most important articles (classic articles) that described the disease evolution. Data synthesis: the review included the following subjects: introduction; importance of definition; description of the first diagnostic criterion and subsequently used definitions, such as acute lung injury score; definition by the American-European Consensus Conference, and its limitations; description of the definition by Delphi, and its problems; accuracy of the aforementioned definitions; description of most recent definition (the Berlin definition), and its limitations; and practical importance of the new definition. Conclusions ARDS is a serious disease that remains an ongoing diagnostic and therapeutic: challenge. The evolution of definitions used to describe the disease shows that studies are needed to validate the current definition, especially in pediatrics, where the data are very scarce. © 2013 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

Borges A.S.,Sao Paulo State University
Neuromuscular disorders : NMD | Year: 2013

Hereditary myotonia caused by mutations in CLCN1 has been previously described in humans, goats, dogs, mice and horses. The goal of this study was to characterize the clinical, morphological and genetic features of hereditary myotonia in Murrah buffalo. Clinical and laboratory evaluations were performed on affected and normal animals. CLCN1 cDNA and the relevant genomic region from normal and affected animals were sequenced. The affected animals exhibited muscle hypertrophy and stiffness. Myotonic discharges were observed during EMG, and dystrophic changes were not present in skeletal muscle biopsies; the last 43 nucleotides of exon-3 of the CLCN1 mRNA were deleted. Cloning of the genomic fragment revealed that the exclusion of this exonic sequence was caused by aberrant splicing, which was associated with the presence of a synonymous SNP in exon-3 (c.396C>T). The mutant allele triggered the efficient use of an ectopic 5' splice donor site located at nucleotides 90-91 of exon-3. The predicted impact of this aberrant splicing event is the alteration of the CLCN1 translational reading frame, which results in the incorporation of 24 unrelated amino acids followed by a premature stop codon. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Galetti M.,Sao Paulo State University | Dirzo R.,Stanford University
Biological Conservation | Year: 2013

Defaunation, the loss or population decline of medium and large native vertebrates represents a significant threat to the biodiversity of tropical ecosystems. Here we review the anthropogenic drivers of defaunation, provide a brief historical account of the development of this field, and analyze the types of biological consequences of this impact on the structure and functioning of tropical ecosystems. We identify how defaunation, operating at a variety of scales, from the plot to the global level, affects biological systems along a gradient of processes ranging from plant physiology (vegetative and reproductive performance) and animal behavior (movement, foraging and dietary patterns) in the immediate term; to plant population and community dynamics and structure leading to disruptions of ecosystem functioning (and thus degrading environmental services) in the short to medium term; to evolutionary changes (phenotypic changes and population genetic structure) in the long-term. We present such a synthesis as a preamble to a series of papers that provide a compilation of our current understanding of the impact and consequences of tropical defaunation. We close by identifying some of the most urgent needs and perspectives that warrant further study to improve our understanding of this field, as we confront the challenges of living in a defaunated world. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Rabeling C.,Harvard University | Rabeling C.,University of Rochester | Schultz T.R.,Smithsonian Institution | Pierce N.E.,Harvard University | Bacci M.,Sao Paulo State University
Current Biology | Year: 2014

Inquiline social parasitic ant species exploit colonies of other ant species mainly by producing sexual offspring that are raised by the host. Ant social parasites and their hosts are often close relatives (Emerys rule), and two main hypotheses compete to explain the parasites evolutionary origins: (1) the interspecific hypothesis proposes an allopatric speciation scenario for the parasite, whereas (2) the intraspecific hypothesis postulates that the parasite evolves directly from its host in sympatry [1-10]. Evidence in support of the intraspecific hypothesis has been accumulating for ants [3, 5, 7, 9-12], but sympatric speciation remains controversial as a general speciation mechanism for inquiline parasites. Here we use molecular phylogenetics to assess whether the socially parasitic fungus-growing ant Mycocepurus castrator speciated from its host Mycocepurus goeldii in sympatry. Based on differing patterns of relationship in mitochondrial and individual nuclear genes, we conclude that host and parasite occupy a temporal window in which lineage sorting has taken place in the mitochondrial genes but not yet in the nuclear alleles. We infer that the host originated first and that the parasite originated subsequently from a subset of the host species populations, providing empirical support for the hypothesis that inquiline parasites can evolve reproductive isolation while living sympatrically with their hosts. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Hoff da Silva J.M.,Sao Paulo State University | da Rocha R.,Federal University of ABC
European Physical Journal C | Year: 2012

By performing a Taylor expansion along the extra dimension of a metric describing a black hole on a brane, we explore the influence of the embedding space on the black hole horizon. In particular, it is shown that the existence of a Kottler correction of the black hole on the brane, in a viable braneworld scenario, might represent the radius of the black string collapsing to zero, for some point(s) on the black string axis of symmetry along the extra dimension. Further scrutiny on such black hole corrections by braneworld effects is elicited, the well-known results in the literature are recovered as limiting cases, and we assert and show that when the radius of the black string transversal section is zero, as one moves away from the brane into the bulk, is indeed a singularity. © 2012 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg and Società Italiana di Fisica.

Lacerda Jr. V.,Federal University of Espirito Santo | dos Santos D.A.,Federal University of Espirito Santo | da Silva-Filho L.C.,Sao Paulo State University | Greco S.J.,Federal University of Espirito Santo | dos Santos R.B.,Federal University of Espirito Santo
Aldrichimica Acta | Year: 2012

The growing interest in, and applications of, niobium compounds in organic synthesis and catalysis are surveyed, with a focus on their efficiency and versatility in several classical and broad organic reaction types. It is our hope that this review will spur further investigations of this lesser studied, but equally important, member of group 5 transition metals. © 2012 Sigma-Aldrich Co. LLC.

Work-related diseases o either physical or emotional origin have been on the increase in contemporary society in the different work sectors. They have had a profound impact on health professionals, such as physicians, dentists, nurses, nursing assistants and administrative assistants in the primary healthcare units. This study aimed to establish the decisive factors relating to workload, seeking to identify possible relations between the working conditions and their potential impact on worker health. Thirty-one individuals comprised the sample, namely 12 physicians, 3 dentists, 1 nurse, 9 nursing assistants, 3 dental assistants and 3 business assistants at a PHU (Primary Healthcare Unit) in a city in the interior of the State of São Paulo. For the data collection, structured interviews were conducted through meetings with the specific groups of workers, such that a detailed description of the activities performed by each group could be drafted, as well as a survey of the problems and desirable features involved. The results indicated the presence of physical, cognitive and psychological demands; inadequate communication processes; obsolete equipment; excessive number of users and an inefficient structure to deal with absenteeism.

Tomio L.,Sao Paulo State University
EPJ Web of Conferences | Year: 2010

Universal aspects of few-body systems will be reviewed motivated by recent interest in atomic and nuclear physics. The critical conditions for the existence of excited states in three-body systems with two-identical particles will be explored. In particular, we consider halo nuclei that can be modeled as three-body nuclear systems, with two halo neutrons and a core. In this context, we also discuss the low-energy neutron-19C elastic scattering, near the conditions for the app earance of an Efimov state. © Owned by the authors, published by EDP Sciences, 2010.

Furini M.A.,Federal University of Parana | Pereira A.L.S.,Federal University of Goais | Araujo P.B.,Sao Paulo State University
International Journal of Electrical Power and Energy Systems | Year: 2011

This work presents the application of the Decentralized Modal Control method for pole placement in multimachine power systems utilizing FACTS (Flexible AC Transmission Systems), STATCOM (Static Synchronous Compensator) and UPFC (Unified Power Flow Controller) devices. For this, these devices are equipped with supplementary damping controllers, denominated POD (Power Oscillation Damping), achieving a coordinated project with local controllers (Power System Stabilizers - PSS). Comparative analysis on the function of damping of the FACTS, STATCOM and UPFC is performed using the New England System that has 10 generators, 39 buses and 46 transmission lines. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Buratini J.,Sao Paulo State University | Price C.A.,University Of Montral
Reproduction, Fertility and Development | Year: 2011

Considerable attention is currently paid to oocyte-derived secreted factors that act upon cumulus and granulosa cells. Also important for follicle development are somatic cell-derived secreted factors. This is illustrated by the ability of granulosa cell-derived Kit ligand (KITL) to promote primordial follicle activation, and the loss of follicle development that accompanies KITL gene disruption. This review summarises our current understanding of somatic cell factors during both preantral and antral follicle growth, involving not only signalling from granulosa cells to the oocyte, but also signalling between granulosa and theca cells. Principal granulosa cell-derived factors include activin, anti-Mllerian hormone (AMH), bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) and fibroblast growth factors (FGFs). Theca cells also secrete BMPs and FGFs. The interplay between these factors is equally important for follicle growth as the activity of oocyte-derived factors. © 2011 IETS.

This article presents preliminary information about the reproduction of two species of fresh water stingrays of the genus Potamotrygon, found in the Upper Paraná River (Southwest Brazil), where these animals are exotic. Males of P. motoro and P. falkneri become sexually mature around 270 mm and 260 mm of disc width (DW), respectively. Females become sexually mature around 330 mm of DW in P. motoro and 325 mm in P. falkneri. In both species, females are bigger and heavier than males, reaching about 700 mm of DW and 20 kg. Copulating has not been recorded, but one courtship ritual has been observed during the dry season. Mature males present a different dentition from females and young males, which is probably related to their reproductive behavior instead of to their feeding habit. The female fertility has varied from one to three offspring. A miscarriage has been observed at different stages of embryonic development always when pregnant females were captured. In spite of the great history of anthropization of the study area, it seems that hydrological cycles are related to the reproduction of stingrays. Nevertheless, it would be necessary to conduct deeper studies to verify or not this influence.

Rabeling C.,University of Texas at Austin | Bacci Jr. M.,Sao Paulo State University
Systematic Entomology | Year: 2010

Ant inquilines are obligate social parasites, usually lacking a sterile worker caste, which are dependent on their hosts for survival and reproduction. Social parasites are rare among the fungus-gardening ants (Myrmicinae: tribe Attini) and only four species are known until now, all being inquilines from the Higher Attini. We describe Mycocepurus castrator sp.n., the first inquiline social parasite to be discovered in the Lower Attini. Our study of the parasite's behaviour and life history supports the conclusion drawn from external morphology: Mycocepurus castrator is an evolutionarily derived inquiline parasite of Mycocepurus goeldii. Inquilines are of great interest to evolutionary biology because it is debated if they originated via sympatric or allopatric speciation. We discuss the life history evolution, behaviour and morphology of socially parasitic, fungus-growing ants. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation. © 2010 The Royal Entomological Society.

Santos E.S.,Federal University of Bahia | de Melo G.R.,Sao Paulo State University
International Journal of Theoretical Physics | Year: 2011

We investigate the non-relativistic Schrödinger and Pauli-Dirac oscillators in noncommutative phase space using the five-dimensional Galilean covariant framework. The Schrödinger oscillator presented the correct energy spectrum whose non isotropy is caused by the noncommutativity with an expected similarity between this system and the particle in a magnetic field. A general Hamiltonian for the 3-dimensional Galilean covariant Pauli-Dirac oscillator was obtained and it presents the usual terms that appears in commutative space, like Zeeman effect and spin-orbit terms. We find that the Hamiltonian also possesses terms involving the noncommutative parameters that are related to a type of magnetic moment and an electric dipole moment. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

Ciolac E.G.,Sao Paulo State University
Clinics | Year: 2013

Aging populations are a worldwide phenomenon affecting both developed and developing countries. This issue raises serious concerns for both governments and the general population. Regular participation in physical activity and/or exercise training programs can minimize the physiological alterations that occur during aging and may contribute to improvements in health and well-being. The present review will discuss the role of regular exercise training in preventing age-related physiological decline and, consequently, associated chronic diseases. Compelling evidence that regular exercise and/or physical activity can improve quality of life, prevent or control the development of chronic disease and increase life expectancy is shown. In summary, regular exercise training and/or physical activity has an important influence on aging and may help to prevent agerelated disorders. © 2013 CLINICS.

Falcone-Dias M.F.,Catholic University of Portugal | Falcone-Dias M.F.,Sao Paulo State University | Vaz-Moreira I.,Catholic University of Portugal | Manaia C.M.,Catholic University of Portugal
Water Research | Year: 2012

The antibiotic resistance phenotypes of the cultivable bacteria present in nine batches of two Portuguese and one French brands of commercially available mineral waters were examined. Most of the 238 isolates recovered on R2A, Pseudomonas Isolation agar or on these culture media supplemented with amoxicillin or ciprofloxacin, were identified (based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis) as Proteobacteria of the divisions Beta, Gamma and Alpha. Bacteria resistant to more than three distinct classes of antibiotics were detected in all the batches of the three water brands in counts up to 10 2 CFU/ml. In the whole set of isolates, it was observed resistance against all the 22 antimicrobials tested (ATB, bioMérieux and disc diffusion), with most of the bacteria showing resistance to three or more classes of antibiotics. Bacteria with the highest multi-resistance indices were members of the genera Variovorax, Bosea, Ralstonia, Curvibacter, Afipia and Pedobacter. Some of these bacteria are related with confirmed or suspected nosocomial agents. Presumable acquired resistance may be suggested by the observation of bacteria taxonomically related but isolated from different brands, exhibiting distinct antibiotic resistance profiles. Bottled mineral water was confirmed as a possible source of antibiotic resistant bacteria, with the potential to be transmitted to humans. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Lopes R.P.,Grande Rio University | Buchmann F.S.,Sao Paulo State University
Journal of South American Earth Sciences | Year: 2011

Fossils of terrestrial mammals preserved in submarine environment have been recorded in several places around the world. In Brazil such fossils are rather abundant in the southernmost portion of the coast, associated to fossiliferous concentrations at depths up to 10 m. Here is presented a review of such occurrences and the first record of fossils in deeper areas of the continental shelf. The fossils encompass several groups of both extinct and extant mammals, and exhibit several distinct taphonomic features, related to the marine environment. Those from the inner continental shelf are removed and transported from the submarine deposits to the coast during storm events, thus forming large konzentrat-lagerstätte on the beach, called " Concheiros" The only fossils from deeper zones of the shelf known so far are a portion of a skull, a left humerus and of a femur of Toxodon sp. and a lower right molar of a Stegomastodon waringi, all collected by fishermen at depths around 20 m. The presence of fossils at great depths and distances from the present coastline, without signs of abrasion and far from areas of fluvial discharges does indicate that these remains have not been transported from the continent to the shelf, but have been preserved directly on the area that today correspond to the continental shelf. These remains indicate the existence of large fossiliferous deposits that have developed during periods of sea-level lowstand (glacial maxima) and have been submerged and reworked by the sea-level rise at the end of the last glaciation. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Erthal F.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Kotzian C.B.,Federal University of Santa Maria | Simoes M.G.,Sao Paulo State University
Palaios | Year: 2011

This study is the first assessment of mollusk fossil assemblages relative to the compositional fidelity of modern mollusk living and death assemblages. It also shows that the sedimentary record can provide information on the original, non-human-impacted, freshwater malacofauna biodiversity, based on Late Pleistocene shells. The fossil mollusk assemblage from the Touro Passo Formation (Pleistocene-Holocene) was compared to living and death assemblages of the Touro Passo River, southern Brazil, revealing little resemblance between fossil and live-dead species composition. Although the living and death assemblages agree closely in richness, species composition, and species relative abundances (both proportional and rank), the fossil assemblage differs significantly from both modern assemblages in most of these measures. The fossil assemblage is dominated by the native endemic corbiculid bivalve Cyanocyclas limosa and the gastropod Heleobia aff. bertoniana. These are absent in the living assemblages, and both living and death assemblages are dominated by the alien Asiatic corbiculid C. fluminea, which is absent in the fossil assemblage. The fossil assemblage also contains, overall, a higher proportional abundance of relatively thick-shelled species, suggesting a genuine bias against the thinner-and smaller-shelled species. Our results suggest that contemporary environmental changes, such as the introduction of some alien freshwater mollusk species, together with post-burial taphonomic processes, are the main factors leading to the poor fidelity of the fossil assemblage studied. Hence, the taxonomic composition of the Late Pleistocene mollusks from the Touro Passo Formation probably would show greater similarity to present-day assemblages wherever the mollusk biodiversity is not disturbed by human activities. © 2011 SEPM (Society for Sedimentary Geology).

Hoven C.W.,Columbia University | Mandell D.J.,Columbia University | Bertolote J.M.,Sao Paulo State University
European Psychiatry | Year: 2010

According to the World Health Organization (WHO) estimates for the year 2020, approximately 1.5 million people will commit suicide, and at least 10 times that many will make an attempt. This paper offers a brief overview of the current state of the epidemiology of suicide, a burgeoning public health problem. The information provided is based in large measure on reports of suicide mortality from 130/193 countries. In order to contextualize these data, this paper explores the contribution of both individual and sociocultural factors that influence suicidal behavior, from which much has been learned. Outlining the history of attempts by international and national organizations like WHO, United Nations, member states in the European community and other countries to regularize identification and suicide reporting procedures, this paper also demonstrates that serious knowledge gaps remain. Minimal requirements for successful evidence-based interventions are presented. © 2010.

Dossi F.C.A.,University of Sao Paulo | da Silva E.P.,Sao Paulo State University | Consoli F.L.,University of Sao Paulo
Microbial Ecology | Year: 2014

The infection density of symbionts is among the major parameters to understand their biological effects in host–endosymbionts interactions. Diaphorina citri harbors two bacteriome-associated bacterial endosymbionts (Candidatus Carsonella ruddii and Candidatus Profftella armatura), besides the intracellular reproductive parasite Wolbachia. In this study, the density dynamics of the three endosymbionts associated with the psyllid D. citri was investigated by real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) at different developmental stages. Bacterial density was estimated by assessing the copy number of the 16S rRNA gene for Carsonella and Profftella, and of the ftsZ gene for Wolbachia. Analysis revealed a continuous growth of the symbionts during host development. Symbiont growth and rate curves were estimated by the Gompertz equation, which indicated a negative correlation between the degree of symbiont–host specialization and the time to achieve the maximum growth rate (t*). Carsonella densities were significantly lower than those of Profftella at all host developmental stages analyzed, even though they both displayed a similar trend. The growth rates of Wolbachia were similar to those of Carsonella, but Wolbachia was not as abundant. Adult males displayed higher symbiont densities than females. However, females showed a much more pronounced increase in symbiont density as they aged if compared to males, regardless of the incorporation of symbionts into female oocytes and egg laying. The increased density of endosymbionts in aged adults differs from the usual decrease observed during host aging in other insect–symbiont systems. © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media New York.

CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: As the overall number of elderly people increases there is a corresponding rise in the number of older persons with disabilities. In order to examine whether there is any relationship between balance and activities of daily living, we evaluated balance and daily activities among elderly people living in the community. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study at Universidade Estadual Paulista (Unesp), Marília, São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: The study included 70 community-dwelling elderly people aged 65 and over. Balance was evaluated using the Berg Balance Scale (BBS) and physical independence in daily activities was evaluated using the Barthel Index (BI). The Spearman correlation coefcient was used to examine the relationship between the parameters evaluated. Signifcance was set at the level of 5% (P < 0.05). RESULTS: The population's mean age was 70.5 ± 5 years. The mean BBS score was 50.9 ± 4.1, whereas the mean BI score was 98.1 ± 2.8. Statistically signifcant relationships were found between the BBS and BI (r = 0.41; P = 0.0004); between age and BI (r = -0.24; P = 0.04); and between age and BBS (r = -0.57; P = 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: The results showed that among elderly people, there are correlations between age, balance and independence level.

Gozzi G.,University of Sao Paulo | Mendonca Faria R.,University of Sao Paulo | Fugikawa Santos L.,Sao Paulo State University
Applied Physics Letters | Year: 2012

Frequency-dependent electroluminescence and electric current response spectroscopy were applied to polymeric light-emitting electrochemical cells in order to obtain information about the operation mechanism regimes of such devices. Three clearly distinct frequency regimes could be identified: a dielectric regime at high frequencies; an ionic transport regime, characterized by ionic drift and electronic diffusion; and an electrolytic regime, characterized by electronic injection from the electrodes and electrochemical doping of the conjugated polymer. From the analysis of the results, it was possible to evaluate parameters like the diffusion speed of electronic charge carriers in the active layer and the voltage drop necessary for operation. © 2012 American Institute of Physics.

Tanomaru-Filho M.,Sao Paulo State University
Acta odontológica latinoamericana : AOL | Year: 2013

The present study evaluated the radiopacity and flow of different endodontic sealers: AH Plus, Endo CPM, MTA Fillapex, Sealapex, Epiphany, and Epiphany SE. For the radiopacity test, six specimens measuring 10 mm in diameter and 1 mm in thickness were fabricated from each material. They were radiographed on an occlusal film alongside an aluminum step wedge. Radiographs were digitized to determine the radiopacity equivalence in millimeters of aluminum. To evaluate the flow, a 120 g load was placed on top of a glass slab containing 0.05 +/- 0.005 mll of sealer. The diameters of each material were measured (mm) with a caliper and samples were photographed. Digitized images were analyzed using the UTHSCSA Image Tool for Windows software, to determine the sealer area (mm2). Data were submitted to ANOVA and Tukey's test at 5% significance. AH Plus and Epiphany SE presented the greatest radiopacity (12.5 mm Al and 12.0 mm Al, respectively) (p > 0.05), followed by Epiphany (9.6 mm Al) and Fillapex (8.9 mm Al). Endo CPM (5.46 mm Al) and Sealapex (5.51 mm Al) presented lower radiopacity. MTA Fillapex presented significantly higher values of flow than other sealers (33.11 mm and 844.9 mm2). AH Plus, Epiphany, and Epiphany SE had similar values. Endo CPM (21.05 mm and 342.8 mm2) and Sealapex (19.98 mm and 352.5 mm2) presented the lowest flow values (p > 0.05). All sealers presented radiopacity and flow values according to ISO and ANSI/ADA recommendations.

Wunsche J.,Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal | Cicoira F.,Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal | Graeff C.F.O.,Sao Paulo State University | Santato C.,Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal
Journal of Materials Chemistry B | Year: 2013

Eumelanin pigments show hydration-dependent conductivity, broad-band UV-vis absorption, and chelation of metal ions. Solution-processing of synthetic eumelanins opens new possibilities for the characterization of eumelanin in thin film form and its integration into bioelectronic devices. We investigate the effect of different synthesis routes and processing solvents on the growth, the morphology, and the chemical composition of eumelanin thin films using atomic force microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. We further characterize the films by transient electrical current measurements obtained at 50% to 90% relative humidity, relevant for bioelectronic applications. We show that the use of dimethyl sulfoxide is preferable over ammonia solution as processing solvent, yielding homogeneous films with surface roughnesses below 0.5 nm and a chemical composition in agreement with the eumelanin molecular structure. These eumelanin films grow in a quasi layer-by-layer mode, each layer being composed of nanoaggregates, 1-2 nm high, 10-30 nm large. The transient electrical measurements using a planar two-electrode device suggest that there are two contributions to the current, electronic and ionic, the latter being increasingly dominant at higher hydration, and point to the importance of time-dependent electrical characterization of eumelanin films. This journal is © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Galhano G.A.,Sao Paulo State University
The Journal of craniofacial surgery | Year: 2012

Computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing images can be taken through either direct or indirect imaging. For the indirect systems, the digitalization is obtained from the impression material or cast, and for the direct ones the image is taken directly from the mouth using intraoral scanners.The direct acquisition systems have been constantly improved because these are less invasive, quicker, and more precise than the conventional method. Besides, the digital images can be easily stored for a long time. Therefore, the aim of this paper was to describe and discuss based on the literature the main direct image acquisition systems available on the market: CEREC Bluecam (Sirona), Lava C.O.S. System (3M ESPE), iTero System (Cadent/Straumann), and E4D System (D4D Technologies).

Pavan F.R.,Sao Paulo State University
Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis | Year: 2016

Background: Mycobacterium abscessus group has heterogeneous susceptibility pattern among species. The species is most common cause of nosocomial infections. Macrolides minimum Inhibitory concentration (MIC) determination is essential for the treatment. Methods: Thirty-six strains were randomly selected for performing Resazurin Microtiter Assay (REMA) for clarithromycin testing in comparison to MIC test according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (2011) recommendation. REMA has been used for detection of drug resistance in M. tuberculosis. Extended incubation was performed to detect induced resistance. Results: Thirty microliters of resazurin (0.01%) was added after visually taking MIC reading. Resistance was observed in 11.1% of M. bolletti and 4.8% of M. abscessus strains; and induced resistance was detected in 77.8% and 95.2% of M. bolletti and M. abscessus strains, respectively. All strains of M. massiliense were susceptible. The samples presented same MIC value both by visual reading and through resazurin. Conclusion: The present study showed 100% concordance between both readings, with REMA providing easier to read and report results benefit. This change in reading can also reflect on the MIC determination and report, improving the test. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Salgado H.R.N.,Sao Paulo State University
Therapeutic Drug Monitoring | Year: 2010

Tigecycline is a new glycylcycline with an expanded broad-spectrum antibiotic, including inhibition of Gram-positive, Gram-negative, atypical, anaerobic, and antibiotic-resistant organisms. Trials have demonstrated that tigecycline is noninferior to the comparators for the treatment of complicated skin and skin structure infections as well as complicated intra-abdominal infections. Tigecycline is only available as an intravenous preparation and analytical methods to its quantitation in pharmaceutical products has not been published to date. This review examined tigecycline characteristics, the spectrum and mechanism of action, pharmacokinetics, applications, and, mainly, the instrumental conditions of published chromatographic methods used to measure tigecycline, its metabolites, and some analogs in clinical and biologic research. Copyright © 2010 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Conceicao F.T.,Claro | Navarro G.R.B.,Claro | Silva A.M.,Sao Paulo State University
International Journal of Environmental Research | Year: 2013

The use of fertilizers NPK and amendments in sugar cane crops may change the heavy metals concentrations in soils, making them available for plants and, consequently, they can be transferred to the human food chain. This study describes the redistribution of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) in soils with sugar cane crops due to fertilizers NPK and amendments at Corumbataí River basin, São Paulo State. The heavy metals concentrations were determined in samples of fertilizers NPK (5:25:25) and amendments (limestones, KCl, and phosphogypsum) by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). Heavy metals incorporated in fertilizers NPK and amendments are annually added in the sugar cane crops, but if utilized in accordance with the recommended rates, they do not raise the concentration levels in soils up to hazards values. Those applications promote the decrease of heavy metals concentration in soils profiles with sugar cane crops due to their fractionation to water soluble and/or exchangeable fractions, and the results still indicate that the profiles do not possess hazard levels in relation to heavy metals concentration. In relation to metals concentration in a sediment core, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn values increased progressively from 1974 to 2000 due to anthropogenic activities, mainly sugar cane crops, indicating adverse biological effects to the aquatic environment and to organisms living in or having direct contact with sediments.

Stringuetta-Belik F.,Sao Paulo State University
Jornal brasileiro de nefrologia : 'orgão oficial de Sociedades Brasileira e Latino-Americana de Nefrologia | Year: 2012

Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have a lower exercise tolerance and poor functional capacity, carry on a sedentary lifestyle. Another important change found in patients with CKD is cognitive dysfunction. Physical inactivity has been associated with cognitive dysfunction in the general population, but few studies have evaluated this association in CKD. To assess the association between physical activity and cognitive function in patients with CKD on hemodialysis (HD). We evaluated 102 patients undergoing HD. The participants completed the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, which assesses the level of physical activity and the Mini Mental State Examination, used for cognitive screening. Patients were divided into three groups according to their level of physical activity (GI: active/GII: irregularly active/GIII: sedentary). It was applied logistic regression analysis and adopted as outcome variable the presence of cognitive impairment and preserving as independent variables those with a probability of statistical difference between groups of less than 0.1. It was considered statistically significant when p less than 0.05. The groups were similar in age, duration of HD, and smoking. Statistically significant difference regarding race, body mass index, diabetes mellitus, underlying disease and degree of cognitive impairment. Regarding laboratory data, the groups differed in terms of creatinine, glucose, hemoglobin and hematocrit. There was significant association with better physical activity and cognitive function, even adjusting for confounding variables. the highest level of physical activity was associated with better cognitive function in CKD patients undergoing HD.

Guido R.C.,Sao Paulo State University
Knowledge-Based Systems | Year: 2016

This paper covers a particular area of interest in pattern recognition and knowledge-based systems (PRKbS), being intended for both young researchers and academic professionals who are looking for a polished and refined material. Its aim, playing the role of a tutorial that introduces three feature extraction (FE) approaches based on zero-crossing rates (ZCRs), is to offer cutting-edge algorithms in which clarity and creativity are predominant. The theory, smoothly shown and accompanied by numerical examples, innovatively characterises ZCRs as being neurocomputing agents. Source-codes in C/C++ programming language and interesting applications on speech segmentation, image border extraction and biomedical signal analysis complement the text. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Chagas C.E.A.,Sao Paulo State University | Rogero M.M.,University of Sao Paulo | Martini L.A.,University of Sao Paulo
Nutrition Reviews | Year: 2012

Milk and dairy products are widely recommended as part of a healthy diet. These products, however, can contain hormones such as insulin-like growth factor 1, and some studies have suggested that a high intake of milk and dairy products may increase the risk of cancer. This review examines recent studies on this topic, with the evidence suggesting that the recommended intake of milk and dairy products (3 servings/day) is safe and, importantly, does not seem to increase the risk of cancer. On the basis of the studies included in this review, cultured milk, yogurt, and low-fat dairy products should be preferred as the milk and dairy products of choice. © 2012 International Life Sciences Institute.

Baptista R.D.,Sao Paulo State University
International Food and Agribusiness Management Review | Year: 2012

Adoption of new technologies throughout the agribusiness chain is necessary to meet the higher food and fuel needs of a growing and wealthier population. However, modern technologies require the development of new skills and changes in working patterns and relationships at all levels of the organization. Companies that invest in technology without investing in human capital development will not reach their full potential. © 2012 International Food and Agribusiness Management Association (IFAMA).

de Araujo A.S.F.,Federal University of Piaui | de Melo W.J.,Sao Paulo State University | Singh R.P.,Universiti Sains Malaysia
Reviews in Environmental Science and Biotechnology | Year: 2010

Agricultural application of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW), as nutrient source for plants and as soil conditioner, is the most cost-effective option of MSW management because of its advantages over traditional means such as landfilling or incineration. However, agricultural application of MSW can lead to a potential environmental threat due to the presence of pathogens and toxic pollutants. Composting is an attractive alternative of MSW recycling. Application of MSW compost (MSWC) in agricultural soils can directly alter soil physico-chemical properties as well as promote plant growth. The soil microbial biomass, considered as the living part of soil organic matter, is very closely related to the soil organic matter content in many arable agricultural soils. Numerous studies, with different MSWC amendment doses on different soil types and under different water regimes revealed no detrimental effect on soil microbial biomass. In this review, we show the state of art about the effects of MSWC amendment on soil microbial biomass. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009.

Sartori R.,University of Sao Paulo | Bastos M.R.,Sao Paulo State University | Wiltbank M.C.,University of Wisconsin - Madison
Reproduction, Fertility and Development | Year: 2010

Data on fertilisation and embryo quality in dairy cattle are presented and the main factors responsible for the low fertility of single-ovulating lactating cows and embryo yield in superovulated dairy cattle are highlighted. During the past 50 years, the fertility in high-producing lactating dairy cattle has decreased as milk production increased. Recent data show conception rates to first service to be approximately 32% in lactating cows, whereas in heifers it has remained above 50%. Fertilisation does not seem to be the principal factor responsible for the low fertility in single-ovulating cows, because it has remained above 80%. Conversely, early embryonic development is impaired in high-producing dairy cows, as observed by most embryonic losses occurring during the first week after fertilisation. However, in superovulated dairy cattle, although fertilisation failure is more pronounced, averaging approximately 45%, the percentage of fertilised embryos viable at 1 week is quite high (70%). Among the multifactorial causes of low fertility in lactating dairy cows, high feed intake associated with low concentrations of circulating steroids may contribute substantially to reduced embryo quality. Fertilisation failure in superovulated cattle may be a consequence of inappropriate gamete transport due to hormonal imbalances. © 2010 IETS.

Varani A.M.,University of Sao Paulo | Varani A.M.,Sao Paulo State University | Monteiro-Vitorello C.B.,University of Sao Paulo | Nakaya H.I.,Emory University | Van Sluys M.-A.,University of Sao Paulo
Annual Review of Phytopathology | Year: 2013

A diverse set of phage lineages is associated with the bacterial plant-pathogen genomes sequenced to date. Analysis of 37 genomes revealed 5,169 potential genes (approximately 4.3 Mbp) of phage origin, and at least 50 had no function assigned or are nonessential to phage biology. Some phytopathogens have transcriptionally active prophage genes under conditions that mimic plant infection, suggesting an association between plant disease and prophage transcriptional modulation. The role of prophages within genomes for cell biology varies. For pathogens such as Pectobacterium, Pseudomonas, Ralstonia, and Streptomyces, involvement of prophage in disease symptoms has been demonstrated. In Xylella and Xanthomonas, prophage activity is associated with genome rearrangements and strain differentiation. For other pathogens, prophage roles are yet to be established. This review integrates available information in a unique interface (http://propnav.esalq.usp.br) that may be assessed to improve research in prophage biology and its association with genome evolution and pathogenicity. © Copyright ©2013 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.

Kartashov Y.V.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia | Kartashov Y.V.,Russian Academy of Sciences | Konotop V.V.,University of Lisbon | Abdullaev F.K.,Sao Paulo State University
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2013

We report a diversity of stable gap solitons in a spin-orbit-coupled Bose-Einstein condensate subject to a spatially periodic Zeeman field. It is shown that the solitons can be classified by the main physical symmetries they obey, i.e., symmetries with respect to parity (P), time (T), and internal degree of freedom, i.e., spin (C), inversions. The conventional gap and gap-stripe solitons are obtained in lattices with different parameters. It is shown that solitons of the same type but obeying different symmetries can exist in the same lattice at different spatial locations. PT and CPT symmetric solitons have antiferromagnetic structure and are characterized, respectively, by nonzero and zero total magnetizations. © 2013 American Physical Society.

A recent report on the detection in a Crohn's disease (CD) patient of an adherent and invasive Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC) (Gut pathogens 2015, 7:2) prompted a commentary expressing some skepticism on the significance of the paper findings (Gut pathogens 2015, 7:15). Besides focusing on recurrent issues concerning the difficulties in defining a pathogen, the opinion considers recent data demonstrating the presence of virulence factors in a commercial probiotic. In response to the commentary's observations, additional information on the described STEC strain, as well as a short discussion on CD associated E. coli are presented here. © 2015 Rodrigues.

Godoy R.B.,Federal University of Mato Grosso do Sul | Pinto J.O.P.,Federal University of Mato Grosso do Sul | Canesin C.A.,Sao Paulo State University | Coelho E.A.A.,Federal University of Uberlandia | Pinto A.M.A.C.,Federal University of Mato Grosso do Sul
IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics | Year: 2012

In this paper, the use of differential evolution (DE), a global search technique inspired by evolutionary theory, to find the parameters that are required to achieve optimum dynamic response of parallel operation of inverters with no interconnection among the controllers is proposed. Basically, in order to reach such a goal, the system is modeled in a certain way that the slopes of P- ω and Q-V curves are the parameters to be tuned. Such parameters, when properly tuned, result in system's eigenvalues located in positions that assure the system's stability and oscillation-free dynamic response with minimum settling time. This paper describes the modeling approach and provides an overview of the motivation for the optimization and a description of the DE technique. Simulation and experimental results are also presented, and they show the viability of the proposed method. © 2012 IEEE.

Cardona C.,Sao Paulo State University
Nuclear Physics B | Year: 2015

We propose a state from the two-dimensional conformal field theory on the orbifold (T4)N/S(N) as a dual description for a pulsating string moving in AdS3. We show that, up to first order in the deforming parameter, the energy in both descriptions has the same dependence on the mode number, but with a non-trivial function of the coupling. © 2015 The Author.

Considering the climatic aptitude the fruit plants are classified in: tropical, subtropical and temperate. This traditional classification was very effective during a long period of time. Based on more update knowledge of the origin centers of the different species, the technological advances in the fruit crops and, in the fruit conservation and specially the genetic breeding created exceptional for the cropping of tropical species and temperate in subtropical climate. In this research were select the atemoya, persimmon, fig tree and guava crop based not only in the national and regional importance but also in the different contributions that the scientific research offered to the fruit plants. Atemoya - within the fruit species exploited in a large scale may be the more recent introduction in cropping in Brazil, initiated in the 1980 decade. Several techniques of cropping were developed such as root stocks more adequate for each region, pruning, artificial pollination, pest management and disease control and several others technologies that permitted a fast expansion of the fruit crops in several country regions. Although the remarkable contribution of the Universities, Research Institutes and Extension Agencies, was fundamental the pioneer contribution of the producers to solve the problems of the crops indicating the necessity for more research in this crop fruit. Persimmon - the Brazilian production of persimmon (IBGE - 2009) was 171,555 tons was obtained in a area of 8,770 ha and represented a value of 146,67 real millions. The major production states in Brazil were São Paulo (111,646 tons) Rio Grande do Sul, Paraná and Rio de Janeiro. The main cultivars in production are: 'Rama Forte', 'Giombo' and 'Fuyu' which are found in the internal market. Fig tree - the Brazilian production of fig at 2009 according to IBGE - IBRAF were 24,146 tons being the major production states in Brazil the Rio Grande do Sul and São Paulo. At São Paulo the fig production is concentrate in the Campinas region, being a production of 9,469 tons in 2010 (IEA). The harvested fruit due to developed technology is export as fresh fruits (1,645 tons at 2008). Source: DECEX (MCT) IBRAF - 2010. Guava crop - the guava crop in Brazil is adapted to a subtropical climate. This crop in Brazil had a great expansion due to the development of cultivars adapted to the climate and special techniques of cultivation. According to IBGE - IBRAF at 2009 Brazil produced 297,377 tons in a area of 15,048 ha. The major productions areas are located at Pernambuco, São Paulo, Brasilia, Rio de Janeiro and Bahia. In São Paulo states were produced more guava for fresh consumption due to the high quality of fruit harvested (50,000 tons).

Knoll F.R.N.,Sao Paulo State University
Neotropical Entomology | Year: 2016

This study provides information on the number of orchid bees based on a long-term monitoring study in an antropized savanna region in Southeastern Brazil. Sampling was carried out using chemical lures, and 77 samples were monthly collected to assess the number of individuals as well as the annual and seasonal species fluctuation. The number of species varied significantly among years but not among months, and there was a positive correlation between the number of species and the number of individuals in each sample. Monthly number counts revealed a seasonal pattern for Eulaema nigrita Lepeletier and Exaerete smaragdina Perty, which were more numerous during humid months but peaked in December, January, and February. Different species of Euglossa presented a significant variation in number among years, but not among months, with no pattern along the years. The community and the populations studied were less stable when compared to those of well-preserved habitats of equatorial forests. The El Niño phenomenon of 1997/98 did not result in negative effects in the populations studied; on the contrary, there was a peak in the number of E. nigrita. The amplitude in the yearly variation of the male orchid bee population reflects the evolutionary history of species living in unpredictable seasonal weather that led to the development of particular adaptive traits designed to deal with environmental uncertainties. This study suggests that the plasticity of the life cycle may explain population stability and provide greater resilience to severe climate change events in the future. © 2015, Sociedade Entomológica do Brasil.

Haidenbauer J.,Julich Research Center | Krein G.,Sao Paulo State University
Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics | Year: 2010

Predictions for the charm-production reaction over(p, ̄) p → over(Λ, ̄)c - Λc + for energies near the threshold are presented. The calculations are performed in a meson-exchange framework in close analogy to our earlier study on over(p, ̄) p → over(Λ, ̄) Λ by connecting the two processes via SU (4) symmetry. The obtained over(Λ, ̄)c - Λc + production cross sections are in the order of 1 to 7 μb, i.e. a factor of around 10-70 smaller than the corresponding cross sections for over(Λ, ̄) Λ. However, they are 100 to 1000 times larger than predictions of other model calculations in the literature. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a hereditary hemolytic anemia caused by the inheritance of one S hemoglobin gene from each ancestor. Patients with SCD present increased circulating levels of cytokines, including TNF-alpha (TNF-α). Hydroxyurea (HU) is the available therapeutically strategy for treatment; it acts as a source of nitric oxide and benefits patients by increasing the levels of fetal hemoglobin (HbF). Thus, within one research line that aims at finding new drugs, a series of compounds with TNF-α inhibition and nitric oxide donation properties have been synthesized in order to explore possible synergism of actions beneficial in the treatment of the disease. Six compounds were synthesized: five derivatives of organic nitrates and one of sulfonamide. The compounds, (1,3-dioxo-1,3-dihydro-2Hisoindol-2-yl) methyl nitrate (compound I); (1,3-dioxo-1,3-dihydro-2H-isoindol-2-yl) ethyl nitrate (compound II); 3-(1,3-dioxo-1,3-dihydro-2H-isoindol-2-yl) benzyl nitrate (compound III);4-(1,3-dioxo-1,3-dihydro-2H-isoindol-2-yl)-N-hydroxybenzenesulfonamide (compound IV); 4-(1,3-dioxo-1,3-dihydro-2H-isoindol-2-yl) benzyl nitrate (compound V) and 2-[4-(1,3-dioxo-1,3-dihydro-2H-isoindol-2-yl) phenyl]ethyl nitrate (compound VI), were synthesized using linear synthetic methodology, with excellent overall yields. All compounds showed anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects with a reduction in 43%-65% of ear edema in mice and a reduction of 25%-42% of writhing induced by acetic acid. All compounds showed comparable reductions in the leukocyte infiltration capacity and ability to generate nitric oxide. The aryl compounds (III, IV and V) presented less mutagenic activity compared to compounds I, II and VI according to the salmonella mutagenicity assay (Ames test). Compounds IV and VI showed activity in K562 culture cells, with increases in gamma globin gene expression to levels higher than with hydroxyurea suggesting a potential to increase fetal hemoglobin. This data set characterizes new potentially useful drug candidates for the treatment of symptoms of sickle cell anemia.

Gomez H.,Sao Paulo State University | Mafra C.R.,Max Planck Institute For Gravitationsphysik
Journal of High Energy Physics | Year: 2010

Using the results recently obtained for computing integrals over (non-minimal) pure spinor superspace, we compute the coefficient of the massless two-loop four-point amplitude from first principles. Contrasting with the mathematical difficulties in the RNS formalism where unknown normalizations of chiral determinant formulæ force the two-loop coefficient to be determined only indirectly through factorization, the computation in the pure spinor formalism can be smoothly carried out. © SISSA 2010.

Assuncao W.G.,Sao Paulo State University
The International journal of oral & maxillofacial implants | Year: 2011

Three-dimensional finite element analysis was used to evaluate the effect of vertical and angular misfit in three-piece implant-supported screw-retained fixed prostheses on the biomechanical response in the peri-implant bone, implants, and prosthetic components. Four three-dimensional models were fabricated to represent a right posterior mandibular section with one implant in the region of the second premolar (2PM) and another in the region of the second molar (2M). The implants were splinted by a three-piece implant-supported metal-ceramic prosthesis and differed according to the type of misfit, as represented by four different models: Control = prosthesis with complete fit to the implants; UAM (unilateral angular misfit) = prosthesis presenting unilateral angular misfit of 100 μm in the mesial region of the 2M; UVM (unilateral vertical misfit) = prosthesis presenting unilateral vertical misfit of 100 μm in the mesial region of the 2M; and TVM (total vertical misfit) = prosthesis presenting total vertical misfit of 100 μm in the platform of the framework in the 2M. A vertical load of 400 N was distributed and applied on 12 centric points by the software Ansys, ie, a vertical load of 150 N was applied to each molar in the prosthesis and a vertical load of 100 N was applied at the 2PM. The stress values and distribution in peri-implant bone tissue were similar for all groups. The models with misfit exhibited different distribution patterns and increased stress magnitude in comparison to the control. The highest stress values in group UAM were observed in the implant body and retention screw. The groups UVM and TVM exhibited high stress values in the platform of the framework and the implant hexagon, respectively. The three types of misfit influenced the magnitude and distribution of stresses. The influence of misfit on peri-implant bone tissue was modest. Each type of misfit increased the stress values in different regions of the system.

Araujo N.C.,University of Pernambuco | Fontana C.R.,Sao Paulo State University | Bagnato V.S.,University of Sao Paulo | Gerbi M.E.M.,University of Pernambuco
Lasers in Medical Science | Year: 2014

Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a technique that involves the activation of photosensitizers by light in the presence of oxygen, resulting in the production of reactive radicals that are capable of inducing cell death. The present study evaluated the susceptibility of Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus to PDT grown as multi-species in the biofilm phase versus in dentine carious lesions. A brain-heart infusion culture medium supplemented with 1 % glucose, 2 % sucrose, and 1 % young primary culture of L. acidophilus 10 8 CFU/mL and S. mutans 108 CFU/mL was used to develop multi-species biofilms and to induce caries on human dentine slabs. Five different concentrations of curcumin (0.75, 1.5, 3.0, 4.0, and 5.0 g/L) were used associated with 5.7 J/cm2 light emission diode. Four different groups were analyzed L-D- (control group), L-D+ (drug group), L+D- (light group), and L+D+ (PDT group). ANOVA/Tukey's tests were conducted to compare groups. A significant reduction (p <0.05) in cell viability was observed in the biofilm phase following photosensitization with all curcumin concentrations tested. To achieve significant bacterial reduction (p <0.05) in carious dentine, it was necessary to utilize 5.0 g/L of curcumin in association with blue light. No significant reduction was found for L-D+, supporting the absence of the drug's dark toxicity. S. mutans and L. acidophilus were susceptible to curcumin in the presence of blue light. However, due to light penetration and drug diffusion difficulties, these microorganisms within dentine carious lesions were less affected than they were in the biofilm phase. © 2013 Springer-Verlag.

Chalco-Cano Y.,University of Tarapaca | Silva G.N.,Sao Paulo State University | Rufian-Lizana A.,University of Seville
Fuzzy Sets and Systems | Year: 2015

In this article we consider optimization problems where the objectives are fuzzy functions (fuzzy-valued functions). For this class of fuzzy optimization problems we discuss the Newton method to find a non-dominated solution. For this purpose, we use the generalized Hukuhara differentiability notion, which is the most general concept of existing differentiability for fuzzy functions. This work improves and corrects the Newton method previously proposed in the literature. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Padovani J.L.,Sao Paulo State University
Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical | Year: 2013

Despite hepatocytes being the target cells of hepatitis C virus (HCV), viral ribonucleic acid RNA has been detected in other cells, including platelets, which have been described as carriers of the virus in the circulation of infected patients. Platelets do not express cluster differentiation 81 CD81, the main receptor for the virus in hepatocytes, although this receptor protein has been found in megakaryocytes. Still, it is not clear if HCV interacts with platelets directly or if this interaction is a consequence of its association with megakaryocytes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the interaction of HCV with platelets from non-infected individuals, after in vitro exposure to the virus. Platelets obtained from 50 blood donors not infected by HCV were incubated in vitro at 37°C for 48h with serum containing 100,000IU/mL of genotype 1 HCV. After incubation, RNA extracted from the platelets was assayed for the presence of HCV by reverse transcription - polymerase chain reaction RT-PCR. After incubation in the presence of virus, all samples of platelets showed HCV RNA. The results demonstrate that, in vitro, the virus interacts with platelets despite the absence of the receptor CD81, suggesting that other molecules could be involved in this association.

De Oliveira O.J.,Sao Paulo State University
Journal of Cleaner Production | Year: 2013

Organizations often operate in turbulent environments characterized by intense competitiveness, constant technological progress, new market requirements, and scarce natural resources. This scenario imposes the constant need for change in the operation and companies' management. The integration of certifiable management systems is an effective alternative in this sense. The objective of the present study is to propose guidelines for the integration of the ISO 9001 Quality Management System (QMS), ISO 14001 Environmental Management System (EMS) and OHSAS 18001 Occupational Health and Safety Management System (OHSMS) in industrial companies. These guidelines were developed based on a theoretical framework and on the results from fourteen case studies performed in Brazilian industrial companies. The proposed guidelines were divided into three phases: A) integration planning, b) integration development, and c) integration control and improvement.

Denadai R.,Sao Paulo State University
Journal of Craniofacial Surgery | Year: 2014

OBJECTIVE: To assess if the bench model fidelity interferes in the acquisition of rhomboid flap skills by medical students.METHODS: Sixty novice medical students were randomly assigned to 5 practice conditions with instructor-directed Limberg rhomboid flap skills training: didactic materials (control group 1), low-fidelity rubberized line (group 2) or ethylene-vinyl acetate (group 3) bench models; high-fidelity chicken leg skin (group 4) or pig foot skin (group 5) bench models. Pretests and posttests were applied, and Global Rating Scale, effect size, and self-perceived confidence were used to evaluate all flap performances.RESULTS: Medical students from groups 2 to 5 showed better flap performances based on the Global Rating Scale (all P < 0.05) and felt more confident to perform rhomboid flaps (all P < 0.05) compared to their peers from control group 1, regardless of bench model fidelity (all P > 0.05). The magnitude of the effect was considered large (>0.80) in all measurements.CONCLUSION: There was acquisition of rhomboid flap skills regardless of bench model fidelity. © 2014 by Mutaz B. Habal, MD.

Mohammed A.,University of Cape Town | Murugan J.,University of Cape Town | Nastase H.,Sao Paulo State University
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2012

We present an embedding of the three-dimensional relativistic Landau-Ginzburg model for condensed matter systems in an N=6, U(N)×U(N) Chern-Simons-matter theory [the Aharony-Bergman-Jafferis-Maldacena model] by consistently truncating the latter to an Abelian effective field theory encoding the collective dynamics of O(N) of the O(N2) modes. In fact, depending on the vacuum expectation value on one of the Aharony-Bergman-Jafferis-Maldacena scalars, a mass deformation parameter μ and the Chern-Simons level number k, our Abelianization prescription allows us to interpolate between the Abelian Higgs model with its usual multivortex solutions and a φ4 theory. We sketch a simple condensed matter model that reproduces all the salient features of the Abelianization. In this context, the Abelianization can be interpreted as giving a dimensional reduction from four dimensions. © 2012 American Physical Society.

Five new feather mite species of the genus Trouessartia Canestrini are described from South American birds: Trouessartia latiducta sp. nov. from Phylloscartes kronei (Tyrannidae), T. basileuteri sp. nov. from Basileuterus culicivorus (Parulidae), T. sicaliae sp. nov. from Sicalis flaveola (Emberizidae), T. savanae sp. nov. from Tyrannus savana (Tyrannidae), and T. picumni from Picumnus fulvescens (Picidae). The latter species is the first representative of the genus described from a bird of the order Piciformes. Copyright © 2014 Magnolia Press.

Priante A.V.M.,University of Taubate | Castilho E.C.,Sao Paulo State University | Kowalski L.P.,Hospital A C Camargo
Current Oncology Reports | Year: 2011

This is a review on second primary tumors in patients with head and neck cancer. These patients have a high risk of developing other cancers simultaneously or subsequently. The incidence of multiple primary tumors in this population can be as high as 27%. Recurrences are the most common cause of treatment failure within the first 2 years of follow-up. After the third year the diagnosis of a second primary tumor becomes the most important cause of morbimortality in head and neck cancer patients, especially in those treated for cancers early diagnosed. Most second primary tumors occur in the upper aerodigestive tract (40%-59%), lung (31%-37.5%), and esophagus (9%-44%). Patients who develop second primary tumor have a significant reduction of survival expectancy. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011.

Ghosh S.,Sao Paulo State University
International Journal of Modern Physics E | Year: 2015

The thermal conductivity of pionic medium has been evaluated with the help of its standard expression from the relaxation time approximation, where inverse of pion relaxation time or pion thermal width has been obtained from the imaginary part of pion self-energy. In the real-time formalism of thermal field theory, the finite temperature calculations of pion self-energy for πσ and πρ loops have been done. The numerical value of our thermal conductivity increases with temperature very softly, though at particular temperature, our estimation has to consider a large band of phenomenological uncertainty. © 2015 World Scientific Publishing Company.

Silva V.C.,Sao Paulo State University
Zootaxa | Year: 2016

An updated Catalogue of the Lauxaniidae of Colombia is presented. This acalyptratae family is poorly known in Colombia, with only 36 described species in 33 genera. This paper expands the distribution of 24 species to Colombia. At total, 63 species are reported here for Colombia. Copyright © 2016 Magnolia Press.

Soares J.R.,Instituto Agronomico IAC | Cantarella H.,Instituto Agronomico IAC | Menegale M.L.D.C.,Instituto Agronomico IAC | Menegale M.L.D.C.,Sao Paulo State University
Soil Biology and Biochemistry | Year: 2012

Urease inhibitor (UI) and nitrification inhibitor (NI) have the potential to improve N-use efficiency of applied urea and minimize N losses via gaseous emissions of ammonia (NH 3) to the atmosphere and nitrate (NO3-) leaching into surface and ground water bodies. There is a growing interest in the formulations of coating chemical fertilizers with both UI and NI. However, limited information is available on the combined use of UI and NI applied with urea fertilizer. Therefore the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of treating urea with both UI and NI to minimize NH 3 volatilization. Two experiments were set up in volatilization chambers under controlled conditions to examine this process. In the first experiment, UR was treated with the urease inhibitor NBPT [N-(n-butyl) thiophosphoric acid triamide] at a rate of 1060 mg kg -1 urea and/or with the nitrification inhibitor DCD (dicyandiamide) at rates equivalent to 5 or 10% of the urea N. A randomized experimental design with five treatments and five replicates was used: 1) UR, 2) UR + NBPT, 3) UR + DCD 10%, 4) UR + NBPT + DCD 5%, and 5) UR + NBPT + DCD 10%. The fertilizer treatments were applied to the surface of an acidic Red Latosol soil moistened to 60% of the maximum water retention and placed inside volatilization chambers. Controls chambers were added to allow for NH 3 volatilized from unfertilized soil or contained in the air that swept over the soil surface. The second experiment had an additional treatment with surface-applied DCD. The chambers were glass vessels (1.5 L) fit with air inlet and outlet tubings to allow air to pass over the soil. Ammonia volatilized was swept and carried to a flask containing a boric acid solution to trap the gas and then measured daily by titration with a standardized H 2SO 4 solution. Continuous measurements were recorded for 19 and 23 days for the first and second experiment, respectively. The soil samples were then analyzed for UR-, NH4+-, and NO3--N. Losses of NH 3 by volatilization with unamended UR ranged from 28 to 37% of the applied N, with peak of losses observed the third day after fertilization. NBPT delayed the peak of NH 3 losses due to urease inhibition and reduced NH 3 volatilization between 54 and 78% when compared with untreated UR. Up to 10 days after the fertilizer application, NH 3 losses had not been affected by DCD in the UR or the UR + NBPT treatments; thereafter, NH 3 volatilization tended to decrease, but not when DCD was present. As a consequence, the addition of DCD caused a 5-16% increase in NH 3 volatilization losses of the fertilizer N applied as UR from both the UR and the UR + NBPT treatments. Because the effectiveness of NBPT to inhibit soil urease activity was strong only in the first week, it could be concluded that DCD did not affect the action of NBPT but rather, enhanced volatilization losses by maintaining higher soil NH4+ concentration and pH for a longer time. Depending on the combination of factors influencing NH 3 volatilization, DCD could even offset the beneficial effect of NBPT in reducing NH 3 volatilization losses. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Prior study shows that maternal protein-restricted (LP) 16-wk-old offspring have pronounced reduction of nephron number and arterial hypertension associated with unchanged glomerular filtration rate, besides enhanced glomerular area, which may be related to glomerular hyperfiltration/overflow and which accounts for the glomerular filtration barrier breakdown and early glomerulosclerosis. In the current study, LP rats showed heavy proteinuria associated with podocyte simplification and foot process effacement. TGF-β1 glomerular expression was significantly enhanced in LP. Isolated LP glomeruli show a reduced level of miR-200a, miR-141, miR-429 and ZEB2 mRNA and upregulated collagen 1α1/2 mRNA expression. By western blot analyzes of whole kidney tissue, we found significant reduction of both podocin and nephrin and enhanced expression of mesenchymal protein markers such as desmin, collagen type I and fibronectin. From our present knowledge, these are the first data showing renal miRNA modulation in the protein restriction model of fetal programming. The fetal-programmed adult offspring showed pronounced structural glomerular disorders with an accentuated and advanced stage of fibrosis, which led us to state that the glomerular miR-200 family would be downregulated by TGF-β1 action inducing ZEB 2 expression that may subsequently cause glomeruli epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition.

Brandini D.A.,Sao Paulo State University
Quintessence international (Berlin, Germany : 1985) | Year: 2012

To verify a potential association between the presence of noncarious cervical lesions, parafunctional habits, and temporomandibular disorder (TMD) diagnosis. Sample-size calculation provided a value of 130 participants with a confidence level of 95% and an error margin of 5%. A population of 132 volunteers (30 men: mean age, 23.7 ± 3.05 years; 102 women: mean age, 24.9 ± 5.86 years) underwent an oral examination and was interviewed by a trained dentist. The following parameters were registered: personal details, TMD diagnosis, parafunctional habits, and noncarious cervical lesion presence. The population was then divided into a noncarious cervical lesion group and a control group and subjected to the t test, chi-square test, Fisher exact test, and Spearman correlation (α = .05). Noncarious cervical lesions were present in 39% of the population, with the largest concentrations found in the maxillary premolars (32%). The data showed a significant association between noncarious cervical lesion presence, tooth clenching (P = .03), and nail biting (P = .02), as well as a relation with TMD diagnosis (Fonseca Index [P = .01] and Research Diagnostic Criteria for TMD (RDC/TMD) [P = .004] ). In the noncarious cervical lesion group, direct rank correlation was found between maxillary premolars and clenching (P = .03), mandibular canines and nail biting (P = .05), and mandibular incisors and parafunctional habits without dental contacts (P = .02). Parafunctional habits and TMD presence should be taken into account in the diagnosis and treatment plan of noncarious cervical lesions.

Bini L.M.,Federal University of Goais | Landeiro V.L.,Federal University of Mato Grosso | Padial A.,Federal University of Parana | Siqueira T.,Sao Paulo State University | Heino J.,Finnish Environment Institute
Ecology | Year: 2014

Beta diversity, the spatial or temporal variability of species composition, is a key concept in community ecology. However, our ability to predict the relative importance of the main drivers of beta diversity (e.g., environmental heterogeneity, dispersal limitation, and environmental productivity) remains limited. Using a comprehensive data set on stream invertebrate assemblages across the continental United States, we found a hump-shaped relationship between beta diversity and within-ecoregion nutrient concentrations. Withinecoregion compositional dissimilarity matrices were mainly related to environmental distances in most of the 30 ecoregions analyzed, suggesting a stronger role for species-sorting than for spatial processes. The strength of these relationships varied considerably among ecoregions, but they were unrelated to within-ecoregion environmental heterogeneity or spatial extent. Instead, we detected a negative correlation between the strength of species sorting and nutrient concentrations. We suggest that eutrophication is a major mechanism disassembling invertebrate assemblages in streams at a continental scale. © 2014 by the Ecological Society of America.

Araujo M.S.,Sao Paulo State University | Costa-Pereira R.,Federal University of Mato Grosso do Sul
Biology Letters | Year: 2013

The increase in the number of species with decreasing latitude is a striking pattern of global biodiversity. An important feature of studies of this pattern up to now has been the focus on species as the fundamental unit of interest, neglecting potential within-species ecological diversity. Here, we took a new perspective on this topic by measuring the degree to which individuals within populations differ in niche attributes across a latitudinal gradient (range: 54.01° S to 69.12° N). We show that 156 populations of 76 species across a wide range of vertebrate and invertebrate animal taxa contain more ecologically diverse assemblages of individuals towards lower latitudes. Our results add a new level of complexity to our understanding of global patterns of biodiversity and suggest the possibility that niche variation is partly responsible for the latitudinal gradients of species diversity. © 2013 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

Donatelli R.J.,Sao Paulo State University
Acta Zoologica | Year: 2012

The Meiglyptini comprise eight species of woodpeckers grouped into three genera, two of which contain three species ( Meiglyptes and Mulleripicus), while one genus includes two species ( Hemicircus). The purpose of this study is to describe the mandibular apparatus found in six species of Meiglyptini and to compare them with each other and with other woodpecker species. The results reveal a number of structures that are worth mentioning: (i) the components of the external mandibular adductor system of Hemicircus concretus, particularly the M. adductor mandibulae externus caudalis medialis, are underdeveloped compared with the other investigated species; (ii) the muscles of the internal mandibular system are structurally different among Meiglyptes species and are less developed, both in size and in structure, in H. concretus; (iii) the M protractor quadrati is vestigial in Meiglyptes species; (iv) the muscles of the protractor system of the quadrate are relatively undeveloped in H. concretus; (v) most of the muscles of the pterygoideus system are structurally differentiated in Meiglyptes species. It appears that the complexity of the mandibular apparatus is associated with the type of food consumed, as the apparatus of the frugivorous species H. concretus is markedly different from that of the insectivorous species. © 2012 The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.

Approximately 50 years ago, Nile tilapia were accidentally introduced to Brazil, and the decline of pearl cichlid populations, which has been intensified by habitat degradation, in some locations has been associated with the presence of Nile tilapia. There is, however, little strong empirical evidence for the negative interaction of non-native fish populations with native fish populations; such evidence would indicate a potential behavioural mechanism that could cause the population of the native fish to decline. In this study, we show that in fights staged between pairs of Nile tilapia and pearl cichlids of differing body size, the Nile tilapia were more aggressive than the pearl cichlid. Because this effect prevailed over body-size effects, the pearl cichlids were at a disadvantage. The niche overlap between the Nile tilapia and the pearl cichlid in nature, and the competitive advantage shown by the Nile tilapia in this study potentially represent one of several possible results of the negative interactions imposed by an invasive species. These negative effects may reduce population viability of the native species and cause competitive exclusion.

Guido R.C.,Sao Paulo State University
IEEE Signal Processing Magazine | Year: 2015

The discrete wavelet transform (DWT) [1] is one of the most powerful tools for time-frequency signal analysis. Its applicability is extremely relevant in various areas of science, as exemplified in [2], with digital signal processing (DSP) as the most notable one. After teaching this topic for many years, I have noted that neither young DSP students nor experienced researchers have perceived several interesting aspects of the DWT from a practical point of view. Thus, the objective of this article is to construe such relevant aspects, providing useful tips to calculate the transform in one (1-D) and two (2-D) dimensions. The entire discussion is also valid to the discrete wavelet-packet transform (DWPT), which extends the decomposition carried out by the DWT so that a finer time-frequency analysis takes place, and also to the discrete shapelet transform (DST) [3], which extends the properties of the DWT and DWPT so that a joint time-frequency-shape signal analysis becomes possible. © 1991-2012 IEEE.

Kim S.-M.,Sao Paulo State University
IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics | Year: 2014

This paper is concerned with a modeling method that can be used for an experimental identification of a dynamic system. More specifically, an equivalent lumped element system is presented to represent in a unique and exact manner a complete proportional-derivative (PD) controlled servo positioning system having a flexible manipulator. The impedance and mobility approach is used to transform the P and D control gains to an electrical spring and an electrical damper, respectively. The impedance model method is used to transform the flexible manipulator to a coupled system between a single contact mass at the driving position and a series of noncontact masses each of which is connected to the contact mass via a resilient member. This method is applicable whenever the driving point response of such a manipulator is available. Experimental work is presented to support the theory developed. © 2014 IEEE.

Introduction: Injuries caused by sea urchins are the most common caused by marine animals in humans in Brazil, with the black sea urchin (Echinometra lucunter) causing the most injuries to bathers. Methods: This study observed 314 human wounds with emphasis on the early observation of clinical signs and symptoms and their implications on the recommended treatment. Results: All the injuries were caused by black sea urchins and were observed in bathers. The lesions and the pain were associated with penetration of the spines; there was no early inflammation or pain without pressure on the wounded places. Complications arising from this kind on injury, including infections and foreign body granulomas, are associated with the permanence of the spines in the wounds. Conclusions: The study confirmed that this kind of injury is the most common accident caused by aquatic animals in Brazil. The main therapeutical recommendation is early removal of the spines to prevent late complications, such as infections and the formation of foreign body granulomas.

Lopez-Lezama J.M.,University of Antioquia | Padilha-Feltrin A.,Sao Paulo State University | Contreras J.,University of Castilla - La Mancha | Munoz J.I.,University of Castilla - La Mancha
IEEE Transactions on Power Systems | Year: 2011

This paper proposes a bilevel programming approach to determine the optimal contract price of dispatchable distributed generation (DG) units in distribution systems. Two different agents are considered in the model, namely, the distribution company (DisCo) and the owner of the DG. The former seeks the minimization of the payments incurred in attending the forecasted demand, while the latter seeks the maximization of his profit. To meet the expected demand, the DisCo has the option to purchase energy from any DG unit within its network and directly from the wholesale electricity market. A traditional distribution utility model with no competition among DG units is considered. The proposed model positions the DG owner in the outer optimization level and the DisCo in the inner one. This last optimization problem is substituted by its Karush-Kuhn-Tucker optimality conditions, turning the bilevel programming problem into an equivalent single-level nonlinear programming problem which is solved using commercially available software. Tests are performed in a modified IEEE 34-bus distribution network. © 2010 IEEE.

Berkovits N.,Sao Paulo State University
Journal of High Energy Physics | Year: 2015

The pure spinor formalism for the superstring was recently obtained by gauge-fixing a purely bosonic classical action involving a twistor-like constraint ∂xm(γmλ)α = 0 where λα is a d=10 pure spinor. This twistor-like constraint replaces the usual Virasoro constraint ∂xm∂xm = 0, and the Green-Schwarz fermionic spacetime spinor variables θα arise as Faddeev-Popov ghosts for this constraint. In this paper, the purely bosonic classical action is simplified by replacing the classical d=10 pure spinor λα with a d=10 projective pure spinor. The pure spinor and Green-Schwarz formalisms for the superparticle and superstring are then obtained as different gauge-fixings of this purely bosonic classical action, and the Green-Schwarz kappa symmetry is directly related to the pure spinor BRST symmetry. Since a d=10 projective pure spinor parameterizes (Formula presented.), this action can be interpreted as a standard ĉ = 5 topological action where one integrates over the (Formula presented.) choice of complex structure. Finally, a purely bosonic action for the d=11 supermembrane is proposed which reduces upon double-dimensional reduction to the purely bosonic action for the d=10 Type IIA superstring. © 2015, The Author(s).

Gomez J.D.,Federal University of ABC | Natale A.A.,Federal University of ABC | Natale A.A.,Sao Paulo State University
Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics | Year: 2015

We compute the Standard Model scalar coupling (λ) evolution in a particular QCD resummation scheme, where the QCD coupling becomes infrared finite due to the presence of a dynamically generated gluon mass, leading to the existence of a non-perturbative infrared fixed point. We discuss how this scheme can be fixed taking recourse to phenomenological considerations in the infrared region. The QCD β function associated to this non-perturbative coupling when introduced into the SM renormalization group equations increases the λ values at high energies. © 2015 The Authors.

Bufalo R.,University of Helsinki | Bufalo R.,Sao Paulo State University
Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics | Year: 2015

In this work we discuss the properties of a modified Born-Infeld electrodynamics in the framework of very special relativity (VSR). This proposal allows us to study VSR mass effects in a gauge-invariant context of nonlinear electrodynamics. It is analyzed in detail the electrostatic solutions for two different cases, as well as the VSR dispersion relations are found to be of a massive particle with nonlinear modifications. Afterwards, the field energy and static potential are computed, in the latter we find from the VSR contribution a novel long-range 1/L3 correction to the Coulomb potential, in contrast to the 1/L5 correction of the usual Born-Infeld theory. © 2015 The Authors.

Chacaltana O.,Sao Paulo State University | Distler J.,University of Texas at Austin | Trimm A.,University of Texas at Austin
Journal of High Energy Physics | Year: 2015

We study 4D N = 2 superconformal field theories that arise from the compactification of 6D N = (2, 0) theories of type DN on a Riemann surface, in the presence of punctures twisted by a ℤ2 outer automorphism. Unlike the untwisted case, the family of SCFTs is in general parametrized, not by ℳg,n, but by a branched cover thereof. The classification of these SCFTs is carried out explicitly in the case of the D4 theory, in terms of three-punctured spheres and cylinders, and we provide tables of properties of twisted punctures for the D5 and D6 theories. We find realizations of Spin(8) and Spin(7) gauge theories with matter in all combinations of vector and spinor representations with vanishing β-function, as well as Sp(3) gauge theories with matter in the 3-index traceless antisymmetric representation. © 2015, The Author(s).

Kalousios C.,Sao Paulo State University
Journal of High Energy Physics | Year: 2015

Abstract: We argue that one does not need to know the explicit solutions of the scattering equations in order to evaluate a given amplitude. We consider the most general quantity consistent with SL(2, ℂ) invariance that can appear in an amplitude that admits a scattering equation description. This quantity depends on all cross ratios that can be formed from n points and we evaluate it for the first non-trivial case of n = 5. The combinatorial nature of the problem is captured through the construction of an appropriate generating function that depends on five variables. © 2015, The Author(s).

Azevedo T.,Sao Paulo State University
Journal of High Energy Physics | Year: 2015

Abstract: In this work, we obtain a simple measure factor for the λ and θ zero-mode integrations in the pure-spinor formalism in the context of an N = 4, d = 4 theory. We show that the measure can be defined unambiguously up to BRST-trivial terms and an overall factor, and is much simpler than (although equivalent to) the expression obtained by dimensional reduction from the N = 1, d = 10 measure factor. We also give two explicit examples of how to obtain the dual to a vertex operator using this measure. © 2015, The Author(s).

Chaves A.A.,Sao Paulo State University | Nogueira Lorena L.A.,National Institute for Space Research
Expert Systems with Applications | Year: 2011

The Capacitated Centered Clustering Problem (CCCP) consists of defining a set of p groups with minimum dissimilarity on a network with n points. Demand values are associated with each point and each group has a demand capacity. The problem is well known to be NP-hard and has many practical applications. In this paper, the hybrid method Clustering Search (CS) is implemented to solve the CCCP. This method identifies promising regions of the search space by generating solutions with a metaheuristic, such as Genetic Algorithm, and clustering them into clusters that are then explored further with local search heuristics. Computational results considering instances available in the literature are presented to demonstrate the efficacy of CS. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Miranda S.P.,Sao Paulo State University
International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society | Year: 2010

This study was undertaken to investigate the expression of p53, Ki-67, and CD31 proteins in endometrial polyps of postmenopausal women treated with tamoxifen (TAM). Postmenopausal women with endometrial polyps treated with TAM (n = 20), postmenopausal women with endometrial polyps without hormone use (n = 20), postmenopausal women with atrophic endometrium (n = 20), and postmenopausal women with endometrial adenocarcinoma (n = 20) were prospectively investigated. Tissue samples were immunohistochemically evaluated by monoclonal antibodies for p53, Ki-67, and CD31. The data were analyzed using the Student t test, analysis of variance, and χ2 to evaluate significant differences between the groups. The level of significance was set at P < 0.05. There was no difference in the expression of p53 between the groups (P = 0.067). The expression of Ki-67 was higher in the polyp samples from TAM-treated women compared with those from the women using no hormone (P = 0.0047) and those from the women with atrophic endometrium (P = 0.008). Samples from the women with endometrial cancer was associated with higher Ki-67 expression compared with the polyp samples from TAM-treated women (P = 0.004). The expression of CD31 was higher in the polyp samples of TAM-treated women compared with that of the samples from the women with atrophic endometrium (P < 0.001) and similar to the polyp samples from the women using no hormone (P = 0.319) and to the samples from the women with endometrial cancer (P = 0.418). The use of TAM in postmenopausal women might be associated with increased cellular proliferation in endometrial polyps without interfering angiogenesis or inactivation of tumor suppressor proteins.

Tang B.,Dalian University of Technology | Brennan M.J.,Sao Paulo State University
Journal of Sound and Vibration | Year: 2013

The vibration transmissibility characteristics of a single-degree-of- freedom (SDOF) passive vibration isolation system with different nonlinear dampers are investigated in this paper. In one configuration, the damper is assumed to be linear and viscous, and is connected to the mass so that it is perpendicular to the spring (horizontal damper). The vibration is in the direction of the spring. The second configuration is one in which the damper is in parallel with the spring but the damping force is proportional to the cube of the relative velocity across the damper (cubic damping). Both configurations are studied for small amplitudes of excitation, when some analysis can be conducted based on analytical expressions, and for large amplitudes of excitation, where the analysis is based on numerical simulations. It is found that the two nonlinear systems can outperform the linear system when force transmissibility is considered. However, for displacement transmissibility, the system with the horizontal damper exhibits some desirable properties, but the system with cubic damping does not. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Castanhole M.M.,Sao Paulo State University
Genetics and molecular research : GMR | Year: 2010

Although they are of economic importance, there have been few cytogenetic studies of the Gerridae (Heteroptera) in Brazil. We examined spermatogenesis (meiosis and spermiogenesis) and nucleolar behavior in three species of the family Gerridae. Brachymetra albinerva and Halobatopsis platensis were found to have a chromosome complement of 2n = 25 (24A + X0) and Cylindrostethus palmaris 2n = 29 (28A + X0) chromosomes. Fifteen individuals of these species were collected from the reservoir of São José do Rio Preto, SP, using screens and were transported in pots containing water to the laboratory, where cytogenetic preparations were made. The polyploidy nuclei are formed by several heteropyknotic regions; cells in meiotic prophase have a heteropyknotic region that is probably the sex chromosome, and the chromosomes from chiasmata. The spermatids are rounded and have a heteropyknotic region at the periphery of the nucleus; the sperm head is small, with a long tail. Silver impregnation of meiotic cells showed one or more disorganized bodies around the perichromosomal sheath. The round spermatids had two bodies next to each other, but these were elongated; one of the bodies remained in the head and the other migrated to the initial part of the tail at the end of spermagenesis, when the staining was no longer evident. The meiotic cells appear during spermatogenesis and have very similar silver-impregnation patterns in different species of Heteroptera.

The nucleolar material of Chariesterus armatus was analyzed during spermiogenesis in cell preparations impregnated with silver nitrate. Nucleolar corpuscles were observed in spermatids at the beginning of the process, showing that this organoid is also maintained after meiosis. In addition, nucleoli were seen in the round spermatids connected to the X-chromosome (bearer of the nucleolar organizer in C. armatus), indicating de novo synthesis of nucleolar material. This differs from the reorganization of ribosomal granules, transported from meiotic spermatocytes to round spermatids, where they would support protein synthesis, which is reported for other species. We also observed connections of nucleolar corpuscles to the nuclear membrane regions where the tail and the acrosome will be formed, suggesting close involvement of the nucleolar material in the formation of these structures. In addition to the nucleolar bodies, we detected silver-positive structures, which will require new approaches to clarify their role. One of these structures, observed in the cytoplasm, appears to correspond to the chromatoid body, which has been found in several organisms, but is still poorly understood; another is a complex structure to which the tail appears to be connected. We conclude that C. armatus is an appropriate model for understanding not only the synthesis of rRNA in the spermiogenesis, but also the functional meaning of the close relationship of nucleolar material with other structures during this process.

da Costa-Silva C.M.,Sao Paulo State University
International journal of paediatric dentistry / the British Paedodontic Society [and] the International Association of Dentistry for Children | Year: 2010

The prevalence of molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH) varies considerably around the world; however, few studies have examined MIH in South American countries. To evaluate the prevalence, severity, and clinical consequences of MIH in Brazilian children residing in rural and urban areas of the municipality of Botelhos, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Children aged 6 to 12 years (n = 918) with all four-first permanent molars erupted had these teeth evaluated according to the European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry (EAPD) criteria. The examinations were conducted by two previously trained examiners, and the dental impact caused by MIH was evaluated with the Decayed, Missing and Filled Teeth (DMFT) index (WHO). Molar incisor hypomineralization was present in 19.8% of the 918 children, with a higher prevalence in rural areas. The majority of the defects presented were demarcated opacities without post-eruptive structural loss, which has been considered as mild defects. Children with MIH had higher DMFT values. Despite the high prevalence of MIH, the severity of the defects was mild. The results indicate a positive association between MIH and the presence of dental caries. © 2010 The Authors. International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry © 2010 BSPD, IAPD and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

He W.,Sao Paulo State University
Annals of Physics | Year: 2015

The Gauge/Bethe correspondence relates Omega-deformed N=. 2 supersymmetric gauge theories to some quantum integrable models, in simple cases the integrable models can be treated as solvable quantum mechanics models. For SU(2) gauge theory with an adjoint matter, or with 4 fundamental matters, the potential of corresponding quantum model is the elliptic function. If the mass of matter takes special value then the potential is an elliptic solution of KdV hierarchy. We show that the deformed prepotential of gauge theory can be obtained from the average densities of conserved charges of the classical KdV solution, the UV gauge coupling dependence is assembled into the Eisenstein series. The gauge theory with adjoint mass is taken as the example. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

Berkovits N.,Sao Paulo State University
Journal of High Energy Physics | Year: 2015

After introducing a d=10 pure spinor λα, the Virasoro constraint ∂xm∂xm=0 can be replaced by the twistor-like constraint ∂xm(γmλ)α = 0. Quantizing this twistor-like constraint leads to the pure spinor formalism for the superstring where the fermionic superspace variables θα and their conjugate momenta come from the ghosts and antighosts of the twistor-like constraint. © 2015, The Author(s).

Correa R.A.C.,Federal University of ABC | De Souza Dutra A.,Sao Paulo State University
Advances in High Energy Physics | Year: 2015

We discuss the impact of the breaking of the Lorentz symmetry on the usual oscillons, the so-called flat-top oscillons, and the breathers. Our analysis is performed by using a Lorentz violation scenario rigorously derived in the literature. We show that the Lorentz violation is responsible for the origin of a kind of deformation of the configuration, where the field configuration becomes oscillatory in a localized region near its maximum value. Furthermore, we show that the Lorentz breaking symmetry produces a displacement of the oscillon along the spatial direction; the same feature is present in the case of breathers. We also show that the effect of a Lorentz violation in the flat-top oscillon solution is responsible by the shrinking of the flat-top. Furthermore, we find analytically the outgoing radiation; this result indicates that the amplitude of the outgoing radiation is controlled by the Lorentz breaking parameter, in such a way that this oscillon becomes more unstable than its symmetric counterpart; however, it still has a long living nature. © 2015 R. A. C. Correa and A. de Souza Dutra.

De Oliveira L.P.,University of Sao Paulo | De Castro A.S.,Sao Paulo State University
International Journal of Modern Physics E | Year: 2015

The scattering of spin-1 bosons in a nonminimal vector double-step potential is described in terms of eigenstates of the helicity operator and it is shown that the transmission coefficient is insensitive to the choice of the polarization of the incident beam. Poles of the transmission amplitude reveal the existence of a two-fold degenerate spectrum. The results are interpreted in terms of solutions of two coupled effective Schrödinger equations for a finite square well with additional δ-functions situated at the borders. © 2015 World Scientific Publishing Company.

Correa R.A.C.,Federal University of ABC | da Rocha R.,Federal University of ABC | de Souza Dutra A.,Sao Paulo State University
Annals of Physics | Year: 2015

In this work we group four research topics apparently disconnected, namely solitons, Lorentz symmetry breaking, supersymmetry, and entropy. Following a recent work (Gleiser and Stamatopoulos, 2012), we show that it is possible to construct in the context of travelling wave solutions a configurational entropy measure in functional space, from the field configurations. Thus, we investigate the existence and properties of travelling solitons in Lorentz and CPT breaking scenarios for a class of models with two interacting scalar fields. Here, we obtain a complete set of exact solutions for the model studied which display both double and single-kink configurations. In fact, such models are very important in applications that include Bloch branes, Skyrmions, Yang-Mills, Q-balls, oscillons and various superstring-motivated theories. We find that the so-called Configurational Entropy (CE) for travelling solitons shows that the best value of parameter responsible to break the Lorentz symmetry is one where the energy density is distributed equally around the origin. In this way, the information-theoretical measure of travelling solitons in Lorentz symmetry violation scenarios opens a new window to probe situations where the parameters responsible for breaking the symmetries are arbitrary. In this case, the CE selects the best value of the parameter in the model. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.

Krein G.,Sao Paulo State University | Thomas A.W.,University of Adelaide | Tsushima K.,Jefferson Lab
Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics | Year: 2011

The J/Ψ mass shift in cold nuclear matter is computed using an effective Lagrangian approach. The mass shift is computed by evaluating D and D* meson loop contributions to the J/Ψ self-energy employing medium-modified meson masses. The modification of the D and D* masses in nuclear matter is obtained using the quark-meson coupling model. The loop integrals are regularized with dipole form factors and the sensitivity of the results to the values of form-factor cutoff masses is investigated. The J/Ψ mass shift arising from the modification of the D and D* loops at normal nuclear matter density is found to range from -16 MeV to -24 MeV under a wide variation of values of the cutoff masses. Experimental perspectives for the formation of a bound state of J/Ψ to a nucleus are investigated. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Gargaglioni L.H.,Sao Paulo State University | Hartzler L.K.,Wright State University | Putnam R.W.,Wright State University
Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology | Year: 2010

The locus coeruleus (LC) lies in the dorsal pons and supplies noradrenergic (NA) input to many regions of the brain, including respiratory control areas. The LC may provide tonic input for basal respiratory drive and is involved in central chemosensitivity since focal acidosis of the region stimulates ventilation and ablation reduces CO2-induced increased ventilation. The output of LC is modulated by both serotonergic and glutamatergic inputs. A large percentage of LC neurons are intrinsically activated by hypercapnia. This percentage and the magnitude of their response are highest in young neonates and decrease dramatically after postnatal day P10. The cellular bases for intrinsic chemosensitivity of LC neurons are comprised of multiple factors, primary among them being reduced extracellular and intracellular pH, which inhibit inwardly rectifying and voltage-gated K+ channels, and activate L-type Ca2+ channels. Activation of KCa channels in LC neurons may limit their ultimate response to hypercapnia. Finally, the LC mediates central chemosensitivity and contains pH-sensitive neurons in amphibians, suggesting that the LC has a long-standing phylogenetic role in respiratory control. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Sobreira F.,Sao Paulo State University | Ribeiro B.J.,Federal University of Juiz de fora | Shapiro I.L.,Federal University of Juiz de fora
Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics | Year: 2011

We consider derivation of the effective potential for a scalar field in curved space-time within the physical regularization scheme, using two sorts of covariant cut-off regularizations. The first one is based on the local momentum representation and Riemann normal coordinates and the second is operatorial regularization, based on the Fock-Schwinger-DeWitt proper-time representation. We show, on the example of a self-interacting scalar field, that these two methods produce equal results for divergences, but the first one gives more detailed information about the finite part. Furthermore, we calculate the contribution from a massive fermion loop and discuss renormalization group equations and their interpretation for the multi-mass theories. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Adhikari S.K.,Sao Paulo State University
Journal of Physics B: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics | Year: 2011

The problem of self-trapping a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) and a binary BEC in an optical lattice (OL) and double well (DW) is studied using the mean-field Gross-Pitaevskii equation. For both DW and OL, permanent self-trapping occurs in a window of the repulsive nonlinearity g of the GP equation: gc1 < g < gc2. In the case of OL, the critical nonlinearities gc1 and gc2 correspond to a window of chemical potentials μc1 < μ < μc2 defining the band gap(s) of the periodic OL. The permanent self-trapped BEC in an OL usually represents a breathing oscillation of a stable stationary gap soliton. The permanently self-trapped BEC in a DW, on the other hand, is a dynamically stabilized state without any stationary counterpart. For a binary BEC with intraspecies nonlinearities outside this window of nonlinearity, a permanent self-trapping can be induced by tuning the interspecies interaction such that the effective nonlinearities of the components fall in the above window. © 2011 IOP Publishing Ltd.

Aguilar A.C.,Federal University of ABC | Doff A.,Federal Technological University of Parana | Natale A.A.,Sao Paulo State University
Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics | Year: 2011

We argue that in asymptotically free non-Abelian gauge theories possessing the phenomenon of dynamical mass generation the β function is negative up to a value of the coupling constant that corresponds to a non-trivial fixed point, in agreement with recent AdS/QCD analysis. This fixed point happens at the minimum of the vacuum energy (ω), which, as a characteristic of theories with dynamical mass generation, has the properties of a c-function. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Multiple ovulation (superovulation) and embryo transfer has been used extensively in cattle. In the past decade, superstimulatory treatment protocols that synchronise follicle growth and ovulation, allowing for improved donor management and fixed-time AI (FTAI), have been developed for zebu (Bos indicus) and European (Bos taurus) breeds of cattle. There is evidence that additional stimulus with LH (through the administration of exogenous LH or equine chorionic gonadotrophin (eCG)) on the last day of the superstimulatory treatment protocol, called the 'P-36 protocol' for FTAI, can increase embryo yield compared with conventional protocols that are based on the detection of oestrus. However, inconsistent results with the use of hormones that stimulate LH receptors (LHR) have prompted further studies on the roles of LH and its receptors in ovulatory capacity (acquisition of LHR in granulosa cells), oocyte competence and embryo quality in superstimulated cattle. Recent experiments have shown that superstimulation with FSH increases mRNA expression of LHR and angiotensin AT(2) receptors in granulosa cells of follicles >8 mm in diameter. In addition, FSH decreases mRNA expression of growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9) and bone morphogenetic protein 15 (BMP15) in oocytes, but increases the expression of both in cumulus cells, without diminishing the capacity of cumulus-oocyte complexes to generate blastocysts. Although these results indicate that superstimulation with FSH is not detrimental to oocyte competence, supplementary studies are warranted to investigate the effects of superstimulation on embryo quality and viability. In addition, experiments comparing the cellular and/or molecular effects of adding eCG to the P-36 treatment protocol are being conducted to elucidate the effects of superstimulatory protocols on the yield of viable embryos.

Luz R.K.,Federal University of Minas Gerais | Portella M.C.,Sao Paulo State University
Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciencias | Year: 2015

The aim of this work was to investigate the effects of daily prey concentration during the first 15 days of active feeding of Hoplias lacerdae larvae, and the juvenile size on the feed training. In the first phase, the larvae received five Artemianauplii concentrations (P). In the second phase, the juveniles from each treatment were trained to accept formulated diet. Superior growth was related to higher initial daily prey concentrations (900 and 1100 nauplii larvae-1). During feed training, the growth tendency was similar to that verified in the first phase. The lowest values of specific growth rate (SGR) were registered after the introduction of the semi-moist diet used in the feed training. However, the values of SGR recovered along the experiment and similar rates were found among the treatments. Survival, mortality and cannibalism were similar in the different treatments at the end of both phases. It can be concluded that: the prey concentration affects growth of H. lacerdae during the first 15 days of active feeding, and feed training can be initialized with juveniles of about 16 mm of total length. © 2015, Academia Brasileira de Ciencias. All rights reserved.

Castro L.B.,Sao Paulo State University
Physics Letters, Section A: General, Atomic and Solid State Physics | Year: 2011

The relativistic problem of fermions subject to a PT-symmetric potential in the presence of position-dependent mass is reinvestigated. The influence of the PT-symmetric potential in the continuity equation and in the orthonormalization condition are analyzed. In addition, a misconception diffused in the literature on the interaction of neutral fermions is clarified. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Romero G.Q.,University of Campinas | Antiqueira P.A.P.,Sao Paulo State University | Koricheva J.,Royal Holloway, University of London
PLoS ONE | Year: 2011

Flower-visiting animals are constantly under predation risk when foraging and hence might be expected to evolve behavioural adaptations to avoid predators. We reviewed the available published and unpublished data to assess the overall effects of predators on pollinator behaviour and to examine sources of variation in these effects. The results of our meta-analysis showed that predation risk significantly decreased flower visitation rates (by 36%) and time spent on flowers (by 51%) by pollinators. The strength of the predator effects depended neither on predator taxa and foraging mode (sit-and-wait or active hunters) nor on pollinator lifestyle (social vs. solitary). However, predator effects differed among pollinator taxa: predator presence reduced flower visitation rates and time spent on flowers by Squamata, Lepidoptera and Hymenoptera, but not by Diptera. Furthermore, larger pollinators showed weaker responses to predation risk, probably because they are more difficult to capture. Presence of live crab spiders on flowers had weaker effects on pollinator behaviour than presence of dead or artificial crab spiders or other objects (e.g. dead bees, spheres), suggesting that predator crypsis may be effective to some extent. These results add to a growing consensus on the importance of considering both predator and pollinator characteristics from a community perspective. © 2011 Romero et al.

Vilanova M.R.N.,Sao Paulo State University
Environmental Earth Sciences | Year: 2015

The Serra da Mantiqueira Environmental Protection Area (SMEPA) is one of the most important and unique Brazilian conservation units of the Atlantic Forest biome, located in the eponymous relief unit. Although the environmental and water resources relevance of the SMEPA is widely known, it lacks specific studies about the hydrologic behavior of the region. This paper aims to contribute to the understanding of the rainfall behavior over the SMEPA, by detecting monotonic trends of total annual and seasonal rainfalls. The study was performed by applying the Mann–Kendall test to 37 years series from 23 rainfall stations located within and around the SMEPA. No trends were detected in total annual and spring seasonal rainfall. Few stations (one during summer, two during autumn and two during winter) presented statistically significant trends, indicating that there is no regional trend over the SMEPA region. The isolated significant trends detected suggest the existence of sites with distinct rainfall behavior in the mesoscale. © 2014, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Dos Santos L.V.,Barretos Cancer Hospital | Dos Santos L.V.,University of Campinas | Souza F.H.,Sao Paulo State University | Brunetto A.T.,Health Technology Assessment Institute IATS | And 3 more authors.
Journal of the National Cancer Institute | Year: 2012

Background The addition of neurokinin-1 receptor (NK1R) antagonists to antiemetic regimens has substantially reduced chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV). We sought to systematically review the overall impact of NK1R antagonists on CINV prevention.Methods We systematically searched the MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CENTRAL databases, and meeting proceedings for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that evaluated NK1R antagonists plus standard antiemetic therapy for CINV prevention. Complete response (CR) to therapy was defined as the absence of emesis and the absence of rescue therapy. The endpoints were defined as CR in the overall phase (during the first 120 hours of chemotherapy), CR in the acute phase (first 24 hours), and the delayed phase (24120 hours) after chemotherapy, nausea, and toxicity. Subgroup analyses evaluated the type of NK1R antagonist used, the emetogenic potential of the chemotherapy regimen, and prolonged use of 5-HT3 (serotonin) receptor antagonists, a class of standard antiemetic agents. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using a random-effects model. Statistical tests for heterogeneity were one-sided; statistical tests for effect estimates and publication bias were two-sided. Results Seventeen trials (8740 patients) were included in this analysis. NK1R antagonists increased the CR rate in the overall phase from 54% to 72% (OR = 0.51, 95% CI = 0.46 to 0.57, P <. 001). CR and nausea were improved in all phases and subgroups. The expected side effects from NK1R antagonists did not statistically significantly differ from previous reports; however, this analysis suggests that the incidence of severe infection increased from 2% to 6% in the NK1R antagonist group (three RCTs with a total of 1480 patients; OR = 3.10; 95% CI = 1.69 to 5.67, P <. 001). Conclusions NK1R antagonists increased CINV control in the acute, delayed, and overall phases. They are effective for both moderately and highly emetogenic chemotherapy regimens. Their use might be associated with increased infection rates; however, additional appraisal of specific data from RCTs is needed. © The Author 2012. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

Modolo N.S.,Sao Paulo State University
The Cochrane database of systematic reviews | Year: 2013

This is an update of a Cochrane Review first published in The Cochrane Library, Issue 2, 2008.The technique called one-lung ventilation can confine bleeding or infection to one lung, prevent rupture of a lung cyst or, more commonly, facilitate surgical exposure of the unventilated lung. During one-lung ventilation, anaesthesia is maintained either by delivering an inhalation anaesthetic to the ventilated lung or by infusing an intravenous anaesthetic. It is possible that the method chosen to maintain anaesthesia may affect patient outcomes. Inhalation anaesthetics may impair hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) and increase intrapulmonary shunt and hypoxaemia. The objective of this review was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of intravenous versus inhalation anaesthesia for one-lung ventilation. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL); The Cochrane Library (2012, Issue 11); MEDLINE (1966 to November 2012); EMBASE (1980 to November 2012); Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde (LILACS, 1982 to November 2012) and ISI web of Science (1945 to November 2012), reference lists of identified trials and bibliographies of published reviews. We also contacted researchers in the field. No language restrictions were applied. The date of the most recent search was 19 November 2012. The original search was performed in June 2006. We included randomized controlled trials and quasi-randomized controlled trials of intravenous (e.g. propofol) versus inhalation (e.g. isoflurane, sevoflurane, desflurane) anaesthesia for one-lung ventilation in both surgical and intensive care participants. We excluded studies of participants who had only one lung (i.e. pneumonectomy or congenital absence of one lung). Two review authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. We contacted study authors for additional information. We included in this updated review 20 studies that enrolled 850 participants, all of which assessed surgical participantsno studies investigated one-lung ventilation performed outside the operating theatre. No evidence indicated that the drug used to maintain anaesthesia during one-lung ventilation affected participant outcomes. The methodological quality of the included studies was difficult to assess as it was reported poorly, so the predominant classification of bias was 'unclear'. Very little evidence from randomized controlled trials suggests differences in participant outcomes with anaesthesia maintained by intravenous versus inhalational anaesthesia during one-lung ventilation. If researchers believe that the type of drug used to maintain anaesthesia during one-lung ventilation is important, they should design randomized controlled trials with appropriate participant outcomes, rather than report temporary fluctuations in physiological variables.

Ponce D.,Sao Paulo State University
Advances in peritoneal dialysis. Conference on Peritoneal Dialysis | Year: 2011

The optimal dialysis dose for the treatment of acute kidney injury (AKI) is controversial. No studies have directly examined the effects of peritoneal dialysis (PD) dose on outcomes in AKI. From January 2005 to January 2007, we randomly assigned critically ill patients with AKI to receive higher- or lower-intensity PD therapy (prescribed Kt/Vof 0.8 and 0.5 per session respectively). The main outcome measure was death within 30 days. Of the 61 enrolled patients, 30 were randomly assigned to higher-intensity therapy, and 31, to a lower-intensity PD dose. The two study groups had similar baseline characteristics and received treatment for 6.1 days and 5.7 days respectively (p = 0.42). At 30 days after randomization, 17 deaths had occurred in the higher-intensity group (55%), and 16 deaths, in the lower-intensity group (53%, p = 0.83). There was a significant difference between the groups in the PD dose prescribed compared with the dose delivered (higher-intensity group: 0.8 vs. 0.59, p = 0.04; lower-intensity group: 0.5 vs. 0.49, p = 0.89). The groups had similar metabolic control after 4 PD sessions (blood urea nitrogen: 69.3 +/- 14.4 mg/dL and 60.3 +/- 11.1 mg/dL respectively, p = 0. 71). In critically ill patients with AKI, an intensive PD dose did not lower the mortality or improve the recovery of kidney function or metabolic control. The PD dose is limited by dialysate flow and membrane permeability, and clearance per exchange can decrease if a shorter dwell time is applied.

An analysis of published data on oceanic seabirds diets, show the predominance of muscular cephalopods with superficial distribution in the oceanic layers, but also important are the gelatinous and ammoniacal species restrict to layers below 300 m from the surface. In principle, it could be not expected that deep-sea cephalopods are common prey for seabirds like several authors have been concluded. It is proposed in this study that an indirect source, important and easily attainable, have been appeared with the beginning of tuna long line operations. The habit to feed upon viscera of the fishes captured by tuna long liners, that discard the gut contents to the water, may explain the probable equivocal conclusions that deep dwelling cephalopods are natural prey of oceanic seabirds.

The effects of age on microbiota composition, gut fermentation end-product formation and peripheral lymphocyte numbers were compared between old and young adult Beagle dogs fed four kibble diets differing in yeast cell wall contents. The experiment had a double 4 × 4 Latin square design, one with four mature dogs (4 years old) and the other with four old dogs (10 years old), with four replicates (diets) per dog. In each period a 15 d adaptation period preceded a 5 d total collection of faeces for the digestibility trial. On day 21, fresh faecal samples were collected for the determination of bacterial enumeration, pH, biogenic amine and short-chain fatty acid. Flow cytometry was used for immunophenotypic evaluation. Dogs were fed four kibble diets with similar composition with 0, 0.15, 0.30 and 0.45 % of yeast cell wall (as-fed), respectively. Data were evaluated using general linear models of Statistical Analysis Systems statistical software (P < 0.05). No evidence of a difference in faecal bacteria counts between ages was found (total aerobes, total anaerobes, Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus, Clostridium and Escherichia coli: P>0.15). Faecal concentrations of butyrate, histamine, agmatine and spermine were lower (P ≤ 0.05) and faecal pH was higher (P = 0.03) in older dogs than in mature adult dogs, suggesting an alteration in bacterial metabolic activity, or in the rate of intestinal absorption of these compounds. Concentrations of T-lymphocytes, T-cytotoxic lymphocytes and B-lymphocytes were also lower (P ≤ 0.01) in older dogs than in mature adult dogs. The study confirmed alterations in peripheral lymphocytes and revealed a reduced concentration of some fermentation end products in the colon of old dogs.

Jorge E.C.,Sao Paulo State University
The Cochrane database of systematic reviews | Year: 2013

Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a complex condition of the developing retinal blood vessels and is one of the leading causes of preventable childhood blindness. Several risk factors for ROP have been studied over the past 50 years. Among them, general immaturity (low birth weight and low gestational age) and prolonged oxygen therapy have been consistently related to disease onset. However, it is understood that the progression of the disease is multifactorial and may be associated with others risk factors, such as multiple gestation, apnoea, intracranial haemorrhage, anaemia, sepsis, prolonged mechanical ventilation, multiple transfusions and light exposure. Furthermore, the precise role of these individual factors in the development of the disease has not yet been well established. To determine whether the reduction of early environmental light exposure reduces the incidence of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) or poor ROP outcomes among very low birth weight infants. We searched the following databases: the Cochrane Neonatal Group Specialised Register, CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library), MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, HealthSTAR, Science Citation Index Database, CANCERLIT, the Oxford Database of Perinatal Trials and www.clinicaltrials.gov. We also searched previous reviews including cross-references, abstracts, conference and symposia proceedings, and contacted expert informants. This search was updated in October 2012. Randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials that reduced light exposure to premature infants within the first seven days following birth were considered for this review. We also considered cluster-randomised controlled trials. Data on clinical outcomes including any acute ROP and poor ROP outcome were extracted by both review authors independently and consensus reached. We conducted data analysis according to the standards of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group. Data from four randomised trials with a total of 897 participants failed to show any reduction in acute ROP or poor ROP outcome with the reduction of ambient light to premature infants' retinas. The overall methodological quality of the included studies was about evenly split between those in which the classification was unclear and those in which the studies were categorised as low risk of bias. There was no report on the secondary outcomes considered in this review: quality of life measures; and time of exposure to oxygen. The evidence shows that bright light is not the cause of retinopathy of prematurity and that the reduction of exposure of the retinas of premature infants to light has no effect on the incidence of the disease.

Bagatin E.,Federal University of Sao Paulo | Miot H.A.,Sao Paulo State University
Anais Brasileiros de Dermatologia | Year: 2013

Cosmetic Dermatology is a growing subspecialty. High-quality basic science studies have been published; however, few double-blind, randomized controlled clinical trials, which are the major instrument for evidence-based medicine, have been conducted in this area. Clinical research is essential for the discovery of new knowledge, improvement of scientific basis, resolution of challenges, and good clinical practice. Some basic principles for a successful researcher include interest, availability, persistence, and honesty. It is essential to learn how to write a protocol research and to know the international and national regulatory rules. A complete clinical trial protocol should include question, background, objectives, methodology (design, variable description, sample size, randomization, inclusion and exclusion criteria, intervention, efficacy and safety measures, and statistical analysis), consent form, clinical research form, and references. Institutional ethical review board approval and financial support disclosure are necessary. Publication of positive or negative results should be an authors' commitment. © 2013 by Anais Brasileiros de Dermatologia.

This study examines the qualitative and quantitative aspects of fishery landings at the hypereutrophic Barra Bonita reservoir, Brazil. Data were collected each month (July/2004-June/2006) at three localities and the reported catch, fishing effort and fishing techniques were recorded from 745 landings, comprising a total fish catch of 86,691.9 kg. The most caught species were exotic tilapias, especially the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.), which represented 82.5% of the total biomass. The reservoir's fishery productivity was 11.1 kg/ha -1/day -1 with a Catch Per Unit Effort of 62.4 kg/fisher -1/day -1. Five fishing techniques were identified: cast net, gill net, trawl net, beating gill net, and beating gill net + gill net. The analysis of DCA related the active strategies for the tilapia catch, to the passive strategies for the Pimelodus maculatus (Lacepède) and Triportheus angulatus catches (Spix & Agassiz), and the mixed strategies for the tilapia, catfish and Prochilodus lineatus (Valenciennes) catches. ANCOVA results were significant for all the variables analysed (season, fishing location and fishing technique). The results showed that fishing for "corvina" Plagioscion squamosissimus (Heckel), predominant in the 1990s, had been replaced by fishing focused on the Nile tilapia. This substitution appears to be due to the increasing levels of eutrophication in the reservoir, combined with changes in fishing techniques. The pattern of the fisheries in Barra Bonita Reservoir follow those in other eutrophic Brazilian reservoirs, with catches of the exotic Nile tilapia predominating.

Regatieri I.C.,Sao Paulo State University
Genetics and molecular research : GMR | Year: 2012

We investigated genetic associations between mature cow weight (MW) and weaning weight (WW), yearling weight (YW), weight gain from birth to weaning (GBW), weight gain from weaning to yearling (GWY), weaning hip height (WHH), yearling hip height (YHH), scrotal circumference (SC), and age at first calving (AFC). Data from 127,104 Nellore animals born between 1993 and 2006, belonging to Agropecuária Jacarezinho Ltda., were analyzed. (Co)variance components were obtained by the restricted maximum likelihood method, applying an animal model in a multi-traits analysis. The model included direct genetic and residual effects as random effects, the fixed effects of contemporary group, and the linear and quadratic effects of animal age at recording (except for AFC, GBW, and GWY) and age of cow at calving as covariates (except for MW). The numbers of days from birth to weaning and from weaning to yearling were included as covariates for GBW and GWY, respectively. Estimated direct heritabilities were 0.43 ± 0.02 (MW), 0.33 ± 0.01 (WW), 0.36 ± 0.01 (YW), 0.28 ± 0.02 (GBW), 0.31 ± 0.01 (GWY), 0.44 ± 0.02 (WHH), 0.48 ± 0.02 (YHH), 0.44 ± 0.01 (SC), and 0.16 ± 0.03 (AFC). Genetic correlations between MW and productive traits were positive and of medium to high magnitude (ranging from 0.47 ± 0.03 to 0.71 ± 0.01). A positive and low genetic correlation was observed between MW and SC (0.24 ± 0.04). A negative genetic correlation (-0.19 ± 0.03) was estimated between MW and AFC. Selection to increase weight or weight gains at any age, as well as hip height, will change MW in the same direction. Selection for higher SC may lead to a long-term increase in MW. The AFC can be included in selection indices to improve the reproductive performance of beef cattle without significant changes in MW.

Bedani R.,University of Sao Paulo | Rossi E.A.,Sao Paulo State University | Saad S.M.I.,University of Sao Paulo
Food Microbiology | Year: 2013

The effect of inulin and/or okara flour on Lactobacillus acidophilus La-5 and Bifidobacterium animalis Bb-12 viability in a fermented soy product (FSP) and on probiotic survival under in vitro simulated gastrointestinal conditions were investigated throughout 28 days of storage at 4 °C. Employing a 22 design, four FSP trials were produced from soymilk fermented with ABT-4 culture (La-5, Bb-12, and Streptococcus thermophilus): FSP (control); FSP-I (with inulin, 3 g/100 mL of soymilk); FSP-O (with okara, 5 g/100 mL); FSP-IO (with inulin + okara, ratio 3:5 g/100 mL). Probiotic viabilities ranged from 8 to 9 log cfu/g during the 28 days of storage, and inulin and/or okara flour did not affect the viability of La-5 and Bb-12. Bb-12 resistance to the artificial gastrointestinal juices was higher than for La-5, since the Bb-12 and La-5 populations decreased approximately 0.6 log cfu/g and 3.8 log cfu/g, respectively, throughout storage period. Even though the protective effect of inulin and/or okara flour on probiotic microorganisms was not significant, when compared to a fresh culture, the FSP matrix improved Bb-12 survival on day 1 of storage and may be considered a good vehicle for Bb-12 and could play an important role in probiotic protection against gastrointestinal juices. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Cardona C.,Sao Paulo State University
Nuclear and Particle Physics Proceedings | Year: 2015

It has been known for a long time that the low energy dynamics of open-strings is described by non-abelian gauge theories in the same way that the low energy effective description of closed strings is governed by Einstein's gravity. In this short note, we review and comment on some examples where conversely, an effective behavior of non-abelian gauge theories in some particular limits are described by some type of extended objects like strings or branes. We constrain the discussion to a few examples sharing some similarities. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

Rosenfeld R.,Sao Paulo State University
Nuclear and Particle Physics Proceedings | Year: 2015

I provide a brief summary of the theory talks that were presented at X Simposio Latinoamericano de Física de Altas Energías (SILAFAE). © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

Chacaltana O.,Sao Paulo State University | Distler J.,University of Texas at Austin | Trimm A.,University of Texas at Austin
Journal of High Energy Physics | Year: 2015

Compactifying the 6-dimensional (2,0) superconformal field theory, of type ADE, on a Riemann surface, C, with codimension-2 defect operators at points on C, yields a 4-dimensional N=2 superconformal field theory. An outstanding problem is to classify the 4D theories one obtains, in this way, and to understand their properties. In this paper, we turn our attention to the E6 (2,0) theory, which (unlike the A- and D-series) has no realization in terms of M5-branes. Classifying the 4D theories amounts to classifying all of the 3-punctured spheres (“fixtures”), and the cylinders that connect them, that can occur in a pants-decomposition of C. We find 904 fixtures: 19 corresponding to free hypermultiplets, 825 corresponding to isolated interacting SCFTs (with no known Lagrangian description) and 60 “mixed fixtures”, corresponding to a combination of free hypermultiplets and an interacting SCFT. Of the 825 interacting fixtures, we list only the 139 “interesting” ones. As an application, we study the strong coupling limits of the Lagrangian field theories: E6 with 4 hypermultiplets in the 27 and F4 with 3 hypermultiplets in the 26. © 2015, The Author(s).

Maciel C.R.,Federal University of Para | Valenti W.C.,Sao Paulo State University
Aquaculture Research | Year: 2014

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of hatchery-tank colours (white, yellow, red, blue, green and black) on the performance of larval culture of Macrobrachium amazonicum. The larvae were fed daily with newly hatched Artemia nauplii. The hatchery-tank colours affected the light level inside the tanks, the consumption of Artemia nauplii (AN), larval development, survival, mass gain and productivity of postlarvae (PL). The overall consumption of Artemia nauplii per larva during the larval cycle was 30% and 45% higher in the green and red tanks respectively. The significant variation of AN consumption among tank colours (P = 0.0006) indicates that M. amazonicum larvae are visual predators. Survival was higher in the black, blue and green tanks, reaching more than 75%. However, the highest productivity was obtained in the black tanks (80.1 PL L-1). Lighter coloured tanks and excess luminosity (more than 2 μmol s-1 m2 at tank bottom) appear to be important stress factors for larvae, contributing to reduce survival and productivity. The results indicate that rearing M. amazonicum in black tanks will improve larvae condition, ensure greater productivity of postlarvae and lower Artemia consumption, increasing technological and economic viability. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

There are several methods for determining the Class-A pan coefficient (Kp) to estimate the reference evapotranspiration (ETo), which is of great importance to water management in agriculture. Most of these methods take into account the wind speed, relative humidity and the fetch area. This study was done in region of Botucatu, SP, in greenhouse and field in the months of July-August (dry) and September-October (rainy), used the methods of Doorenbos e Pruitt (1977), Cuenca (1989), Snyder (1992), Pereira et al. (1995), Allen et al. (1998) and correlation between ETo determined by Penman-Monteith (EToPM) and evaporation of the Class-A pan (ECA). The EToPM was used as standard for the correlations between the ETo determined by the Class-A pan (EToTCA) obtained by different methods of Kp. The Kp in greenhouse ranged between 0.51 and 0.85, and in the field from 0.33 to 0.85. The methods of Allen et al. (1998) and Snyder (1992) are the most recommended for dry months in greenhouse and rainy months the correlation between the ECA and EToPM e Cuenca (1989). In the field condition, the methods of Allen et al. (1998) and of correlation between the ECA and EToPM for dry months, and for rainy months of Allen et al. (1998) and Cuenca (1989). The method of Allen et al. (1998) was the most efficient, regardless of the environment and of months analyzed. The fixed value of Kp should only be used when it is not possible to determine from its more sophisticated methods. © Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2011.

Bueno P.R.,Sao Paulo State University | Mizzon G.,University of Oxford | Davis J.J.,University of Oxford
Journal of Physical Chemistry B | Year: 2012

Redox active self-assembled monolayers inherently possess both electrochemically addressable and polarizable components. The latter will contribute, with additional parasitic terms, to the iR drop effects within any form of electronic analysis, potentially distorting results. A capacitive analysis of such interfaces (Electroactive Monolayer Capacitance Spectroscopy), presented here, enables a clean mapping of both the thermodynamic and kinetic faradaic characteristics in a single experimental run, with parasitic nonfaradaic contributions (polarization and resistance terms) both spectrally resolved and cleanly removed. The methodology enables a rapid and undistorted quantification of accessible redox site density of states (reported directly by redox capacitance), molecular surface coverage, electron transfer kinetics, and reorganization energies with comparatively little experimental effort. Exemplified here with electroactive copper protein and ferrocene films the approach is equally applicable to any redox active interface. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

Maschio L.J.,University of Sao Paulo | Pereira P.H.F.,Sao Paulo State University | Da Silva M.L.C.P.,University of Sao Paulo
Carbohydrate Polymers | Year: 2012

A composite of cellulose extracted from bagasse with Nb 2O 5·nH 2O in three different proportions (16.67, 37.5 and 50.0 wt%) was prepared using the co-precipitation method. The materials were characterized by X-ray diffractometry (XRD), Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TG/DTG), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). TG data obtained show that the presence of inorganic material influenced slightly the stability of the hybrid material. The precipitation of 16.67 wt.% of oxide was sufficient to inhibit the combustion peaks present in the DSC curve of cellulose. This work will help find new applications for these materials. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Dela Cruz C.,Federal University of Minas Gerais | Pereira O.C.M.,Sao Paulo State University
Journal of Physiological Sciences | Year: 2012

The objective of this study was to investigate whether prenatal exposure to testosterone (T) could change the body weight (BW), anogenital distance (AGD), anogenital distance index (AGDI), puberty onset, social behavior, fertility, sexual behavior, sexual preference, and T level of male rats in adulthood. To test this hypothesis, pregnant rats received either 1 mg/animal of T propionate diluted in 0.1 ml peanut oil or 0.1 ml peanut oil, as control, on the 17th, 18th and 19th gestational days. No alterations in BW, AGD, AGDI, fertility, and sexual behavior were observed (p>0.05). Delayed onset of puberty (p<0.0001), increased aggressive behavior (p>0.05), altered pattern of sexual preference (p<0.05), and reduced T plasma level (p<0.05) were observed for adult male rats exposed prenatally to T. In conclusion, the results showed that prenatal exposure to T was able to alter important aspects of sexual and social behavior although these animals were efficient at producing descendants. In this sense more studies should be carried to evaluated the real impact of this hormonal alteration on critical period of sexual differentiation on humans, because pregnant women exposed to hyperandrogenemia and then potentially exposing their unborn children to elevated androgen levels in the uterus can undergo alteration of normal levels of T during the sexual differentiation period, and, as a consequence, affect the reproductive and behavior patterns of their children in adulthood. © 2012 The Physiological Society of Japan and Springer.

Goncalves R.C.R.,Federal University of Espirito Santo | Lisboa H.C.F.,Federal University of Mato Grosso | Pombeiro-Sponchiado S.R.,Sao Paulo State University
World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology | Year: 2012

Although most of the Ascomycetes present DHN-melanin, some reports suggest that A. nidulans does not produce this type of melanin. In this study, we analyzed the pigment extracted from highly melanized strains (MEL1 and MEL2) of Aspergillus nidulans to determine the type of melanin present in this fungus. Our results showed that the pigment produced by MEL1 and MEL2 mutants possesses physical and chemical properties and UV-and IR-spectra very similar to synthetic DOPA-melanin. The characterization of this pigment in terms of its degradation products indicated the presence of indolic units, which were also found in synthetic DOPA-melanin. The analyses of the elemental composition showed that the pigment extracted from these mutants has a high percentage of nitrogen and, therefore, it cannot be DHN-melanin, which presents only trace of nitrogen. This observation was confirmed in the test with tricyclazole because this inhibitor of DHN-melanin biosynthesis did not suppress pigment production in the MEL1 and MEL2 strains. On the other hand, in a medium containing tropolone, an inhibitor of DOPA-melanin biosynthesis, the dark pigmentation of the colonies was not observed indicating that this compound inhibited melanin production in these strains. Taken together, the results obtained in this study indicate that melanin produced by these mutants is DOPA type, representing the first report on characterization of this type of melanin in A. nidulans. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Junqueira J.C.,Sao Paulo State University
Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology | Year: 2012

Oral candidiasis is an opportunistic infection caused by yeast of the Candida genus, primarily Candida albicans. It is generally associated with predisposing factors such as the use of immunosuppressive agents, antibiotics, prostheses, and xerostomia. The development of research in animal models is extremely important for understanding the nature of the fungal pathogenicity, host interactions, and treatment of oral mucosal Candida infections. Many oral candidiasis models in rats and mice have been developed with antibiotic administration, induction of xerostomia, treatment with immunosuppressive agents, or the use of germ-free animals, and all these models has both benefits and limitations. Over the past decade, invertebrate model hosts, including Galleria mellonella, Caenorhabditis elegans, and Drosophila melanogaster, have been used for the study of Candida pathogenesis. These invertebrate systems offer a number of advantages over mammalian vertebrate models, predominantly because they allow the study of strain collections without the ethical considerations associated with studies in mammals. Thus, the invertebrate models may be useful to understanding of pathogenicity of Candida isolates from the oral cavity, interactions of oral microorganisms, and study of new antifungal compounds for oral candidiasis. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

Kuabara M.R.,Sao Paulo State University
Quintessence international (Berlin, Germany : 1985) | Year: 2010

This article reports the 9-year clinical outcome of the two-stage surgical rehabilitation of a severely atrophic edentulous maxilla with a metal-resin fixed denture supported by implants anchored in the zygomatic bone and the maxilla. After clinical and radiographic examination, zygomatic implants were inserted bilaterally and four standard implants were placed in the anterior region of the maxilla. Six months later, the implants were loaded with a provisional acrylic resin denture, and the definitive implant-supported metal-resin fixed denture was provided 1 year after implant placement. After 9 years of follow-up, no painful symptoms, peri-implant inflammation or infection, implant instability, or bone resorption was observed. In the present case, the rehabilitation of severe maxillary atrophy using the zygomatic bone as a site for implant anchorage provided good long-term functional and esthetic results. Therefore, with proper case selection, correct indication, and knowledge of the surgical technique, the use of zygomatic implants associated with standard implants offers advantages in the rehabilitation of severely resorbed maxillae, especially in areas with inadequate bone quality and volume, without needing an additional bone grafting surgery, thereby shortening or avoiding hospital stay and reducing surgical morbidity.

This three-dimensional finite element analysis study evaluated the effect of different material combinations on stress distribution within metal-ceramic and all-ceramic single implant-supported prostheses. Three-dimensional finite element models reproducing a segment of the maxilla with a missing left first premolar were created. Five groups were established to represent different superstructure materials: GP, porcelain fused to gold alloy; GR, modified composite resin fused to gold alloy; TP, porcelain fused to titanium; TR, modified composite resin fused to titanium; and ZP, porcelain fused to zirconia. A 100-N vertical force was applied to the contact points of the crowns. All models were fixed in the superior region of bone tissue and in the mesial and distal faces of the maxilla section. Stress maps were generated by processing with finite element software. Stress distribution and stress values of supporting bone were similar for the GP, GR, TP, and ZP models (1,574.3 MPa, 1,574.3 MPa, 1,574.3 MPa, and 1,574.2 MPa, respectively) and different for the TR model (1,838.3 MPa). The ZP model transferred less stress to the retention screw (785 MPa) than the other groups (939 MPa for GP, 961 MPa for GR, 1,010 MPa for TP, and 1,037 MPa for TR). The use of different materials to fabricate a superstructure for a single implant-supported prosthesis did not affect the stress distribution in the supporting bone. The retention screw received less stress when a combination of porcelain and zirconia was used.

Berkovits N.,Sao Paulo State University
Journal of High Energy Physics | Year: 2014

Mason and Skinner recently constructed a chiral infinite tension limit of the Ramond-Neveu-Schwarz superstring which was shown to compute the Cachazo-He-Yuan formulae for tree-level d = 10 Yang-Mills amplitudes and the NS-NS sector of tree-level d = 10 supergravity amplitudes. In this letter, their chiral infinite tension limit is generalized to the pure spinor superstring which computes a d = 10 superspace version of the Cachazo-He-Yuan formulae for tree-level d = 10 super-Yang-Mills and supergravity amplitudes. © 2014 The Author(s).

Berkovits N.,Sao Paulo State University | Witten E.,Institute for Advanced Study
Journal of High Energy Physics | Year: 2014

The SO(32) heterotic superstring on a Calabi-Yau manifold can spontaneously break supersymmetry at one-loop order even when it is unbroken at tree-level. It is known that calculating the supersymmetry-breaking effects in this model gives a relatively accessible test case of the subtleties of superstring perturbation theory in the RNS formalism. In the present paper, we calculate the relevant amplitudes in the pure spinor approach to superstring perturbation theory, and show that the regulator used in computing loop amplitudes in the pure spinor formalism leads to subtleties somewhat analogous to the more familiar subtleties of the RNS approach. © 2014 The Author(s).

He W.,Sao Paulo State University
Journal of High Energy Physics | Year: 2014

We investigate the relation between the four dimensional N =2 SU(2) super Yang-Mills theory with four fundamental flavors and the quantum mechanics model with Treibich-Verdier potential described by the Heun equation in the elliptic form. We study the precise correspondence of quantities in the gauge theory and the quantum mechanics model. An iterative method is used to obtain the asymptotic expansion of the spectrum for the Schrödinger operator, we are able to fix the precise relation between the energy spectrum and the instanton partition function of the gauge theory. We also study asymptotic expansions for the spectrum which correspond to the strong coupling regions of the Seiberg-Witten theory. © The Authors.

Carena M.,Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory | Carena M.,University of Chicago | Da Rold L.,Bariloche Atomic Center | Ponton E.,Sao Paulo State University
Journal of High Energy Physics | Year: 2014

We consider composite Higgs models where the Higgs is a pseudo-Nambu Goldstone boson arising from the spontaneous breaking of an approximate global symmetry by some underlying strong dynamics. We focus on the SO(5) → SO(4) symmetry breaking pattern, assuming the "partial compositeness" paradigm. We study the consequences on Higgs physics of the fermionic representations produced by the strong dynamics, that mix with the Standard Model (SM) degrees of freedom. We consider models based on the lowest-dimensional representations of SO(5) that allow for the custodial protection of the Zb̄b coupling, i.e. the 5, 10 and 14. We find a generic suppression of the gluon fusion process, while the Higgs branching fractions can be enhanced or suppressed compared to the SM. Interestingly, a precise measurement of the Higgs boson couplings can distinguish between different realizations in the fermionic sector, thus providing crucial information about the nature of the UV dynamics. © 2014 The Author(s).

Jusinskas R.L.,Sao Paulo State University
Journal of High Energy Physics | Year: 2014

In this work, a supersymmetric DDF-like construction within the pure spinor formalism is presented. Starting with the light-cone massless vertices, the creation/annihilation algebra is derived in a simple manner, enabling a systematic con-struction of the physical vertex operators at any mass level in terms of SO(8) superfields, in both integrated and unintegrated forms. © The Authors.

Berkovits N.,Sao Paulo State University
Journal of High Energy Physics | Year: 2014

A covariant map between the Ramond-Neveu-Schwarz (RNS) and pure spinor formalisms for the superstring is found which transforms the RNS and pure spinor BRST operators into each other. The key ingredient is a dynamical twisting of the ten spin-half RNS fermions into five spin-one and five spin-zero fermions using bosonic pure spinors that parameterize an SO(10)/U(5) coset. The map relates massless vertex operators in the two formalisms, and gives a new description of Ramond states which does not require spin fields. An argument is proposed for relating the amplitude prescriptions in the two formalisms. © 2014 The Author(s).

Hollowood T.J.,University of Swansea | Miramontes J.L.,University of Santiago de Compostela | Schmidtt D.M.,University of Swansea | Schmidtt D.M.,Sao Paulo State University
Journal of High Energy Physics | Year: 2014

A general class of deformations of integrable sigma-models with symmetric space F/G target-spaces are found. These deformations involve defining the non-abelian T dual of the sigma-model and then replacing the coupling of the Lagrange multiplier imposing flatness with a gauged F/F WZW model. The original sigma-model is obtained in the limit of large level. The resulting deformed theories are shown to preserve both integrability and the equations-of-motion, but involve a deformation of the symplectic structure. It is shown that this deformed symplectic structure involves a linear combination of the original Poisson bracket and a generalization of the Faddeev-Reshetikhin Poisson bracket which we show can be re-expressed as two decoupled F current algebras. It is then shown that the deformation can be incorporated into the classical model of strings on (formula presented) via a generalization of the Pohlmeyer reduction. In this case, in the limit of large sigma-model coupling it is shown that the theory becomes the relativistic symmetric space sine-Gordon theory. These results point to the existence of a deformation of this kind for the full Green-Schwarz superstring on AdS5 × S5. © 2014, The Author(s).

Fichet S.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte | Von Gersdorff G.,Sao Paulo State University
Journal of High Energy Physics | Year: 2014

We examine trilinear and quartic anomalous gauge couplings (AGCs) generated in composite Higgs models and models with warped extra dimensions. We first revisit the SU(2)L × U(1)Y effective Lagrangian and derive the charged and two-photon neutral AGCs. We derive the general perturbative contributions to the pure field-strength operators from spin 0, 12 , 1 resonances by means of the heat kernel method. In the composite Higgs framework, we derive the pattern of expected deviations from typical SO(N) embeddings of the light composite top partner. We then study a generic warped extra dimension framework with AdS5 background, recasting in few parameters the features of models relevant for AGCs. We also present a detailed study of the latest bounds from electroweak and Higgs precision observables, with and without brane kinetic terms. For vanishing brane kinetic terms, we find that the S and T parameters exclude KK gauge modes of the RS custodial [non-custodial] scenario below 7.7 [14.7] TeV, for a brane Higgs and below 6.6 [8.1] TeV for a Pseudo Nambu-Goldstone Higgs, at 95% CL. These constraints can be relaxed in presence of brane kinetic terms. The leading AGCs are probing the KK gravitons and the KK modes of bulk gauge fields in parts of the parameter space. In these scenarios, the future CMS and ATLAS forward proton detectors could be sensitive to the effect of KK gravitons in the multi-TeV mass range. Open Access, © 2014 The Authors.

Berkovits N.,Sao Paulo State University | Chandia O.,Adolfo Ibanez University
Journal of High Energy Physics | Year: 2014

Using the RNS-like fermionic vector variables introduced in arXiv:1305.0693, the pure spinor b ghost in a curved heterotic superstring background is easily constructed. This construction simplifies and completes the b ghost construction in a curved background of arXiv:1311.7012. © 2014 The Author(s).

Lima W.C.C.,Sao Paulo State University
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2013

We discuss the quantization of an unstable field through the construction of a "one-particle Hilbert space." The system considered here is a neutral scalar field evolving over a globally hyperbolic static spacetime and subject to a stationary external scalar potential. In order to prove our results we assume spacetimes without horizons and that the theory possess a "mass gap." Our strategy consists in building a complex structure, which arises from a suitable positive bilinear form defined over the space of classical solutions of the field equation. Once the space of states of the quantum field has been set, it is possible to study the effect of the time translation symmetry on it. From the time translation operator we obtain an expression for the Hamiltonian operator associated with the unstable sector of the field. This last result coincides with findings from long ago showing that the unstable degrees of freedom of the field behave as nonrelativistic particles in a parabolic potential barrier. © 2013 American Physical Society.

Vitale S.,Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Lynch R.,Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Veitch J.,Nikhef | Veitch J.,University of Birmingham | And 2 more authors.
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2014

Compact binary coalescences are the most promising sources of gravitational waves (GWs) for ground-based detectors. Binary systems containing one or two spinning black holes are particularly interesting due to spin-orbit (and eventual spin-spin) interactions and the opportunity of measuring spins directly through GW observations. In this Letter, we analyze simulated signals emitted by spinning binaries with several values of masses, spins, orientations, and signal-to-noise ratios, as detected by an advanced LIGO-Virgo network. We find that for moderate or high signal-to-noise ratio the spin magnitudes can be estimated with errors of a few percent (5%-30%) for neutron star-black hole (black hole-black hole) systems. Spins' tilt angle can be estimated with errors of 0.04 rad in the best cases, but typical values will be above 0.1 rad. Errors will be larger for signals barely above the threshold for detection. The difference in the azimuth angles of the spins, which may be used to check if spins are locked into resonant configurations, cannot be constrained. We observe that the best performances are obtained when the line of sight is perpendicular to the system's total angular momentum and that a sudden change of behavior occurs when a system is observed from angles such that the plane of the orbit can be seen both from above and below during the time the signal is in band. This study suggests that direct measurement of black hole spin by means of GWs can be as precise as what can be obtained from x-ray binaries. © 2014 American Physical Society.

Dalmazi D.,Sao Paulo State University
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2013

It is possible to show that there are three independent families of models describing a massive spin-2 particle via a rank-2 tensor. One of them contains the massive Fierz-Pauli model, the only case described by a symmetric tensor. The three families have different local symmetries in the massless limit and can not be interconnected by any local field redefinition. We show here, however, that they can be related with the help of a decoupled and nondynamic (spectator) field. The spectator field may be either an antisymmetric tensor B μν=-Bνμ, a vector Aμ or a scalar field φ, corresponding to each of the three families. The addition of the extra field allows us to formulate master actions which interpolate between the symmetric Fierz-Pauli theory and the other models. We argue that massive gravity models based on the Fierz-Pauli theory are not expected to be equivalent to possible local self-interacting theories built up on top of the two new families of massive spin-2 models. The approach used here may be useful to investigate dual (nonsymmetric) formulations of higher-spin particles. © 2013 American Physical Society.

This study aimed to investigate the profile of the occurrence of abuse against children and adolescents. We analyzed the data recorded in police reports from the Department of Women's Defense, Araçatuba-SP, in 2008, relating to assault, victim-offender relationship, sociodemographic characteristics of offenders and victims, and victims' demand for health services. Among the accusations, there was a higher prevalence of physical abuse, being the residence the place of higher incidence of aggression. In most cases, the aggressor was the mother of the child, being the subject of aggression not reported, in most cases. Thus, we can define the profile of violent incidents against children, contributing to the visualization, knowledge and to deal with the problem.

Tucci A.M.,Federal University of Sao Paulo | Kerr-Correa F.,Sao Paulo State University | Souza-Formigoni M.L.O.,University of Sao Paulo
Child Abuse and Neglect | Year: 2010

Objective: In this study, we compared the frequency and intensity of childhood traumas in alcohol- or other drug-dependent patients, in patients with depression, and in a control group without psychiatric diagnoses. Methods: The study had a retrospective design of a clinical sample of men and women from the groups listed above. They were evaluated by the same standardized instrument: the "Childhood Trauma Questionnaire.". Results: A higher frequency and intensity of emotional, physical, and sexual abuse were found in alcohol- and other drug-dependent patients than in patients with depression, who, in turn, presented significantly higher proportions than the control group. In all of the cases, the frequency was higher among women than men. Conclusion: Because of the high frequency and intensity of childhood traumas among alcohol- or other drug-dependent patients and depressed patients, the assessment of problems due to childhood traumas among these patients is essential to a better understanding of the etiology of those disorders and to their treatment. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Planeta C.S.,Sao Paulo State University
Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria | Year: 2013

Drug addiction has serious health and social consequences. In the last 50 years, a wide range of techniques have been developed to model specific aspects of drug-taking behaviors and have greatly contributed to the understanding of the neurobiological basis of drug abuse and addiction. In the last two decades, new models have been proposed in an attempt to capture the more genuine aspects of addiction-like behaviors in laboratory animals. The goal of the present review is to provide an overview of the preclinical procedures used to study drug abuse and dependence and describe recent progress that has been made in studying more specific aspects of addictive behavior in animals. © 2013 Associação Brasileira de Psiquiatria.

Moura L.P.,Sao Paulo State University
Lipids in health and disease | Year: 2011

Diabetes mellitus is associated with metabolic dysfunctions, including alterations in circulating lipid levels and fat tissue accumulation, which causes, among other pathologies, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The objective of this study was to analyse the effects of physical exercise and spirulina intake on the control of NAFLD in diabetic Wistar rats. Diabetes was induced in the animals through intravenous administration of alloxan. The rats were divided into four groups: Diabetic Control (DC) - diabetic rats fed with a control diet and no physical exercise; Diabetic Spirulina (DS) - diabetic rats fed with a diet that included spirulina; Diabetic Spirulina and Exercise (DSE) - diabetic rats fed with a diet that included Spirulina and that exercised; and Diabetic Exercise (DE) - diabetic rats fed with a control diet and that exercised. The groups DS, DSE, and DE presented lower plasma concentrations of LDL cholesterol than DC, as well as lower levels of total liver lipids in groups DS, DSE, and DE in comparison to DC. Thus, spirulina appears to be effective in reducing total circulating levels of LDL-cholesterol and hepatic lipids, alone or in conjunction with physical exercise in diabetic rats.

Gilmour S.G.,University of Southampton | Trinca L.A.,Sao Paulo State University
Journal of the Royal Statistical Society. Series C: Applied Statistics | Year: 2012

One attractive feature of optimum design criteria, such as D- and A-optimality, is that they are directly related to statistically interpretable properties of the designs that are obtained, such as minimizing the volume of a joint confidence region for the parameters. However, the assumed relationships with inferential procedures are valid only if the variance of experimental units is assumed to be known. If the variance is estimated, then the properties of the inferences depend also on the number of degrees of freedom that are available for estimating the error variance. Modified optimality criteria are defined, which correctly reflect the utility of designs with respect to some common types of inference. For fractional factorial and response surface experiments, the designs that are obtained are quite different from those which are optimal under the standard criteria, with many more replicate points required to estimate error. The optimality of these designs assumes that inference is the only purpose of running the experiment, but in practice interpretation of the point estimates of parameters and checking for lack of fit of the treatment model assumed are also usually important. Thus, a compromise between the new criteria and others is likely to be more relevant to many practical situations. Compound criteria are developed, which take account of multiple objectives, and are applied to fractional factorial and response surface experiments. The resulting designs are more similar to standard designs but still have sufficient residual degrees of freedom to allow effective inferences to be carried out. The new procedures developed are applied to three experiments from the food industry to see how the designs used could have been improved and to several illustrative examples. The design optimization is implemented through a simple exchange algorithm. © 2012 Royal Statistical Society.

Gavrilov S.P.,Herzen State Pedagogical University | Gitman D.M.,Sao Paulo State University
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2016

QED with strong external backgrounds that can create particles from the vacuum is well developed for the so-called t-electric potential steps, which are time-dependent external electric fields that are switched on and off at some time instants. However, there exist many physically interesting situations where external backgrounds do not switch off at the time infinity. E.g., these are time-independent nonuniform electric fields that are concentrated in restricted space areas. The latter backgrounds represent a kind of spatial x-electric potential steps for charged particles. They can also create particles from the vacuum, the Klein paradox being closely related to this process. Approaches elaborated for treating quantum effects in the t-electric potential steps are not directly applicable to the x-electric potential steps and their generalization for x-electric potential steps was not sufficiently developed. We believe that the present work represents a consistent solution of the latter problem. We have considered a canonical quantization of the Dirac and scalar fields with x-electric potential step and have found in- and out-creation and annihilation operators that allow one to have particle interpretation of the physical system under consideration. To identify in- and out-operators we have performed a detailed mathematical and physical analysis of solutions of the relativistic wave equations with an x-electric potential step with subsequent QFT analysis of correctness of such an identification. We elaborated a nonperturbative (in the external field) technique that allows one to calculate all characteristics of zero-order processes, such, for example, scattering, reflection, and electron-positron pair creation, without radiation corrections, and also to calculate Feynman diagrams that describe all characteristics of processes with interaction between the in-, out-particles and photons. These diagrams have formally the usual form, but contain special propagators. Expressions for these propagators in terms of in- and out-solutions are presented. We apply the elaborated approach to two popular exactly solvable cases of x-electric potential steps, namely, to the Sauter potential and to the Klein step. © 2016 American Physical Society.

Kim S.-M.,Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology | Wang S.,Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology | Brennan M.J.,Sao Paulo State University
Smart Materials and Structures | Year: 2011

This paper is concerned with feedback vibration control of a lightly damped flexible structure that has a large number of well-separated modes. A single active electrical dynamic absorber is used to reduce a particular single vibration mode selectively or multiple modes simultaneously. The absorber is realized electrically by feeding back the structural acceleration at one position to a collocated piezoceramic patch actuator via a controller consisting of one or several second order lowpass filters. A simple analytical method is presented to design a modal control filter that is optimal in that it maximally flattens the mobility frequency response of the target mode, as well as robust in that it works within a prescribed maximum control spillover of 2dB at all frequencies. Experiments are conducted with a free-free beam to demonstrate its ability to control any single mode optimally and robustly. It is also shown that an active absorber with multiple such filters can effectively control multiple modes simultaneously. © 2011 IOP Publishing Ltd.

Aim: Our aim was to investigate whether land use from the adjacent terrestrial environment influences phytoplankton assemblage structure (composition, richness, diversity, and abundance) and biomass (chlorophyll-a) in a Cerrado stream during different periods of the year. Method: The fieldwork was carried out at each 3 months during two years. Results: The physical and chemical variables that better indicated differences in water condition were conductivity, dissolved oxygen, and transparency. There was also a noticeable increase in the concentration of nitrogen, phosphorus, and suspended matter in the water during summer due to the direct effects of rainfall. The phytoplankton assemblages were composed by 64 species. Cryptophyceae was the most abundant group, followed by Bacillariophyceae. For both years, richness and diversity were higher during spring and autumn, while phytoplankton abundance and chlorophyll-a concentration were greater during autumn and summer. The cluster and the canonic correspondence analyses evidenced that seasonality and land use are important factors in structuring phytoplankton communities along the year. Alterations in phytoplankton assemblages registered herein were probably a consequence of variations on intensity and frequency of water mixing, along with the input of nutrients from the adjacent terrestrial system. Conclusion: Overall phytoplankton assemblage structure showed to be highly influenced by land use, corroborating our initial hypothesis.

Martins T.H.,Sao Paulo State University
Journal of Craniofacial Surgery | Year: 2016

ABSTRACT: Carcinomas of salivary glands are rare and can affect major or minor salivary glands. Among them, the mucoepidermoid carcinoma is the most prevalent and its occurrence in the first 2 decades of life is highly unusual. Their common clinical aspect to different diseases is a challenge in diagnosis. The objective of this work is to elucidate the diagnosis of lesion in the hard palate of an adolescent patient, brown-skinned, male, forwarded to the oral surgery department at the State University of Londrina. Initially, he complained about a progressive swelling in the last 60 days. Through computed tomography scan, it was noted intraosseous involvement in the maxilla involving dental apex of the elements 13, 14, 15, right maxillary sinus extending to piriform sinus. Proceeding with clinical examination, followed by biopsy, histology, and immunohistochemical analysis, we established the diagnosis of mucoepidermoid carcinoma. After verification, the patient was sent to the referenced service to start cancer treatment. © 2016 by Mutaz B. Habal, MD.

Del Barrio R.A.,Sao Paulo State University
The International journal of oral & maxillofacial implants | Year: 2010

This study evaluated the effect of severe magnesium (Mg) dietary deficiency on systemic bone density and biomechanical resistance of bone tissue to the removal torque of osseointegrated implants. The sample consisted of 45 rats; each received a titanium implant in their tibial metaphysis. After 60 days, the animals were divided into three groups (n = 15) according to their dietary Mg: the control group received the recommended content of Mg, group Mg1 received a 75% reduction in dietary Mg content, and group Mg2 was fed a diet with a 90% reduction in Mg content. Animals were sacrificed 150 days after implant placement. Serum concentrations of Mg were measured and the effect of Mg deficiency on systemic bone density was evaluated by densitometry of the lumbar vertebrae and femur. Biomechanical characteristics were measured by resistance of the bone tissue to removal of the implants. Results: Lower Mg serum concentrations were found for the Mg1 and Mg2 groups; however, densitometric analysis and torque evaluations showed a statistically significant difference only in the Mg2 group (P < .05). There was a statistically significant difference in removal torque between the Mg2 group and the control group. This study showed that a severe deficiency of Mg decreased the systemic bone density and removal torque of osseointegrated implants.

Pereira Jr. A.,Sao Paulo State University
Mens Sana Monographs | Year: 2013

De Sousa′s comprehensive two-part review of a diversity of contemporary approaches to the study of consciousness is highly welcome. He makes us aware of a proliferation of theoretical and empirical approaches targeting a common theme, but diverging in many ways. He skilfully accomplishes a classification of kinds of approach, identification of the main representatives, their contributions, and respective limitations. However, he does not show how the desired integration could be accomplished. Besides summarising De Sousa′s efficient analytical work, I make critical comments and briefly report my contribution for the integration project.© MSM 2013.

Dayan F.E.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Zaccaro M.L.M.,Sao Paulo State University
Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology | Year: 2012

Photosynthesis is the single most important source of O 2 and organic chemical energy necessary to support all non-autotrophic life forms. Plants compartmentalize this elaborate biochemical process within chloroplasts in order to safely harness the power of solar energy and convert it into usable chemical units. Stresses (biotic or abiotic) that challenge the integrity of the plant cell are likely to affect photosynthesis and alter chlorophyll fluorescence. A simple three-step assay was developed to test selected herbicides representative of the known herbicide mechanisms of action and a number of natural phytotoxins to determine their effect on photosynthesis as measured by chlorophyll fluorescence. The most active compounds were those interacting directly with photosynthesis (inhibitors of photosystem I and II), those inhibiting carotenoid synthesis, and those with mechanisms of action generating reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxidation (uncouplers and inhibitors of protoporphyrinogen oxidase). Other active compounds targeted lipids (very-long-chain fatty acid synthase and removal of cuticular waxes). Therefore, induced chlorophyll fluorescence is a good biomarker to help identify certain herbicide modes of action and their dependence on light for bioactivity. © 2012.

Yamashita M.T.,Sao Paulo State University
Few-Body Systems | Year: 2014

For a system formed by three bosons interacting by a pairwise zero-range potential we show how the functional form of the asymptotic momentum distribution changes drastically when passing from bi (2D) to tridimensional (3D) regime, mainly affected by the absence/presence of the Efimov effect in 2D/3D. The spectator functions and the momentum distribution are calculated analytically for both regimes. © 2014 Springer-Verlag Wien.

Fanchini F.F.,Sao Paulo State University | Karpat G.,Sabanci University | Castelano L.K.,Federal University of Sao Carlos | Rossatto D.Z.,Federal University of Sao Carlos
Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics | Year: 2013

We study the non-Markovianity of the dynamics of open quantum systems, focusing on the cases of independent and common environmental interactions. We investigate the degree of non-Markovianity quantified by two distinct measures proposed by Luo, Fu, and Song and Breuer, Laine, and Pillo. We show that the amount of non-Markovianity, for a single qubit and a pair of qubits, depends on the quantum process, the proposed measure, and whether the environmental interaction is collective or independent. In particular, we demonstrate that while the degree of non-Markovianity generally increases with the number of qubits in the system for independent environments, the same behavior is not always observed for common environments. In the latter case, our analysis suggests that the amount of non-Markovianity could increase or decrease depending on the properties of the considered quantum process. © 2013 American Physical Society.

Fanchini F.F.,Sao Paulo State University | De Oliveira M.C.,University of Campinas | De Oliveira M.C.,University of Calgary | Castelano L.K.,Federal University of Sao Carlos | Cornelio M.F.,Federal University of Mato Grosso
Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics | Year: 2013

Unlike correlation of classical systems, entanglement of quantum systems cannot be distributed at will: if one system A is maximally entangled with another system B, it cannot be entangled at all with a third system C. This concept, known as the monogamy of entanglement, is manifest when the entanglement of A with a pair BC can be divided as contributions of the entanglement between A and B and A and C, plus a term τABC involving genuine tripartite entanglement and so expected to be always positive. A very important measure in quantum information theory, the entanglement of formation (EOF), fails to satisfy this last requirement. Here we present the reasons for that and show a set of conditions that an arbitrary pure tripartite state must satisfy for the EOF to become a monogamous measure, i.e., for τABC≥0. The relation derived is connected to the discrepancy between quantum and classical correlations, τABC being negative whenever the quantum correlation prevails over the classical one. This result is employed to elucidate features of the distribution of entanglement during a dynamical evolution. It also helps to relate all monogamous instances of the EOF to the squashed sntanglement, an entanglement measure that is always monogamous. © 2013 American Physical Society.

Nievinski F.G.,Sao Paulo State University | Larson K.M.,University of Colorado at Boulder
IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing | Year: 2014

Snowpacks provide reservoirs of freshwater. The amount stored and how fast it is released by melting are vital information for both scientists and water supply managers. GPS multipath reflectometry (GPS-MR) is a new technique that can be used to measure snow depth. Signal-to-noise ratio data collected by GPS instruments exhibit peaks and troughs as coherent direct and reflected signals go in and out of phase. These interference fringes are used to retrieve the unknown land surface characteristics. In this two-part contribution, a forward/inverse approach is offered for GPS-MR of snow depth. Part I starts with the physically based forward model utilized to simulate the coupling of the surface and antenna responses. A statistically rigorous inverse model is presented and employed to retrieve parameter corrections responsible for observation residuals. The unknown snow characteristics are parameterized, the observation/parameter sensitivity is illustrated, the inversion performance is assessed in terms of its precision and its accuracy, and the dependence of model results on the satellite direction is quantified. The latter serves to indicate the sensing footprint of the reflection. © 1980-2012 IEEE.

Landulfo A.G.S.,Federal University of ABC | Torres A.C.,Sao Paulo State University
Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics | Year: 2013

We investigate how special relativity influences the transmission of classical information through quantum channels by evaluating the Holevo bound when the sender and the receiver are in (relativistic) relative motion. By using the spin degrees of freedom of spin-1/2 fermions to encode the classical information, we show that, for some configurations, the accessible information in the receiver can be increased when the spin detector moves fast enough. This is possible by allowing the momentum wave packet of one of the particles to be sufficiently wide while the momentum wave packets of other particles are kept relatively narrow. In this way, one can take advantage of the fact that boosts entangle the spin and momentum degrees of freedom of spin-1/2 fermions to increase the accessible information in the former. We close the paper with a discussion of how this relativistic quantum channel cannot in general be described by completely positive quantum maps. © 2013 American Physical Society.

The problem of bound states in a double delta potential is revisited by means of Fourier sine and cosine transforms. © Sociedade Brasileira de Física.

Correa R.A.C.,Federal University of ABC | Da Rocha R.,Federal University of ABC | Da Rocha R.,International School for Advanced Studies | De Souza Dutra A.,Sao Paulo State University
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2015

In this work we investigate the consequences of the Lorentz symmetry violation on extremely long-lived, time-dependent, and spatially localized field configurations, named oscillons. This is accomplished for two interacting scalar field theories in (D+1) dimensions in the context of the so-called standard model extension. We show that D-dimensional scalar field lumps can present a typical size Rmin RKK, where RKK is the extent of extra dimensions in Kaluza-Klein theories. The size Rmin is shown to strongly depend upon the terms that control the LV of the theory. This implies either contraction or dilation of the average radius Rmin, and a new rule for its composition, likewise. Moreover, we show that the spatial dimensions for existence of oscillating lumps have an upper limit, opening new possibilities to probe the existence of D-dimensional oscillons at TeV energy scale. In addition, in a cosmological scenario with Lorentz symmetry breaking, we show that in the early Universe with an extremely high energy density and a strong LV, the typical size Rmin was highly dilated. As the Universe had expanded and cooled down, it then passed through a phase transition toward a Lorentz symmetry, wherein Rmin tends to be compact. © 2015 American Physical Society.

Appolinario C.M.,Sao Paulo State University | Jackson A.C.,University of Manitoba
Antiviral Therapy | Year: 2015

Human rabies is virtually always fatal despite numerous attempts at aggressive therapy. Most survivors received one or more doses of rabies vaccine prior to the onset of the disease. The Milwaukee Protocol has proved to be ineffective for rabies and should no longer be used. New approaches are needed and an improved understanding of basic mechanisms responsible for the clinical disease in rabies may prove to be useful for the development of novel therapeutic approaches. Antiviral therapy is thought to be an important component of combination therapy for the management of human rabies, and immunotherapy and neuroprotective therapy should also be strongly considered. There are many important issues for consideration regarding drug delivery to the central nervous system in rabies, which are in part related to the presence of the blood-brain barrier and also the blood-spinal cord barrier. Ribavirin and interferon-α have proved to be disappointing agents for the therapy of rabies. There is insufficient evidence to support the continued use of ketamine or amantadine for the therapy of rabies. Minocycline or corticosteroids should not be used because of concerns about aggravating the disease. A variety of new antiviral agents are under development and evaluation, including favipiravir, RNA interference (for example, small interfering [si]RNAs) and novel targeted approaches, including interference with viral capsid assembly and viral egress. © 2015 International Medical Press.

Fresia P.,University of Sao Paulo | Azeredo-Espin A.M.L.,University of Campinas | Lyra M.L.,Sao Paulo State University
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Insect pest phylogeography might be shaped both by biogeographic events and by human influence. Here, we conducted an approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) analysis to investigate the phylogeography of the New World screwworm fly, Cochliomyia hominivorax, with the aim of understanding its population history and its order and time of divergence. Our ABC analysis supports that populations spread from North to South in the Americas, in at least two different moments. The first split occurred between the North/Central American and South American populations in the end of the Last Glacial Maximum (15,300-19,000 YBP). The second split occurred between the North and South Amazonian populations in the transition between the Pleistocene and the Holocene eras (9,100-11,000 YBP). The species also experienced population expansion. Phylogenetic analysis likewise suggests this north to south colonization and Maxent models suggest an increase in the number of suitable areas in South America from the past to present. We found that the phylogeographic patterns observed in C. hominivorax cannot be explained only by climatic oscillations and can be connected to host population histories. Interestingly we found these patterns are very coincident with general patterns of ancient human movements in the Americas, suggesting that humans might have played a crucial role in shaping the distribution and population structure of this insect pest. This work presents the first hypothesis test regarding the processes that shaped the current phylogeographic structure of C. hominivorax and represents an alternate perspective on investigating the problem of insect pests. © 2013 Fresia et al.

Berkovits N.,Sao Paulo State University | Mazzucato L.,Simons Center for Geometry and Physics
Journal of High Energy Physics | Year: 2010

In the pure spinor formalism for the superstring, the b antighost is necessary for multiloop amplitude computations and is a composite operator constructed to satisfy {Q, b} = T where Q is the BRST operator and T is the holomorphic stress-tensor. In superstring backgrounds with only NS-NS fields turned on, or in flat space, one needs to introduce "non-minimal" variables in order to construct the b antighost. However, in Type II backgrounds where the Ramond-Ramond bispinor field-strength satisfies certain conditions, the b antighost can be constructed without the non-minimal variables. Although the b antighost in these backgrounds is not holomorphic, its antiholomorphic derivative is BRST-trivial. We discuss the properties of this operator both in the AdS 5 × S 5 background and in a generic curved background. © 2010 SISSA.

Hoff Da Silva J.M.,Sao Paulo State University | Da Rocha R.,Federal University of ABC
Classical and Quantum Gravity | Year: 2010

We derive the full projected Einstein-Brans-Dicke gravitational equations associated with an n-dimensional brane embedded in an (n + 1)-dimensional bulk. Using general conditions, as the positivity of the Brans-Dicke parameter and the effective Newton gravitational constant as well, we can constrain the brane cosmological constant in terms of the brane tension, the Brans-Dicke scalar field and the trace of the stress tensor on the brane, in order to achieve a dS brane. Applying these constraints to a specific five-dimensional model, a lower bound for the scalar field on the brane is elicited without solving the full equations. It is shown under which conditions the effective brane cosmological constant can be ignored in the brane projected gravitational field equations, suggesting a different fine tuning between the brane tension and the bulk cosmological constant. © 2010 IOP Publishing Ltd.

De Carvalho S.J.,Sao Paulo State University
EPL | Year: 2010

The salt effect on the adsorption-desorption transition of polyelectrolyte chains onto oppositely charged spherical macroions is investigated by means of the Metropolis Monte Carlo simulations and the weighted histogram analysis method. Verifying the variation of the mean binding energy and of the radius of gyration with the increase of the ionic strength it was possible to identify the coexistence between adsorbed and desorbed states. According to the free-energy profile as a function of the radius of gyration (order parameter) it was evidenced that the transitions are discontinuous and that the macroion charge dependence of the critical ionic strength is in agreement with the experimental data. Copyright © EPLA, 2010.

Jabbour C.J.C.,Sao Paulo State University
Resources, Conservation and Recycling | Year: 2013

Although the research on the relationship between human factors and environmental sustainability is slowly progressing, environmental training has attracted the most attention from researchers and practitioners. However, there remains a lack of research that integrates and systematises the available knowledge on organisational environmental training. Environmental training is fundamental to any successful activity of environmental management, conservation and recycling of resources. Thus, the aim of this paper was to present the results of a systematic literature review on environmental training in organisations. The main studies in this area were classified and coded, and a research agenda with 9 recommendations that may advance the field was presented. As a result of the gaps in the current literature, a framework was proposed aiming guide and strengthens the state-of-the-art research on environmental training. Additionally, results show that more research is needed on environmental training, combining training and green human resource management and defining/measuring the objectives of the environmental training actions. Future studies should also consider mixed methodologies and comparative perspectives. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Otalora G.,Sao Paulo State University
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2013

A detailed dynamical analysis of the tachyonic teleparallel dark energy model, in which a noncanonical scalar field (tachyon field) is nonminimally coupled to gravitation, is performed. It is found that, when the nonminimal coupling is ruled by a dynamically changing coefficient α≡f ,φ/√f, with f(φ) an arbitrary function of the scalar field φ, the Universe may experience a field-matter-dominated era "φMDE," in which it has some portions of the energy density of φ in the matter dominated era. This is the most significant difference in relation to the so-called teleparallel dark energy scenario, in which a canonical scalar field (quintessence) is nonminimally coupled to gravitation. © 2013 American Physical Society.

Doff A.,Federal Technological University of Parana | Luna E.G.S.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Natale A.A.,Federal University of ABC | Natale A.A.,Sao Paulo State University
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2013

Assuming that the 125 GeV particle observed at the LHC is a composite scalar and responsible for the electroweak gauge symmetry breaking, we consider the possibility that the bound state is generated by a non-Abelian gauge theory with dynamically generated gauge boson masses and a specific chiral symmetry breaking dynamics motivated by confinement. The scalar mass is computed with the use of the Bethe-Salpeter equation and its normalization condition as a function of the SU(N) group and the respective fermionic representation. If the fermions that form the composite state are in the fundamental representation of the SU(N) group, we can generate such a light boson only for one specific number of fermions for each group. We address the uncertainties underlying this result, when considering the strong dynamics in isolation. © 2013 American Physical Society.

Albuquerque R.M.,Sao Paulo State University | Lee S.H.,Yonsei University | Nielsen M.,University of Sao Paulo
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2013

We use QCD sum rules to study the possible existence of a Θc(3250) charmed pentaquark. We consider the contributions of condensates up to dimension 12 and work at leading order in αs. We obtain mΘc=(3.29±0.13) GeV, compatible with the mass of the structure seen by BABAR Collaboration in the decay channel B-→p̄Σc++π-π-. The proposed state is compatible with a previous proposed pentaquark state in the anticharmed sector. © 2013 American Physical Society.

da Silva F.R.,Federal University of Sao Carlos | Candeira C.P.,Servico Autonomo de Agua e Esgoto SAAE | de Cerqueira Rossa-Feres D.,Sao Paulo State University
Biodiversity and Conservation | Year: 2012

In the Neotropics, conversion of natural habitats into agricultural areas is occurring at a high rate, with consequent reduction of habitat complexity in anuran breeding ponds. Identifying features of farmland ponds that allow them to support a high diversity of species is fundamental for successful management and conservation policies and is especially important in Neotropical regions that harbor the highest anuran species richness in the world. Here, we aimed to investigate which environmental descriptors correlate the occurrence of anuran species in tropical farmland ponds in southeastern Brazil. We found that environmental descriptors reflecting the complexity of vegetation in farmland ponds primarily predict the diversity of anuran species in these habitats. Species richness was correlated mainly by vegetation height in the margin, with ponds that exhibit greater stratification harboring a larger number of species. Vegetation height in the interior of ponds, diversity of vegetation in the margin, pond area and hydroperiod were also important variables predicting the abundance of six of 10 anuran species analyzed. Our results show that features of farmland ponds representing increased habitat complexity are key factors in maintaining a high diversity of species, providing a greater variety of microhabitats, both in vertical and horizontal strata, and thus meeting diverse species-specific requirements. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Teixeira C.C.,Sao Paulo State University | Barbedo C.J.,University of Sao Paulo
Trees - Structure and Function | Year: 2012

The uncommon ability of monoembryonic seeds of Eugenia to develop seedlings after cutting or even after the removal of more than half of their storage tissue has recently been reported. Some Eugenia species are included among those at risk of disappearing, so the regeneration of plantlets from fragments of seeds could be an important mechanism both for the production of more than one normal seedling per seed and to understand the survival strategies of these species. Because the period in which this ability is present has not been studied, we analyzed the regenerative capacity of seeds of five Brazilian native species of Eugenia, considering two levels of maturity and three germination phases. Mature seeds have a greater potential to regenerate than immature ones; germinating seeds showed that the longer the root protrusion, the smaller the potential to regenerate new seedlings. However, our results clearly demonstrate that the ability to regenerate new roots or complete seedlings is present during a long period from the beginning of development until the late phases of germination. Cutting is potentially important to obtain plants on a larger scale. Because of intense predation of these seeds, this ability could be linked to an essential strategy for survival even after the removal of more than half of the storage tissues. As an alternative strategy to orthodox seeds, whose preservation is based on tolerance to desiccation, the recalcitrant seeds of Eugenia probably adopted the great reserve quantity and the regenerative capacity, allowing them to undergo successive germinations. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

Ladeira D.G.,Federal University of Sao Joao del Rei | Leonel E.D.,Sao Paulo State University
Physical Review E - Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics | Year: 2010

The behavior of the average velocity for a classical particle in the one-dimensional Fermi accelerator model under sawtooth external force is considered. For elastic collisions, it is known that the average velocity of the particle grows unlimitedly because of the discontinuities of the derivative of the moving wall's position with respect to time. However, and contrary to what was expected to be observed, the introduction of a friction force generated from a slip of a body against a rough surface leads to a boundary separating different regions of the phase space that yields the particle to either experience unlimited energy growth or suppression of Fermi acceleration. The Fermi acceleration is described by using scaling arguments. The formalism presented can be extended to two-dimensional time-dependent billiards as well as to higher-order mappings. © 2010 The American Physical Society.

Gavrilov S.P.,Herzen State Pedagogical University | Gitman D.M.,Sao Paulo State University
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2016

Using a quantum field theory approach, we consider particle scattering and vacuum instability in the so-called L-constant electric field, which is a constant electric field confined between two capacitor plates separated by a finite distance L. We obtain and analyze special sets of stationary solutions of the Dirac and Klein-Gordon equations with the L-constant electric field. Then, we represent probabilities of particle scattering and characteristics of the vacuum instability (related to pair creation) in terms of the introduced solutions. From exact formulas, we derive asymptotic expressions for the differential mean numbers, for the total mean number of created particles, and for the vacuum-to-vacuum transition probability. Using the equivalence principle, we demonstrate that the distributions of particles created by the L-constant electric field and the gravitational field of a black hole have a similar thermal structure. © 2016 American Physical Society.

Peserico C.S.,State University of Maringa | Zagatto A.M.,Sao Paulo State University | Machado F.A.,State University of Maringa
Journal of Sports Sciences | Year: 2014

This study compared the values and reliability of peak running speeds from incremental treadmill protocols with different speed increments. Thirty-one men, recreational, endurance-trained runners performed, in an alternate order, three continuous tests with different speed increments (0.5, 1 and 2 km · h-1). The tests were repeated using the same order. Peak speed was identified as (1) the greatest speed that could be maintained for a complete minute (Vpeak-60s), (2) the speed of the last complete stage (Vpeak-C) and (3) the speed of the last complete stage added to the product of the speed increment and the completed fraction of the incomplete stage (Vpeak-P). The Vpeak-P was the most reliable, independent of the incremental test protocol (1.5% ≤ CV ≤ 1.8%), and differently from Vpeak-C (1.8% ≤ CV ≤ 2.6%) and Vpeak-60s (1.6% ≤ CV ≤ 3.8%), the Vpeak-P was only slightly influenced by the incremental test protocol. The results suggest that Vpeak-P should be used to assess aerobic capability and monitor training effects and that other determinations of peak speed should be avoided. © 2014 Taylor & Francis.

Teresa F.B.,State University of Goias | Casatti L.,Sao Paulo State University
Ecology of Freshwater Fish | Year: 2012

In this study, we investigated how taxonomic and functional diversity of fish communities is influenced by forest cover and mesohabitat types in Neotropical lowland streams. We sampled fish fauna of 126 five-metre-long mesohabitats using an electrofishing unit in forested (n=3) and deforested (n=3) streams in the upper Paraná River basin, south-eastern Brazil. According to velocity and depth, three mesohabitat types have been considered: riffles (shallow and fast-flowing habitat), pools (deep and slow-flowing habitat) and runs (intermediate depth and velocity). Seven functional traits and 27 trait categories related to ecological, behavioural and life-history aspects of fish were considered. Our results indicate that forest cover and mesohabitat type influence fish communities in different ways. Whereas deforestation affects communities primarily through changes in diversity (functional and taxonomic), mesohabitat types determine changes in the functional composition. The increased diversity in deforested mesohabitats is driven by a decrease in species turnover among habitat patches within streams. This can be attributed to new feeding opportunities and microhabitat availabilities in deforested streams so favours the occurrence of species having a particular set of traits, indicating a strong habitat-trait relationship. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

Berbert J.M.,Sao Paulo State University | Fagan W.F.,University of Maryland University College
Ecological Complexity | Year: 2012

Recent studies have suggested that the long distance movements of some terrestrial mammals are not migratory, but rather nomadic. Moreover, the spatial heterogeneity and temporal predictability of resources were proposed as factors contributing to alternative movement strategies, such as sedentarism (i.e., range residency), migration, and nomadism. Here, we propose that, at the individual level, a dependence on spatial memory is another important parameter for distinguishing among population-level patterns of spatial distribution. For instance, migratory animals would have a long memory of the areas they prefer to revisit, whereas nomadic animals would remember recently visited areas as places to avoid as they search for resources. We develop a computational model in which individuals' movement decisions are based on the animals' spatial memory of previously visited areas. Through this approach, we delineate how the interplay between landscape persistence and spatial memory leads to sedentarism, migration, and nomadism. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Fichet S.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte | Von Gersdorff G.,Sao Paulo State University | Kepka O.,ASCR Institute of Physics Prague | Lenzi B.,CERN | And 2 more authors.
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2014

The sensitivities to anomalous quartic photon couplings at the Large Hadron Collider are estimated using diphoton production via photon fusion. The tagging of the protons proves to be a very powerful tool to suppress the background and unprecedented sensitivities down to 7×10-15GeV-4 are obtained, providing a new window on extra dimensions and strongly interacting composite states in the multi-TeV range. Generic contributions to quartic photon couplings from charged and neutral particles with arbitrary spin are also presented. © 2014 American Physical Society.

Canesin C.A.,Sao Paulo State University
3rd International Conference on Clean Electrical Power: Renewable Energy Resources Impact, ICCEP 2011 | Year: 2011

This paper presents a careful evaluation among the most usual MPPT techniques, doing meaningful comparisons with respect to the amount of energy extracted from the photovoltaic (PV) panel, PV voltage ripple, dynamic response and use of sensors, considering that the models are first implemented via MatLab/Simulink®, and after a digitally controlled boost DC-DC converter was implemented and connected to an Agilent Solar Array simulator in order to verify the simulation results. The prototype was built, the algorithms are digitally developed and the main experimental results are also presented, including dynamic responses and the experimental tracking factor (TF) for the analyzed MPPT techniques. © 2011 IEEE.

Carames T.R.P.,Federal University of Fluminense | Guimaraes M.E.X.,Federal University of Fluminense | Hoff Da Silva J.M.,Sao Paulo State University
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2013

The viability of achieving gravitational consistent braneworld models in the framework of a f(R) theory of gravity is investigated. After a careful generalization of the usual junction conditions encompassing the embedding of the 3-brane into a f(R) bulk, we provide a prescription giving the necessary constraints in order to implement the projected second-order effective field equations on the brane. © 2013 American Physical Society.

Babu K.S.,Oklahoma State University | Bhupal Dev P.S.,University of Manchester | Fortes E.C.F.S.,Sao Paulo State University | Mohapatra R.N.,University of Maryland University College
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2013

A recently proposed scenario for baryogenesis, called post-sphaleron baryogenesis (PSB), is discussed within a class of quark-lepton unified framework based on the gauge symmetry SU(2)L×SU(2) R×SU(4)c realized in the multi-TeV scale. The baryon asymmetry of the Universe in this model is produced below the electroweak phase transition temperature after the sphalerons have decoupled from the Hubble expansion. These models embed naturally the seesaw mechanism for neutrino masses and predict color-sextet scalar particles in the TeV range which may be accessible to the LHC experiments. A necessary consequence of this scenario is the baryon-number-violating ΔB=2 process of neutron-antineutron (n-n̄) oscillations. In this paper we show that the constraints of PSB, when combined with the neutrino oscillation data and restrictions from flavor changing neutral currents mediated by the colored scalars, imply an upper limit on the n-n̄ oscillation time of 5×1010 sec regardless of the quark-lepton unification scale. If this scale is relatively low, in the (200-250) TeV range, τn-n̄ is predicted to be less than 1010 sec, which is accessible to the next generation of proposed experiments. © 2013 American Physical Society.

Herein I present a new geographical record of Ischnocnema verrucosa Reinhardt and Lütken, 1862 for northeastern Brazil and briefly discuss the new record with a previous record of similar characteristics. © 2010 Check List and Authors.

de Mello Prado R.,Sao Paulo State University
Journal of Plant Nutrition | Year: 2010

The objective was to study the effects of phosphorous (P) fertilization on nutritional and developmental aspects of growing mango plants. The mango plants were evaluated by soil chemical analyses, leaf chemical analyses, biological examination of plant growth, and the starting point of fruit production. Having this in view, an experiment was set up on 2 January 2003, at Flora, a farm in Uberlandia, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The soil was a clayish Oxisol. The doses at planting were: D0 = zero, D1 = 40, D2 = 100, D3 = 200, and D4 = 300 g of P2O5 plant?-1. These doses at the beginning of the second year were multiplied by 1.5 and at the beginning of the third year by 2.0 and applied to the plants. The fertilizer used in this experiment was triple superphosphate (44% of P2O5.). During August of 2004, 2005, and 2006, soil samples were taken at a depth of 20 cm in between the plant rows. Leaf samples were taken during August of 2004 and 2005 to determine macro- and micronutrient contents in the leaves. Plant stem diameter was measured during January of 2004 and 2005. Plant height and crown radius were measured during January of 2005 and fruit production in 2005 and 2006. Fertilizer applications increased the level of P in the soil but significantly influenced plant performance only after the second year. The effects of phosphorus on mango plants take place slowly leading to increments in plant stem diameter only at the third year. Fruit set was not influenced by phosphorous fertilization. © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

Stelini R.F.,Sao Paulo State University
Applied Immunohistochemistry and Molecular Morphology | Year: 2016

BACKGROUND:: Eosinophilic angiocentric fibrosis (EAF) and granuloma faciale (GF) share several histopathologic features, including eosinophil-rich inflammation, microangiitis, and progressive fibrosis. Concurrent presentation of EAF and GF suggests a pathogenetic link between them. OBJECTIVES:: To identify histologic findings that tell them apart and construe the pathogenetic mechanisms behind each morphologic variable, 14 immunohistochemical markers were used to study the cells subpopulations in 14 cases of GF and 3 cases of EAF. MATERIALS AND METHODS:: The lesions were classified according to their stage of development. The antibodies studied were: CD4, Foxp3, CD8, granzymes A and B, perforin, granulysin, CD20, CD56, CD68, ICAM-1, CD34, CD105, and 1A4. RESULTS:: The intensity of the sclerotic response and the density of 1A4-immunostained cells were significantly higher in EAF. In both diseases, CD68 cells were the most numerous, followed by CD20, CD8, and CD4 cells. About 30% of cells expressed ICAM-1. Among cells with cytotoxic granules, granulysin-positive cells were the most frequent. CONCLUSIONS:: Differences between GF and EAF were found to be mostly like due to anatomic site (usually skin of the face vs. sinonasal cavity) and stage of the disease development (usually earlier in cutaneous lesions because of their visibility). Innate and adaptive immunity, including B cells, T cells, and cytotoxic granules have a role in their pathogenesis. Copyright 2016 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

Carvalho R.F.,Sao Paulo State University | Campos M.L.,Michigan State University | Azevedo R.A.,University of Sao Paulo
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology | Year: 2011

It is well-documented that phytochromes can control plant growth and development from germination to flowering. Additionally, these photoreceptors have been shown to modulate both biotic and abiotic stress. This has led to a series of studies exploring the molecular and biochemical basis by which phytochromes modulate stresses, such as salinity, drought, high light or herbivory. Evidence for a role of phytrochromes in plant stress tolerance is explored and reviewed. © 2011 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

Dogra S.M.,Sao Paulo State University
Nuclear Physics A | Year: 2014

Multidimensional and one-dimensional quantum-statistical (Bose-Einstein) correlations are measured in proton-proton collisions at 0.9, 2.76 and 7 TeV, in proton-lead collisions at 5.02 TeV/nucleon pair and peripheral lead-lead collisions at 2.76 TeV/nucleon pair center-of-mass energy with the CMS detector at the LHC. The correlation functions are extracted in terms of different components of the relative momentum of the pair, in order to investigate the extension of the emission source in different directions. The results are presented for different intervals of transverse pair momentum, kT, and charged particle multiplicity of the collision, Ntracks, as well as for their integrated values. Besides inclusive charged particles, charged pions and kaons, identified via their energy loss in the silicon tracker detector, can also be correlated. The extracted source radii increase with increasing multiplicity, and decrease with increasing kT. The results open the possibility to study scaling and factorization properties of these radii as a function of multiplicity, kT, colliding system size and center-of-mass energy. © 2014 CERN.

Ghosh S.,Sao Paulo State University
Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics | Year: 2014

In real-time thermal field theory, the standard expression of shear viscosity for nucleonic constituents is derived from the two-point function of nucleonic viscous stress tensors at finite temperature and density. The finite thermal width or Landau damping is traditionally included in the nucleon propagators. This thermal width is calculated from the in-medium self-energy of nucleons for different possible pion-baryon loops. The dynamical part of nucleon-pion-baryon interactions are accounted for by the effective Lagrangian densities of standard hadronic model. The shear viscosity to entropy density ratio of the nucleonic component decreases with the temperature and increases with the nucleon chemical potential. However, adding the contribution of the pionic component, the total viscosity to entropy density ratio also reduces with the nucleon chemical potential when the mixing effect between pion and nucleon components in the mixed gas is considered. Within the hadronic domain, the viscosity to entropy density ratio of the nuclear matter gradually reduces as temperature and nucleon chemical potential increase and therefore the nuclear matter is approaching the (nearly) perfect-fluid state. © 2014 American Physical Society.

Farias R.L.S.,Federal University of Sao Joao del Rei | Farias R.L.S.,Federal University of Santa Maria | Gomes K.P.,Federal University of Sao Joao del Rei | Krein G.,Sao Paulo State University | Pinto M.B.,Federal University of Santa Catarina
Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics | Year: 2014

Although asymptotic freedom is an essential feature of QCD, it is absent in effective chiral quark models like the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio and linear sigma models. In this work we advocate that asymptotic freedom plays a key role in the recently observed discrepancies between results of lattice QCD simulations and quark models regarding the behavior of the pseudocritical temperature Tpc for chiral-symmetry restoration in the presence of a magnetic field B. We show that the lattice predictions that Tpc decreases with B can be reproduced within the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model if the coupling constant G of the model decreases with B and the temperature. Without aiming at numerical precision, we support our claim by considering a simple ansatz for G that mimics the asymptotic-freedom behavior of the QCD coupling constant 1/αs∼ln(eB/ΛQCD2) for large values of B. © 2014 American Physical Society.

Bufalo R.,Sao Paulo State University
International Journal of Modern Physics A | Year: 2014

Inspired in discussions presented lately regarding Lorentz-violating interaction terms in B. Charneski, M. Gomes, R. V. Maluf and A. J. da Silva, Phys. Rev. D 86, 045003 (2012); R. Casana, M. M. Ferreira Jr., R. V. Maluf and F. E. P. dos Santos, Phys. Lett. B 726, 815 (2013); R. Casana, M. M. Ferreira Jr., E. Passos, F. E. P. dos Santos and E. O. Silva, Phys. Rev. D 87, 047701 (2013), we propose here a slightly different version for the coupling term. We will consider a modified quantum electrodynamics with violation of Lorentz symmetry defined in a (2+1)-dimensional space-time. We define the Lagrangian density with a Lorentz-violating interaction, where the space-time dimensionality is explicitly taken into account in its definition. The work encompasses an analysis of this model at both zero and finite-temperature, where very interesting features are known to occur due to the space-time dimensionality. With that in mind, we expect that the space-time dimensionality may provide new insights about the radiative generation of higher-derivative terms into the action, implying in a new Lorentz-violating electrodynamics, as well the nonminimal coupling may provide interesting implications on the thermodynamical quantities. © 2014 World Scientific Publishing Company.

Adhikari S.K.,Sao Paulo State University
Journal of Physics B: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics | Year: 2014

We demonstrate robust, stable, mobile excited states of quasi-two-dimensional (quasi-2D) dipolar Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) solitons for repulsive contact interaction with a harmonic trap along the x direction perpendicular to the polarization direction z. Such a soliton can freely move in the y-z plane. A rich variety of such excitations is considered: one quanta of excitation for movement along (i) y axis or (ii) z axis or (iii) both. A proposal for creating these excited solitonic states in a laboratory by phase imprinting is also discussed. We also consider excited states of quasi-2D dipolar BEC soliton where the sign of the dipolar interaction is reversed by a rotating orienting field. In this sign-changed case the soliton moves freely in the x-y plane under the action of a harmonic trap in the z direction. At medium velocity the head-on collision of two such solitons is found to be quasi elastic with practically no deformation. The findings are illustrated using numerical simulation in three and two spatial dimensions employing realistic interaction parameters for a dipolar 164Dy BEC. © 2014 IOP Publishing Ltd.

Foffa S.,University of Geneva | Sturani R.,Sao Paulo State University
Classical and Quantum Gravity | Year: 2014

In this short review we present a self-contained exposition of the effective field theory method approach to model the dynamics of gravitationally bound compact binary systems within the post-Newtonian approximation to General Relativity. Applications of this approach to the conservative sector, as well as to the radiation emission by the binary system are discussed in their salient features. Most important results are discussed, as in-depths and details can be found in the referenced papers. © 2014 IOP Publishing Ltd.

Ghosh S.,Sao Paulo State University
International Journal of Modern Physics A | Year: 2014

A real-time thermal field theoretical calculation of shear viscosity has been described in the Kubo formalism for bosonic and fermionic medium. The two-point function of viscous-stress tensor in the lowest order provides one-loop skeleton diagram of boson or fermion field for bosonic or fermionic matter. According to the traditional diagrammatic technique of transport coefficients, the finite thermal width of boson or fermion is introduced in their internal lines during the evaluation of boson-boson or fermion-fermion loop diagram. These thermal widths of φ boson and ψ fermion are respectively obtained from the imaginary part of self-energy for φΦ and ψΦ loops, where interactions of higher mass Φ boson with φ and ψ are governed by the simple φφΦ and $Φ$ interaction Lagrangian densities. A two-loop diagram, having same power of coupling constant as in the one-loop diagram, is deduced and its contribution appears much lower than the one-loop values of shear viscosity. Therefore, the one-loop results of Kubo-type shear viscosity may be considered as leading order results for this simple φφΦ and $Φ$ interactions. This approximation is valid for any values of coupling constant and at the temperatures greater than the mass of constituent particles of the medium. © 2014 World Scientific Publishing Company.

Aspilcueta-Borquis R.R.,Sao Paulo State University
Genetics and molecular research : GMR | Year: 2010

Buffalo milk has excellent physical and chemical qualities as a consequence of the high percentage of constituents. This milk property is desirable for the dairy industry because it facilitates manufacture of mozzarella cheese. We estimated genetic parameters for milk yield, milk fat and protein and their effects on mozzarella cheese production using Bayesian inference. Using information from 4907 lactation records of buffaloes, genetic and non-genetic parameters were estimated for accumulated 305-day milk yield (MY), milk fat (%F) and protein (%P) percentages and mozzarella production per lactation (MP). The (co)variance components were obtained by Bayesian inference using a multiple trait model, which included as fixed effects contemporary group, milking number and buffalo age at calving as covariables (linear and quadratic), along with the additive genetic, permanent environmental and residual random effects. Mean a posteriori heritability distributions for MY, %F, %P, and MP were 0.25, 0.30, 0.38, and 0.23, respectively. The genetic correlation estimates between MY with %P and %F were negative and moderate. Positive genetic correlation estimates varying from 0.19 (%P/MP) to 0.95 (MY/MP) were obtained among the traits. Milk yield, milk components, and mozzarella production in Murrah buffaloes have enough genetic variation for selection purposes. We conclude that selection to increase milk yield would be effective in improving mozzarella production.

Zhang H.,University of Texas at Dallas | Fonseca A.F.,Sao Paulo State University | Fonseca A.F.,University of Campinas | Cho K.,University of Texas at Dallas
Journal of Physical Chemistry C | Year: 2014

We compute thermal conductivity of graphene oxide at room temperature with molecular dynamics simulation. To validate our simulation model, we have investigated phonon scattering in graphene due to crystal boundary length and isotope defect, both of which are able to diagnose the behavior of long wavelength and short wavelength phonon scattering. Our simulation shows that thermal conductivity of pristine graphene has logarithmic divergence for the boundary length up to 2 μm. As compared with pristine graphene, thermal conductivity of graphene oxide can be reduced by a factor of 25 at low oxygen defect concentration. Moreover, we find that not only the concentration but also the configuration of the oxygen functional groups (e.g., hydroxyl, epoxide, and ether) has significant influence on the thermal conductivity. Through phonon mode analysis, phonon defect scattering as well as phonon localization are mainly responsible for the conspicuous reduced thermal conductivity. The simulation results have provided fundamental insight on how to precisely control thermal property of graphene oxide for thermal management and thermoelectric applications. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

De La Serrana D.G.,University of St. Andrews | Mareco E.A.,Sao Paulo State University | Johnston I.A.,University of St. Andrews
Genome Biology and Evolution | Year: 2014

Teleost fish underwent whole-genome duplication around 450Ma followed by diploidization and loss of 80-85% of the duplicated genes. To identify a deep signature of this teleost-specific whole-genome duplication (TSGD),we searched for duplicated genes that were systematically and uniquely retained in one or other of the superorders Ostariophysi and Acanthopterygii. TSGD paralogs comprised 17-21%of total gene content. Some 2.6% (510) of TSGD paralogswere present as pairs in the Ostariophysi genomes of Danio rerio (Cypriniformes) and Astyanax mexicanus (Characiformes) but not in species from four orders of Acanthopterygii (Gasterosteiformes, Gasterosteus aculeatus; Tetraodontiformes, Tetraodon nigroviridis; Perciformes, Oreochromis niloticus; and Beloniformes, Oryzias latipes) where a single copy was identified. Similarly, 1.3% (418) of total gene number represented cases where TSGD paralogs pairs were systematically retained in the Acanthopterygian but conserved as a single copy in Ostariophysi genomes.We confirmed the generality of these results by phylogenetic and synteny analysis of 40 randomly selected linage-specific paralogs (LSPs) from each superorder and completed with the transcriptomes of three additional Ostariophysi species (Ictalurus punctatus [Siluriformes], Sinocyclocheilus species [Cypriniformes], and Piaractusmesopotamicus [Characiformes]). No chromosome bias was detected inTSGDparalog retention. Gene ontology (GO) analysis revealed significant enrichment ofGOterms relative to the human GO SLIM database for "growth," "Cell differentiation, " and "Embryo development" in Ostariophysi and for "Transport," "Signal Transduction," and "Vesicle mediated transport" in Acanthopterygii. The observed patterns of paralog retention are consistent with different diploidization outcomes having contributed to the evolution/diversification of each superorder. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

Porto R.A.,Sao Paulo State University
Physics Reports | Year: 2016

We review the effective field theory (EFT) approach to gravitational dynamics. We focus on extended objects in long-wavelength backgrounds and gravitational wave emission from spinning binary systems. We conclude with an introduction to EFT methods for the study of cosmological large scale structures. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.

The use of new anticoagulants such as fondaparinux, rivaroxaban, dabigatran, apixaban and bemiparin has been studied for the prevention of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in orthopedic surgery. Objective: A systematic review of randomized clinical trials was conducted to assess the efficacy and safety of these new drugs for VTE prophylaxis in major orthopedic surgeries compared to enoxaparin. Data source: Double-blinded randomized trials were retrieved in an electronic search in medical literature published from 2000 to 2010. Data were assessed in RevMan v.5, the main computer software used by the Cochrane Collaboration. Data synthesis: Twelve clinical trials were selected. Four of them were on fondaparinux, three on rivaroxaban, three on dabigatran, one on apixaban and one on bemiparin. Two different dosage schemes of enoxaparin (40 mg 1x/day or 30 mg 2x/day, subcutaneous) were compared, depending on the study. Results: the results of primary efficacy - deep vein thrombosis (CVT), non-fatal pulmonary embolism (PE) and mortality as defined in the original articles - were favorable to fondaparinux (RR 0.50 [0.39-0.63] 95%CI) and to rivaroxaban (RR 0.50 [0.34-0.73] 95%CI) in comparison to enoxaparin, although the studies on rivaroxaban detected significant heterogeneity. The primary efficacy of dabigatran 220 mg, apixaban and bemiparin was similar to that of enoxaparin (RR 1.05 [0.87-1.26] 95%CI, RR 1.02 [0.78-1.32] 95%CI and RR 0.87 [0.65-1.17] 95%CI, respectively). Frequency of proximal DVT was lower with fondaparinux and rivaroxaban compared to enoxaparin (RR 0.31 [0.19-0.50] 95%CI and RR 0.68 [0.50-0.91] 95%CI, respectively), but significant heterogeneity was detected with rivaroxaban and dabigatran 220 mg. The frequency of symptomatic DVT was lower with the use of rivaroxaban compared to enoxaparin (RR 0.45 [0.27-0.77] 95CI) and similar to that of the other drugs. There were no significant differences as to pulmonary embolism frequency and mortality rates for the new anticoagulants in comparison to enoxaparin. The frequency of bleeding was significantly higher with fondaparinux compared to enoxaparin (RR 1.27 [1.04-1.55] 95%CI) and similar between other groups. At the end of the treatment, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) elevation was less frequent in the series that used dabigatran in comparison to those that used enoxaparin. Conclusions: The results of primary efficacy were favorable to fondaparinux compared to enoxaparin, but associated with a higher bleeding rate. Significant heterogeneity did not allow consistent conclusions as to the superiority of rivaroxaban for primary efficacy. The remaining anticoagulants presented primary efficacy non-inferior to enoxaparin. Symptomatic DVT was less frequent in the studies with rivaroxaban, and dabigatran was associated with a lower frequency of ALT elevation compared to enoxaparin. Apixaban and bemiparin had outcomes similar to those of enoxaparin, but results were based only upon one study each.

De Oliveira E.P.,Federal University of Uberlandia | Burini R.C.,Sao Paulo State University | Jeukendrup A.,Gatorade Sports Science Institute | Jeukendrup A.,Loughborough University
Sports Medicine | Year: 2014

Gastrointestinal problems are common, especially in endurance athletes, and often impair performance or subsequent recovery. Generally, studies suggest that 30-50 % of athletes experience such complaints. Most gastrointestinal symptoms during exercise are mild and of no risk to health, but hemorrhagic gastritis, hematochezia, and ischemic bowel can present serious medical challenges. Three main causes of gastrointestinal symptoms have been identified, and these are either physiological, mechanical, or nutritional in nature. During intense exercise, and especially when hypohydrated, mesenteric blood flow is reduced; this is believed to be one of the main contributors to the development of gastrointestinal symptoms. Reduced splanchnic perfusion could result in compromised gut permeability in athletes. However, although evidence exists that this might occur, this has not yet been definitively linked to the prevalence of gastrointestinal symptoms. Nutritional training and appropriate nutrition choices can reduce the risk of gastrointestinal discomfort during exercise by ensuring rapid gastric emptying and the absorption of water and nutrients, and by maintaining adequate perfusion of the splanchnic vasculature. A number of nutritional manipulations have been proposed to minimize gastrointestinal symptoms, including the use of multiple transportable carbohydrates, and potentially the use of nutrients that stimulate the production of nitric oxide in the intestine and thereby improve splanchnic perfusion. However, at this stage, evidence for beneficial effects of such interventions is lacking, and more research needs to be conducted to obtain a better understanding of the etiology of the problems and to improve the recommendations to athletes. © The Author(s) 2014.

Rosolem C.A.,Sao Paulo State University
European Journal of Agronomy | Year: 2010

Compacted subsoil layers result in shallow root systems hindering the absorption of water and nutrients by plants. Disruption of soil compacted layers can be promoted by mechanical and/or biological methods, using plants with strong root systems. The immediate and medium term effects of mechanical chiseling and crop rotations on soybean root growth and yield were evaluated during four years in Brazil. Triticale (X Triticosecale Wittmack) and sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) were grown in the autumn-winter (April-August). In the next spring (September-October/early November), designated plots were chiseled down to 0.25. m or planted to millet (Pennisetum glaucum L.), sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) and sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.), grown as cover crops, preceding soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill). Chiseling was done only in the first year, and these plots were left fallow during the spring (September-October/early November) for the rest of the experiment. Chiseling resulted in lower soil penetration resistance and higher soybean yields in the first year. However, in the following years soybean root growth in depth was increased under rotation with triticale and pearl millet due to the presence of biopores and a decrease in soil penetration resistance. Soybean yields tended to decrease over the years in plots that were chiseled when compared with plots under crop rotation. Chiseling can be replaced by crop rotations involving species with aggressive root systems in order to alleviate deleterious effects of soil compaction on soybean yields in tropical soils. This effect is gradual, thus crop rotation will be fully effective in remediating soil compaction in a 3- to 4-year term. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Alberto P.,University of Coimbra | De Castro A.S.,Sao Paulo State University | Malheiro M.,Brazilian Technological Institute of Aeronautics
Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics | Year: 2013

We derive the node structure of the radial functions which are solutions of the Dirac equation with scalar S and vector V confining central potentials, in the conditions of exact spin or pseudospin symmetry, i.e., when one has V=±S+C, where C is a constant. We show that the node structure for exact spin symmetry is the same as the one for central potentials which go to zero at infinity but for exact pseudospin symmetry the structure is reversed. We obtain the important result that it is possible to have positive energy bound solutions in exact pseudospin symmetry conditions for confining potentials of any shape, including naturally those used in hadron physics, from nuclear to quark models. Since this does not occur for potentials going to zero at large distances, which are used in nuclear relativistic mean-field potentials or in the atomic nucleus, this shows the decisive importance of the asymptotic behavior of the scalar and vector central potentials on the onset of pseudospin symmetry and on the node structure of the radial functions. Finally, we show that these results are still valid for negative energy bound solutions for antifermions. © 2013 American Physical Society.

Andrade T.G.C.S.,Sao Paulo State University | Zangrossi H.,University of Sao Paulo | Graeff F.G.,University of Sao Paulo | Graeff F.G.,Institute of Neurosciences and Behavior INeC
Journal of Psychopharmacology | Year: 2013

Although the role of the median raphe nucleus (MRN) in the regulation of anxiety has received less attention than that of the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) there is substantial evidence supporting this function. Reported results with different animal models of anxiety in rats show that whereas inactivation of serotonergic neurons in the MRN causes anxiolysis, the stimulation of the same neurons is anxiogenic. In particular, studies using the elevated T-maze comparing serotonergic interventions in the MRN and in the DRN indicate that the former affect only the inhibitory avoidance task, which has been related to generalized anxiety. In contrast, similar operations in the DRN change both the inhibitory avoidance and the one-way escape task, the latter being representative of panic disorder. Simultaneous injections of 5-HT-acting drugs in the MRN and in the dorsal hippocampus (DH) suggest that the MRN-DH pathway mediates the regulatory function of the MRN in anxiety. Overall, the results discussed in this review point to a relevant role of the MRN in the regulation of anxiety, but not panic, through the 5-HT pathway that innervates the DH. © The Author(s) 2013.

Bertulani C.A.,Texas A&M University-Commerce | De Conti C.,Sao Paulo State University
Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics | Year: 2010

We study medium modifications of the nucleon-nucleon (NN) cross sections and their influence on the nucleon knockout reactions. Using the eikonal approximation, we compare the results obtained with free NN cross sections with those obtained with a purely geometrical treatment of Pauli blocking and with NN obtained with more elaborated Dirac-Bruecker methods. The medium effects are parametrized in terms of the baryon density. We focus on symmetric nuclear matter, although the geometrical Pauli blocking also allows for the treatment of asymmetric nuclear matter. It is shown that medium effects can change the nucleon knockout cross sections and momentum distributions up to 10% in the energy range Elab=50-300 MeV/nucleon. The effect is more evident in reactions involving halo nuclei. © 2010 The American Physical Society.

Adhikari S.K.,Sao Paulo State University
Journal of Physics B: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics | Year: 2010

We derive a generalized time-dependent Galilean-invariant density-functional (DF) equation appropriate to study the stationary and non-stationary properties of a trapped Fermi super-fluid in the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) to Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) crossover. This equation is equivalent to a quantum hydrodynamical equation for a Fermi super-fluid. The bulk chemical potential of this equation has the proper (model-independent) dependence on the Fermi-Fermi scattering length in the BCS and BEC limits. We apply this DF equation to the study of the stationary density profile and size of a cigar-shaped Fermi super-fluid of 6Li atoms, and the results are in good agreement with the experiment of Bartenstein et al in the BCS-BEC crossover. We also apply the DF equation to the study of axial and radial breathing oscillation and our results for these frequencies are in good agreement with experiments in the BCS-BEC crossover. © 2010 IOP Publishing Ltd.

de Castro H.L.,Sao Paulo State University
Dental materials : official publication of the Academy of Dental Materials | Year: 2012

Evaluating the bond strength (σ) of resin cement systems (RXA - RelyX ARC; RXU - RelyX U100; and PF - Panavia F) to dentin and yttria-stabilized zirconia-based ceramic (YZ - In-Ceram YZ) after different surface treatments and aging. Occlusal dentin of 54 human molars was exposed and conditioned following manufacturers' instructions. Fifty-four YZ blocks were sintered and divided into two groups according to surface treatment: PA - airborne particle abrasion, and SC - tribochemical silica coating. All treated YZ blocks were cemented to dentin using one of the cement systems (RXA, RXU, and PF) following manufacturers' recommendations, which includes specific silane agents. Teeth-cement-ceramic blocks were stored in 37°C distilled water for 24h before cutting into non-trimming bar-shaped specimens (adhesive area, A=1±0.1mm(2)). Specimens (n≥12) were assigned to one of the following conditions: N - no storage; W - stored in 37°C distilled water for 60days; and TC - thermal cycling (5-55°C; 10,000 cycles). All specimens were loaded in tension (F) to failure using a universal testing machine. The σ (F/A) was calculated and data were statistically analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey tests (α=0.05). Fracture surfaces were examined to determine the failure mode. RXA-SC and PF-PA specimens showed the greatest mean σ values after N (13.9 and 13.0MPa, respectively) and TC (12.9 and 14.8MPa, respectively). SC-treated showed greater mean σ values than PA-treated YZ specimens after W. Regardless of the cement used, W and TC did not significantly reduce the σ of SC-treated YZ resin bonded to dentin. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

Guerreiro-Tanomaru J.M.,Sao Paulo State University
Acta odontológica latinoamericana : AOL | Year: 2012

This study evaluated the influence of tooth embedding media on the accuracy ofan electronic apex locator. The root canal length of 20 human mandibular canines was measured by inserting a 15 K-file into the root canal up to the apical foramen. The distance was measured with a digital caliper. The embedding media evaluated were alginate, saline, floral foam or gauze soaked in saline. Electronic root canal length measurement was performed with Root ZX II. Data were analysed using ANOVA for repeated measurements and Tukey test, at a significance level of 5%. There was no difference between the actual root canal length measurement and the electronic reading recorded with alginate medium. The readings obtained with the other media differed from the actual root canal length measurements. Alginate provided greater accuracy in electronic root canal length determination by Root ZX II than saline, floral foam and gauze.

Rahal V.,Sao Paulo State University
Acta odontológica latinoamericana : AOL | Year: 2012

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the correlation between the hybrid layer thickness, resin tag length and resin bond strength of a self-etching adhesive system to sound dentin tissue "in vivo". After performing restorative procedures and tooth extractions, ten specimens were sectioned in a mesiodistal direction. One dental section was used for light microscope analysis, in which both the resin tag length and hybrid layer thickness were measured, while the other section was analyzed using a microtensile test (0.5 mm/min). The fractured surface of the latter section was characterized using a stereoscopic magnifying glass (40x magnifcation). The results were subject to statistical analysis using the Pearson Correlation Test (a = 0.05). The hybrid layer thickness, resin tag length and resin bond strength mean values were 2.19 microm (0.34), 4.34 microm (0.28) and 9.73 MPa (5,55), respectively. In addition, correlation tests between the resin tag length and the resin bond strength (r=0.014) and also between the hybrid layer thickness and bond strength (r=0.43), showed no statistically significant correlation. The microtensile bond strength of Adper Prompt L Pop self-etching adhesive system does not depend on hybrid layer thickness or resin tag length.

Berkovits N.,Sao Paulo State University
Journal of High Energy Physics | Year: 2010

Four-dimensional super-twistors provide a compact covariant description of on-shell N = 4 d=4 super-Yang-Mills. In this paper, ten-dimensional super-twistors are introduced which similarly provide a compact covariant description of on-shell d=10 super- Yang-Mills. The super-twistor variables are Z = (λ α, μα,m) where λ α and μα are constrained bosonic d=10 spinors and m is a constrained fermionic d=10 vector. The Penrose map relates the twistor superfield φ(Z) with the d=10 super-Yang-Mills vertex operator λ αA α(x, θ) which appears in the pure spinor formalism of the superstring, and the cubic super-Yang-Mills amplitude is proportional to the super-twistor integral R dZ φ1φ2φ3. © SISSA 2010.

Adhikari S.K.,Sao Paulo State University
Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics | Year: 2014

We demonstrate robust, stable, mobile, quasi-one-dimensional, dark-in-bright dipolar Bose-Einstein-condensate (BEC) solitons with a notch in the central plane formed due to dipolar interaction for repulsive contact interaction. At medium velocity the head-on collision of two such solitons is found to be quasielastic with practically no deformation. A proposal for creating dipolar dark-in-bright solitons in laboratories by phase imprinting is also discussed. A rich variety of such solitons can be formed in dipolar binary BECs, where one can have a dark-in-bright soliton coupled to a bright soliton or two coupled dark-in-bright solitons. The findings are illustrated using numerical simulation in three spatial dimensions by employing realistic interaction parameters for a dipolar 164Dy BEC and a binary 164Dy-162Dy BEC. © 2014 American Physical Society.

De Oliveira T.R.,Federal University of Fluminense | Cornelio M.F.,Federal University of Mato Grosso | Fanchini F.F.,Sao Paulo State University
Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics | Year: 2014

It is well known that a particle cannot freely share entanglement with two or more particles. This restriction is generally called monogamy. However the formal quantification of such restriction is only known for some measures of entanglement and for two-level systems. The first and broadly known monogamy relation was established by Coffman, Kundu, and Wootters for the square of the concurrence. Since then, it is usually said that the entanglement of formation is not monogamous, as it does not obey the same relation. We show here that despite that, the entanglement of formation cannot be freely shared and therefore should be said to be monogamous. Furthermore, the square of the entanglement of formation does obey the same relation of the squared concurrence, a fact recently noted for three particles and extended here for N particles. Therefore the entanglement of formation is as monogamous as the concurrence. We also numerically study how the entanglement is distributed in pure states of three qubits and the relation between the sum of the bipartite entanglement and the classical correlation. © 2014 American Physical Society.

Penitente M.,Sao Paulo State University
Cytogenetic and Genome Research | Year: 2016

The population of Prochilodus lineatus found in the Mogi-Guaçu River is karyotypically polymorphic, carrying acrocentric, metacentric, and submetacentric B chromosomes. The analysis of each B chromosome frequency in this species revealed a variation in the distribution pattern, with the metacentric type having the highest frequency (73.30%), followed by submetacentric (25.22%) and acrocentric B chromosomes (1.48%). The transmission pattern of the supernumerary chromosomes was identified by controlled crosses, and it was shown that the acro- and submetacentric B chromosomes have a transmission pattern below the Mendelian rate (kB = 0.333 and kB = 0.385, respectively), but the metacentric variant has a cumulative transmission pattern (kB = 0.587). These results indicate that the acro- and submetacentric B chromosomes are undergoing an extinction process, while the metacentric B chromosomes appear to be accumulating in frequency with each generation. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel Copyright © 2016, S. Karger AG. All rights reserved.

Adhikari S.K.,Sao Paulo State University
Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics | Year: 2014

We demonstrate stable, robust, bright one-dimensional dipolar Bose-Einstein-condensate (BEC) solitons, moving in a direction perpendicular to the polarization direction, formed due to dipolar interaction for repulsive contact interaction. At medium velocity the head on collision of two such solitons is found to be quasielastic with practically no deformation. Upon small perturbation the solitons are found to exhibit sustained breathing oscillation. The findings are illustrated by numerical simulation using the three-dimensional mean-field Gross-Pitaevskii equation and a reduced two-dimensional model in three and two spatial dimensions employing realistic interaction parameters for a dipolar Dy164 BEC. © 2014 American Physical Society.

Baldin E.L.L.,Sao Paulo State University | Beneduzzi R.A.,University Camilo Castelo Branco
Journal of Pest Science | Year: 2010

The objective of this study was to investigate the potential resistance mechanisms to Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) B biotype, in eight Cucurbita pepo varieties. Attractivity, oviposition preference, and nymphal development were evaluated under greenhouse and laboratory conditions. Variety Bianca was the least attractive to adult whiteflies in multi-choice tests. The whiteflies showed oviposition nonpreference (antixenosis) for Novita Plus, Bianca and Sandy in multi-choice test, and similar results were observed in no-choice tests with varieties Bianca, Novita, Caserta Cac and Sandy. Sandy expressed high antibiosis levels against whitefly nymphs, leading to 63. 9% mortality. The high level of resistance in variety Sandy can serve as base for genetic improvement of C.pepo focusing on the development of resistant varieties to B. tabaci B biotype. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.

Witaicenis A.,Sao Paulo State University
Journal of medicinal food | Year: 2010

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a multifactorial intestinal disorder that involves interactions among the immune system, genetic susceptibility, and environmental factors, especially the bacterial flora. Polydextrose, a polysaccharide constituted by 90% nondigestible and nonabsorbable soluble fibers, has several physiological effects consistent with those of dietary fibers, including proliferation of colon microflora. Because sulfasalazine presents serious side effects through long-term use at high doses, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the preventative effect of polydextrose on trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid-induced intestinal inflammation and its effects on the intestinal anti-inflammatory activity of sulfasalazine. Results indicated that polydextrose and its association with sulfasalazine present an anti-inflammatory effect that reduces myeloperoxidase activity, counteracts glutathione content, and promotes reductions in lesion extension and colonic weight/length ratio.

Cioffi M.B.,Federal University of Sao Carlos | Martins C.,Sao Paulo State University | Bertollo L.A.,Federal University of Sao Carlos
BMC Evolutionary Biology | Year: 2010

Background. The fish, Erythrinus erythrinus, shows an interpopulation diversity, with four karyomorphs differing by chromosomal number, chromosomal morphology and heteromorphic sex chromosomes. Karyomorph A has a diploid number of 2n = 54 and does not have differentiated sex chromosomes. Karyomorph D has 2n = 52 chromosomes in females and 2n = 51 in males, and it is most likely derived from karyomorph A by the differentiation of a multiple X 1X 2Y sex chromosome system. In this study, we analyzed karyomorphs A and D by means of cytogenetic approaches to evaluate their evolutionary relationship. Results. Conspicuous differences in the distribution of the 5S rDNA and Rex3 non-LTR retrotransposon were found between the two karyomorphs, while no changes in the heterochromatin and 18S rDNA patterns were found between them. Rex3 was interstitially dispersed in most chromosomes. It had a compartmentalized distribution in the centromeric regions of only two acrocentric chromosomes in karyomorph A. In comparison, in karyomorph D, Rex3 was found in 22 acrocentric chromosomes in females and 21 in males. All 5S rDNA sites co-localized with Rex3, suggesting that these are associated in the genome. In addition, the origin of the large metacentric Y chromosome in karyomorph D by centric fusion was highlighted by the presence of internal telomeric sites and 5S rDNA/Rex3 sites on this chromosome. Conclusion. We demonstrated that some repetitive DNAs (5S rDNA, Rex3 retroelement and (TTAGGG) ntelomeric repeats) were crucial for the evolutionary divergence inside E. erythrinus. These elements were strongly associated with the karyomorphic evolution of this species. Our results indicate that chromosomal rearrangements and genomic modifications were significant events during the course of evolution of this fish. We detected centric fusions that were associated with the differentiation of the multiple sex chromosomes in karyomorph D, as well as a surprising increase of associated 5S rDNA/Rex3 loci, in contrast to karyomorph A. In this sense, E. erythrinus emerges as an excellent model system for better understanding the evolutionary mechanisms underlying the huge genome diversity in fish. This organism can also contribute to understanding vertebrate genome evolution as a whole. © 2010 Cioffi et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Adhikari S.K.,Sao Paulo State University
Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics | Year: 2014

We study the Josephson oscillation and self-trapping dynamics of a cigar-shaped dipolar Bose-Einstein condensate of 52Cr atoms polarized along the symmetry axis of an axially symmetric double-well potential using the numerical solution of a mean-field model, for dominating repulsive contact interaction (large positive scattering length a) over an anisotropic dipolar interaction. Josephson-type oscillation emerges for small and very large numbers of atoms, whereas self-trapping is noted for an intermediate number of atoms. The dipolar interaction pushes the system away from self-trapping towards Josephson oscillation. We consider a simple two-mode description for a qualitative understanding of the dynamics. © 2014 American Physical Society.

Brax Ph.,CEA Saclay Nuclear Research Center | Rosenfeld R.,Sao Paulo State University | Steer D.A.,University Paris Diderot
Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics | Year: 2010

We study the gravitational collapse of an overdensity of nonrelativistic matter under the action of gravity and a chameleon scalar field. We show that the spherical collapse model is modified by the presence of a chameleon field. In particular, we find that even though the chameleon effects can be potentially large at small scales, for a large enough initial size of the inhomogeneity the collapsing region possesses a thin shell that shields the modification of gravity induced by the chameleon field, recovering the standard gravity results. We analyse the behaviour of a collapsing shell in a cosmological setting in the presence of a thin shell and find that, in contrast to the usual case, the critical density for collapse in principle depends on the initial comoving size of the inhomogeneity. © 2010 IOP Publishing Ltd and SISSA.

Castro L.B.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Castro L.B.,Federal University of Maranhao | De Castro A.S.,Sao Paulo State University
Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics | Year: 2014

It is shown that the Hamiltonian version of the Duffin-Kemmer-Petiau theory with electromagnetic coupling brings about a source term at the current. It is also shown that such a source term disappears from the scenario if one uses the correct physical form for the Duffin-Kemmer-Petiau field, regardless of the choice for representing the Duffin-Kemmer-Petiau matrices. This result is used to fix the ambiguity in the electromagnetic coupling in the Duffin-Kemmer-Petiau theory. Moreover, some widespread misconceptions about the Hermiticity in the Duffin-Kemmer-Petiau theory are discussed. © 2014 American Physical Society.

Costa E.C.M.,University of Sao Paulo | Kurokawa S.,Sao Paulo State University
IET Generation, Transmission and Distribution | Year: 2015

An estimation procedure for transmission line parameters is developed that combines a new method of determining line parameters with others available in the technical literature. Each estimation method has certain advantages and restrictions that depend on the operating conditions of the transmission system (e.g. the load profile), the physical characteristics of the line (e.g. the length and the geometry) and electromagnetic phenomena (e.g. single- or multiphase faults). The proposed estimation procedure exploits the major attributes of both the new determination method developed in this study and other well-established methods previously presented in the technical literature. Based on current and voltage measurements obtained from synchronised fault records from both line terminals, a combination of multiple methods can be used to accurately estimate most line parameters, a task that is typically impossible using a single method. © 2015. The Institution of Engineering and Technology.

Nastase H.,Sao Paulo State University | Sonnenschein J.,Tel Aviv University
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2015

We revisit Heisenberg's model for nucleon-nucleon scattering which admits a saturation of the Froissart bound. We examine its uniqueness, and find that up to certain natural generalizations, it is the only action that saturates the bound. We find that we can extract also subleading behavior for σtot(s) from it, though that requires a knowledge of the wave function solution that is hard to obtain, and a black-disk model allows the calculation of σelastic(s) as well. The wave-function solution is analyzed perturbatively, and its source is interpreted. Generalizations to several mesons, the addition of vector mesons, and curved space regimes are also found. We discuss the relations between Heisenberg's model and holographic models that are dual to QCD-like theories. © 2015 American Physical Society.

Araujo T.R.,Sao Paulo State University
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2015

We consider several configurations that describe Wilson loops in nonrelativistic field theories, and for some of them we find systems of coupled nonlinear differential equations. Also, we find a nontrivial drag force at zero temperature, which suggests that the parameter controlling the deviation of the nonrelativistic space from the relativistic space may be related to the chemical potential of these systems. Moreover, we reconsider some known configurations in the literature and we perform further analysis. © 2015 American Physical Society.

Ribeiro C.F.,Sao Paulo State University
The International journal of periodontics & restorative dentistry | Year: 2013

The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Er:YAG and Nd:YAG lasers on the shear bond strength of composite resin to dentin. The coronal portion of 56 human molars was divided into three parts, and the dentin thickness was standardized at 2 mm. A 3-mm hole was marked in the center of each tooth with sealing tape paper. The specimens (n = 14) were then divided into four groups: (1) acid etching + Single Bond (SB) (control), (2) acid etching + SB + Nd:YAG laser irradiation (before adhesive curing), (3) thermal etching with the Er:YAG laser + SB, and (4) thermal etching with the Er:YAG laser + SB + Nd:YAG laser irradiation (before adhesive curing). A composite resin cylinder was built into the delimited area for conducting the shear bond strength test on the universal testing machine. The means ± standard deviations were: group 1, 17.05 ± 4.15 MPa; group 2, 16.90 ± 3.36 MPa; group 3, 12.12 ± 3.85 MPa; and group 4, 12.92 ± 2.73 MPa. Groups 1 and 2 presented significantly higher values than groups 3 and 4. It was concluded that conventional etching with 37% phosphoric acid yielded significantly higher bond strength values compared to thermal etching with the Er:YAG laser. The Nd:YAG laser did not significantly influence the bond strength.

Burdman G.,University of Sao Paulo | Chacko Z.,University of Maryland University College | Harnik R.,Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory | De Lima L.,Sao Paulo State University | Verhaaren C.B.,University of Maryland University College
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2015

Theories of physics beyond the standard model that address the hierarchy problem generally involve top partners, new particles that cancel the quadratic divergences associated with the Yukawa coupling of the Higgs boson to the top quark. With extensions of the standard model that involve new colored particles coming under strain from collider searches, scenarios in which the top partners carry no charge under the strong interactions have become increasingly compelling. Although elusive for direct searches, these theories predict modified couplings of the Higgs boson to the standard model particles. This results in corrections to the Higgs production and decay rates that can be detected at the LHC provided the top partners are sufficiently light, and the theory correspondingly natural. In this paper we consider three theories that address the little hierarchy problem and involve colorless top partners, specifically the mirror twin Higgs, folded supersymmetry, and the quirky little Higgs. For each model we investigate the current and future bounds on the top partners, and the corresponding limits on naturalness, that can be obtained from the Higgs program at the LHC. We conclude that the LHC will not be able to strongly disfavor naturalness, with mild tuning at the level of about one part in ten remaining allowed even with 3000fb-1 of data at 14 TeV. © 2015 American Physical Society.

Chavarette F.R.,Sao Paulo State University
Applied Mechanics and Materials | Year: 2012

In this work, we use a nonlinear control based on Optimal Linear Control. We used as mathematical model a Duffing equation to model a supporting structure for an unbalanced rotating machine with limited power (non-ideal motor). Numerical simulations are performed for a set control parameter (depending on the voltage of the motor, that is, in the static and dynamic characteristic of the motor) The interaction of the non-ideal excitation with the structure may lead to the occurrence of interesting phenomena during the forward passage through the several resonance states of the system. Chaotic behavior is obtained for values of the parameters. Then, the proposed control strategy is applied in order to regulate the chaotic behavior, in order to obtain a periodic orbit and to decrease its amplitude. Both methodologies were used in complete agreement between them. The purpose of the paper is to give suggestions and recommendations to designers and engineers on how to drive this kind of system through resonance.

Haddad V.,Sao Paulo State University
Anais Brasileiros de Dermatologia | Year: 2014

The cosmopolitan beetles of the Paederus genus (potós) cause a severe dermatitis when the insect is crushed against the skin of exposed areas (the cervical region is the most affected). Toxins (pederin and others) from the hemolymph of the insect cause plaques and/or bizarre, linear lesions with erythema, edema, blisters, pustules, crusts and exulcerations. There may be a burning sensation and severe conjunctivitis. Lesions disappear after 10 days and may leave hyperchromic macules. Treatment is made with topical corticosteroids and intensive washing. © 2014 by Anais Brasileiros de Dermatologia.

Pereira Jr. A.,Sao Paulo State University
Journal of Integrative Neuroscience | Year: 2014

Brain activity contains three fundamental aspects: (a) The physiological aspect, covering all kinds of processes that involve matter and/or energy; (b) the mental unconscious aspect, consisting of dynamical patterns (i.e., frequency, amplitude and phase-modulated waves) embodied in neural activity. These patterns are variously operated (transmitted, stored, combined, matched, amplified, erased, etc), forming cognitive and emotional unconscious processes and (c) the mental conscious aspect, consisting of feelings experienced in the first-person perspective and cognitive functions grounded in feelings, as memory formation, selection of the focus of attention, voluntary behavior, aesthetical appraisal and ethical judgment. Triple-aspect monism (TAM) is a philosophical theory that provides a model of the relation of the three aspects. Spatially distributed neuronal dendritic potentials generate amplitude-modulated waveforms transmitted to the extracellular medium and adjacent astrocytes, prompting the formation of large waves in the astrocyte network, which are claimed to both integrate distributed information and instantiate feelings. According to the valence of the feeling, the large wave feeds back on neuronal synapses, modulating (reinforcing or depressing) cognitive and behavioral functions. © 2014 Imperial College Press.

Landulfo A.G.S.,University of Sao Paulo | Lima W.C.C.,University of Sao Paulo | Matsas G.E.A.,Sao Paulo State University | Vanzella D.A.T.,University of Sao Paulo
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2012

Dense enough compact objects were recently shown to lead to an exponentially fast increase of the vacuum energy density for some free scalar fields properly coupled to the spacetime curvature as a consequence of a tachyonic-like instability. Once the effect is triggered, the star energy density would be overwhelmed by the vacuum energy density in a few milliseconds. This demands that eventually geometry and field evolve to a new configuration to bring the vacuum back to a stationary regime. Here, we show that the vacuum fluctuations built up during the unstable epoch lead to particle creation in the final stationary state when the tachyonic instability ceases. The amount of created particles depends mostly on the duration of the unstable epoch and final stationary configuration, which are open issues at this point. We emphasize that the particle creation coming from the tachyonic instability will occur even in the adiabatic limit, where the spacetime geometry changes arbitrarily slowly, and therefore is quite distinct from the usual particle creation due to the change in the background geometry. © 2012 American Physical Society.

Dalmazi D.,Sao Paulo State University
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2012

Starting with a description of massive spin-2 particles in D=4 in terms of a mixed symmetry tensor T[μν]ρ without a totally antisymmetric part (T[[μν]ρ]=0), we obtain a dual model in terms of a nonsymmetric tensor eμν. The model is of second order in derivatives, and its mass term (eμνeνμ+ce2) contains an arbitrary real parameter c. Remarkably, it is free of ghosts for any real value of c and describes a massive spin-2 particle as expected from duality. The antisymmetric part e[μν] plays the role of auxiliary fields, vanishing on shell. In the massless case the model describes a massless spin-2 particle without ghosts. © 2012 American Physical Society.

Rocha K.O.,SENCER Sensores Ceramicos Ltda | Zanetti S.M.,SENCER Sensores Ceramicos Ltda | Zanetti S.M.,Sao Paulo State University
Sensors and Actuators, B: Chemical | Year: 2011

Nanocrystalline WO 3/TiO 2-based powders have been prepared by the high energy activation method with WO 3 concentration ranging from 1 to 10 mol%. The samples were thermal treated in a microwave oven at 600 °C for 20 min and their structural and micro-structural characteristics were evaluated by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, EXAFS measurements at the Ti K-edge, and transmission electron microscopy. Nitrogen adsorption isotherms and H 2 Temperature Programmed Reduction were also carried out for physical characterization. The crystallite and particle mean sizes ranged from 30 to 40 nm and from 100 to 190 nm, respectively. Good sensor response was obtained for samples with at least 5 mol% WO 3 activated for at least 80 min. Ceramics heat-treated in microwave oven for 20 min have shown similar sensor response as those prepared in conventional oven for 120 min, which is highly cost effective. These results indicate that WO 3/TiO 2 ceramics can be used as a humidity sensor element. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Dias A.G.,Federal University of ABC | Machado A.C.B.,Sao Paulo State University | Nishi C.C.,Federal University of ABC | Ringwald A.,German Electron Synchrotron | Vaudrevange P.,TU Munich
Journal of High Energy Physics | Year: 2014

The recent detection of the cosmic microwave background polarimeter experiment BICEP2 of tensor fluctuations in the B-mode power spectrum basically excludes all plausible axion models where its decay constant is above 10 13 GeV. Moreover, there are strong theoretical, astrophysical, and cosmological motivations for models involving, in addition to the axion, also axion-like particles (ALPs), with decay constants in the intermediate scale range, between 109 GeV and 1013 GeV. Here, we present a general analysis of models with an axion and further ALPs and derive bounds on the relative size of the axion and ALP photon (and electron) coupling. We discuss what we can learn from measurements of the axion and ALP photon couplings about the fundamental parameters of the underlying ultraviolet completion of the theory. For the latter we consider extensions of the Standard Model in which the axion and the ALP(s) appear as pseudo Nambu-Goldstone bosons from the breaking of global chiral U(1) (Peccei-Quinn (PQ)) symmetries, occurring accidentally as low energy remnants from exact discrete symmetries. In such models, the axion and the further ALP are protected from disastrous explicit symmetry breaking effects due to Planck-scale suppressed operators. The scenarios considered exploit heavy right handed neutrinos getting their mass via PQ symmetry breaking and thus explain the small mass of the active neutrinos via a seesaw relation between the electroweak and an intermediate PQ symmetry breaking scale. For a number of explicit models, we determine the parameters of the low-energy effective field theory describing the axion, the ALPs, and their interactions with photons and electrons, in terms of the input parameters, in particular the PQ symmetry breaking scales. We show that these models can accommodate simultaneously an axion dark matter candidate, an ALP explaining the anomalous transparency of the universe for γ-rays, and an ALP explaining the recently reported 3.55 keV gamma line from galaxies and clusters of galaxies, if the respective decay constants are of intermediate scale. Moreover, they do not suffer severely from the domain wall problem. © 2014 The Author(s).

Haidenbauer J.,Julich Research Center | Krein G.,Sao Paulo State University
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2014

We study the production of charmed mesons (D, Ds) in antiproton-proton (p̄p) annihilation close to the reaction thresholds. The elementary charm production process is described by baryon exchange and in the constituent quark model. Effects of the interactions in the initial and final states are taken into account rigorously. The calculations are performed in close analogy to our earlier study on p̄p→K̄K by connecting the processes via SU(4) flavor symmetry. Our predictions for the DD̄ production cross section are in the order of 10-2-10-1μb. They turned out to be comparable to those obtained in other studies. The cross section for a Ds+Ds- pair is found to be of the same order of magnitude despite the fact that its production in p̄p scattering requires a two-step process. © 2014 American Physical Society.

Superstitions are found everywhere in our lives, and medicine, a profession that is prides itself on an evidence-based approach to treatment, is not exempt. A superstition that pervades the labor and delivery floor is that it is busier during certain phases of the lunar cycle, specifically the full moon. Although some studies have demonstrated an increase in deliveries that are related to the lunar cycle, there has been disagreement about when, in the lunar cycle, the peak volume occurs. Front to the divergence of the existent results in the literature to relate the events of the lunar cycle with deliveries, the aim of this review was to accomplish the literature in the attempt of explaining this popular culture with base in the results presented by different researchers.

Berrada K.,Abdus Salam International Center For Theoretical Physics | Berrada K.,Mohammed V University | Fanchini F.F.,Sao Paulo State University | Abdel-Khalek S.,Sohag University | Abdel-Khalek S.,Taif University
Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics | Year: 2012

The quantum correlations between a qubit and its environment are described quantitatively in terms of interatomic distance. Specifically, considering a realistic system of two two-level atoms and taking into account the dipole-dipole interaction and collective damping, the quantum entanglement and quantum discord are investigated during the dissipative process as functions of the interatomic distance. For atoms that are initially maximally entangled, it turns out that there is a critical distance at which each atom is maximally quantum correlated with its environment. Counterintuitively, the approach of the two atoms can maximize the entanglement between each one and the environment and, even at the same distance, minimize the loss of entanglement between the pair. © 2012 American Physical Society.

OBJECTIVE:: Although aerobic exercise training has been recommended as nonpharmacological treatment of high blood pressure, the mechanisms of training-induced blood pressure lowering effects in dexamethasone (DEX)-induced hypertension remain unclear. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the preventive role of exercise training in counteracting DEX-induced hypertension. METHODS:: Rats were submitted to aerobic exercise training for 8 weeks or kept sedentary and then treated with DEX (50?μg/kg/day, s.c.) or saline injections for 14 days. Thereafter, all rats underwent carotid artery catheterization, and cardiovascular autonomic modulation was evaluated by spectral analysis. In addition, soleus muscle was collected for morphometric and protein level analysis. RESULTS:: DEX treatment increased arterial pressure concomitantly with an increase in low-frequency spectral power of systolic arterial pressure and low frequency in pulse interval (94.11 and 58.58%, respectively), and a decrease in high-frequency spectral power of pulse interval (−12.05%). Capillary density (−25.87%), capillary-to-fibers ratio (−21.22%), vascular endothelial growth factor level (−15.10%), B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) level (−16.40%) and Bcl-2/Bcl-2 associated X protein ratio (−27.14%) were all decreased after DEX treatment. Exercise training attenuated DEX-induced increase in arterial pressure accompanied by an attenuation of low-frequency spectral power of systolic arterial pressure, low frequency in pulse interval increases and high-frequency spectral power of pulse interval decrease. Training also prevented the decrease in capillary density (+44.43%), capillary-to-fibers ratio (+36.97%), vascular endothelial growth factor (+16.46%), Bcl-2 (+15.21%) protein level and Bcl-2/Bcl-2-associated X protein ratio (+30.93%). CONCLUSION:: These results demonstrate that exercise training improves cardiovascular autonomic balance to the heart associated with an improvement in sympathetic modulation of vascular tone and microcirculatory function in the skeletal muscle of DEX-induced hypertensive rats. Copyright © 2016 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

Pimentel Lopes De Oliveira G.J.,Sao Paulo State University
Minerva stomatologica | Year: 2010

Preterm birth is a major problem in public health in developed and developing countries and the search for risk factors of this event is important. The aim of this study was to review the effect of periodontal treatment on the incidence of preterm delivery. A wide research was executed considering an evaluation period between November of 1998 and October of 2009 at MEDLINE/PUBMED databases. The selection strategy consisted of the search for the following key-words: "periodontal therapy" or "periodontal disease" and "pregnancy outcome" or "preterm birth". The search was limited for articles written in English. The randomized clinical trials that evaluated the effect of the non-surgical periodontal treatment on the incidence of Preterm Low Birth Weight (PLBW) were selected. In a total of 7 papers selected, the incidence of PLBW was lower in groups of women who were submitted to periodontal treatment. Reductions of Preterm Birth (PTB) ranged from 0.8% to 28.01%, while reduction of Low Birth Weight (LBW) ranged from 0.44% to 33%. In studies that analyzed these two variables together, there was variation between 4.57% to 71.5% in rates reduction. Due to heterogeneity of the data, the meta-analysis was not applied. The majority of the studies concluded that non-surgical periodontal treatment in pregnant women reduces incidence of preterm babies with low weight.

Jabbour C.J.C.,Sao Paulo State University
Journal of Cleaner Production | Year: 2015

Abstract In the search for more environmentally sustainable organisations, scholars devoted to the subject of environmental management in industrial organisations are increasingly interested in identifying the human, organisational or technical factors that may be related to the environmental management maturity of those companies. In this context, based on the emerging literature on natural resource-based view of the firm and on green human resource management, one can question whether environmental training is, in fact, related positively and significantly with the maturity of the environmental management of companies with ISO14001 located in Brazil. To address this question, a quantitative, exploratory, survey-based study, in which the collected data were subsequently processed using structural equation modelling, was performed using data from 95 companies. The results indicate the following: confirmation of the research hypothesis H1, i.e., that the construct environmental training (ET) relates positively and significantly with the environmental management maturity (EMM) of the companies in the sample, and the power of determination of ET over EMM can be considered "large". © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Chacaltana O.,Sao Paulo State University | Distler J.,University of Texas at Austin | Tachikawa Y.,University of Tokyo
International Journal of Modern Physics A | Year: 2013

We study the local properties of a class of codimension-2 defects of the 6d N = (2, 0) theories of type J = A, D, E labeled by nilpotent orbits of a Lie algebra $g, where g is determined by J and the outer-automorphism twist around the defect. This class is a natural generalization of the defects of the six-dimensional (6d) theory of type SU(N) labeled by a Young diagram with N boxes. For any of these defects, we determine its contribution to the dimension of the Higgs branch, to the Coulomb branch operators and their scaling dimensions, to the four-dimensional (4d) central charges a and c and to the flavor central charge k. © 2013 World Scientific Publishing Company.

Apponi L.H.,Emory University | Leung S.W.,Emory University | Williams K.R.,Emory University | Valentini S.R.,Sao Paulo State University | And 2 more authors.
Human Molecular Genetics | Year: 2010

The nuclear poly(A)-binding protein 1 (PABPN1) is a ubiquitously expressed protein that plays a critical role in polyadenylation. Short expansions of the polyalanine tract in the N-terminus of PABPN1 lead to oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy (OPMD), which is an adult onset disease characterized by eyelid drooping, difficulty in swallowing and weakness in the proximal limb muscles. Although significant data from in vitro biochemical assays define the function of PABPN1 in control of poly(A) tail length, little is known about the role of PABPN1 in mammalian cells. To assess the function of PABPN1 in mammalian cells and specifically in cells affected in OPMD, we examined the effects of PABPN1 depletion using siRNA in primary mouse myoblasts from extraocular, pharyngeal and limb muscles. PABPN1 knockdown significantly decreased cell proliferation and myoblast differentiation during myogenesis in vitro. At the molecular level, PABPN1 depletion in myoblasts led to a shortening of mRNA poly(A) tails, demonstrating the cellular function of PABPN1 in polyadenylation control in a mammalian cell. In addition, PABPN1 depletion caused nuclear accumulation of poly(A) RNA, revealing that PABPN1 is required for proper poly(A) RNA export from the nucleus. Together, these experiments demonstrate that PABPN1 plays an essential role in myoblast proliferation and differentiation, suggesting that it is required for muscle regeneration and maintenance in vivo. © The Author 2009. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oxfordjournals.org.

Minto B.W.,Sao Paulo State University
Acta veterinaria Scandinavica | Year: 2013

There are few studies reporting pain and postoperative analgesia associated with mastectomy in dogs. The aim of this study was to evaluate postoperative pain after unilateral mastectomy using two different surgical techniques in the dog. Twenty female dogs were assigned (n=10/group) to undergo unilateral mastectomy using either the combination of sharp and blunt dissection (SBD) or the modified SBD (mSBD) technique, in which the mammary chain is separated from the abdominal wall entirely by blunt (hand and finger) dissection except for a small area cranial to the first gland, in a prospective, randomized, clinical trial. All dogs were premedicated with intramuscular acepromazine (0.05 mg/kg) and morphine (0.3 mg/kg). Anesthesia was induced with intravenous ketamine (5 mg/kg) and diazepam (0.25 mg/kg), and maintained with isoflurane. Subcutaneous meloxicam (0.2 mg/kg) was administered before surgery. Postoperative pain was evaluated according to the University of Melbourne pain scale (UMPS) by an observer who was blinded to the surgical technique.. Rescue analgesia was provided by the administration of intramuscular morphine (0.5 mg/kg) if pain scores were >14 according to the UMPS. Data were analyzed using t-tests and ANOVA (P>0.05). There were no significant differences between the groups for age, weight, extubation time, and duration of surgery and anesthesia (P>0.05). There were no significant differences for postoperative pain scores between groups. Rescue analgesia was required in one dog in each group. The two surgical techniques produced similar surgical times, incidence of perioperative complications and postoperative pain. Multimodal analgesia is recommended for treatment of postoperative pain in dogs undergoing unilateral mastectomy.

We have previously shown that the subunit 1 of Leishmania amazonensis RPA (LaRPA-1) alone binds the G-rich telomeric strand and is structurally different from other RPA-1. It is analogous to telomere end-binding proteins described in model eukaryotes whose homologues were not identified in the protozoan's genome. Here we show that LaRPA-1 is involved with damage response and telomere protection although it lacks the RPA1N domain involved with the binding with multiple checkpoint proteins. We induced DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in Leishmania using phleomycin. Damage was confirmed by TUNEL-positive nuclei and triggered a G1/S cell cycle arrest that was accompanied by nuclear accumulation of LaRPA-1 and RAD51 in the S phase of hydroxyurea-synchronized parasites. DSBs also increased the levels of RAD51 in non-synchronized parasites and of LaRPA-1 and RAD51 in the S phase of synchronized cells. More LaRPA-1 appeared immunoprecipitating telomeres in vivo and associated in a complex containing RAD51, although this interaction needs more investigation. RAD51 apparently co-localized with few telomeric clusters but it did not immunoprecipitate telomeric DNA. These findings suggest that LaRPA-1 and RAD51 work together in response to DNA DSBs and at telomeres, upon damage, LaRPA-1 works probably to prevent loss of single-stranded DNA and to assume a capping function.

Within the order Scorpiones, the parthenogenetic mode of reproduction has been described for 11 species, 6 of which belong to the genus Tityus. In this work, an investigation of the chromosome characteristics of 2 populations of Tityus serrulatus, the first scorpion species known to be thelytokously parthenogenetic, is described. An analysis of 40 individuals revealed holocentric chromosomes of large, medium, and small sizes and an invariable diploid number of 2n = 12. In addition to the conserved macrokaryotype structure, specific chromosome regions also appeared unchanged within and between the samples studied; that is, each sample displayed only one chromosome carrier of the active nucleolar organizer region containing ribosomal genes (5.8S, 18S, and 28S) and AT-rich heterochromatin associated with the ribosomal DNA. The high conservation of the chromosomal features observed in T. serrulatus differed from that verified in certain species of other groups of animals that possess both holocentric chromosomes and parthenogenetic reproduction. Moreover, the cytogenetic results obtained herein permit us to suggest how the eggs of T. serrulatus develop, whether by apomixis or automixis. © The American Genetic Association. 2010. All rights reserved.

Carvalho A.C.,Sao Paulo State University
The International journal of oral & maxillofacial implants | Year: 2011

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of reusing high-resistance drills on bone heating, immediate bone cell viability, and drill wear after performing implant osteotomies in rabbit tibias. Two hundred sequential implant osteotomies were created in the superior tibial cortex of 12 White male rabbits. Six groups were established (G1 to G6) according to the number of osteotomies performed with each drill (0, 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50). Drilling began with a spear drill, followed by 2.0-mm, 2.8-mm, 3.0-mm, and 3.15-mm helical drills. The receptor beds were collected for immunohistochemical analysis, thermal changes were quantified, and the drills were subjected to scanning electron microscopy analysis. A high degree of correlation between drill wear and number of osteotomies was observed (Pearson correlation coefficient, r = 0.984). Spear drills underwent twice as much deformation as helical drills. The bone heating analysis concluded that there was no statistically significant relationship between the number of osteotomies and bone heating (P > .05), but there were greater thermal changes during drilling with the spear drill than during drilling with helical drills (ratio 3:1). Immunohistochemical analysis showed a physiologic balance of osteoprotegerin and RANKL (receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand) immunolabeling in all groups; however, there was greater immunolabeling of all proteins in group G6 (50 osteotomies). The tested drills did not cause significant bone heating after being reused 50 times; however, they caused more tissue trauma in the 50th osteotomy. Worn drills that are reused may be expected to cause excessive damage to the bone tissue and could adversely affect the osseointegration process.