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Gallardo A.L.C.F.,Sao Paulo Institute for Technological Research | Bond A.,University of East Anglia
Environmental Impact Assessment Review | Year: 2011

Brazil is experiencing a surge in planting of sugar cane crops driven by internal markets and external policy drivers for biofuels. The current expectation is for the expansion of these crops to continue. This creates concern over the extent to which the full implications of large scale land use change are currently being considered by decision-makers. Using the State of São Paulo as a case study (as it accounts for the majority of sugar cane grown in Brazil), a comparison was made of the impacts identified in Environmental Impact Statements (EISs) and Preliminary Environmental Reports (PERs), which have to be submitted for approval of most new sugar cane activities, with significant impacts known to be associated with sugar cane activities derived from literature review. The results from a review of 32 EISs and PERs (30% of the population) indicated that whilst some impacts were well covered by the sample (water and soil pollution, and air emissions) energy balance and Green House Gas emissions and food security had very limited consideration, and water resources, residues, labour conditions and social responsibility were only partially covered. Environmental Impact Assessment is constrained by its environmental advocacy role and its application to the project level only. This study highlights its limitations in the context of assessment of land use change which demands more strategic consideration. © 2010 Elsevier Inc. Source

Oliveira A.L.,Sao Paulo Institute for Technological Research
Genetics and molecular research : GMR | Year: 2010

The relationships between schistosomiasis and its intermediate host, mollusks of the genus Biomphalaria, have been a concern for decades. It is known that the vector mollusk shows different susceptibility against parasite infection, whose occurrence depends on the interaction between the forms of trematode larvae and the host defense cells. These cells are called amebocytes or hemocytes and are responsible for the recognition of foreign bodies and for phagocytosis and cytotoxic reactions. The defense cells mediate the modulation of the resistant and susceptible phenotypes of the mollusk. Two main types of hemocytes are found in the Biomphalaria hemolymph: the granulocytes and the hyalinocytes. We studied the variation in the number (kinetics) of hemocytes for 24 h after exposing the parasite to genetically selected and non-selected strains of Biomphalaria tenagophila, susceptible or not to infection by Schistosoma mansoni. The differences were analyzed referred to the variations in the number of hemocytes in mollusks susceptible or not to infection by S. mansoni. The hemolymph of the selected and non-selected snails was collected, and hemocytes were counted using a Neubauer chamber at six designated periods: 0 h (control, non-exposed individuals), 2 h, 6 h, 12 h, 18 h and, 24 h after parasite exposure. Samples of hemolymph of five selected mollusks and five non-selected mollusks were separately used at each counting time. There was a significant variation in the number of hemocytes between the strains, which indicates that defense cells have different behaviors in resistant and susceptible mollusks. Source

Landgraf F.J.G.,Sao Paulo Institute for Technological Research
JOM | Year: 2012

The physical origins of the magnetic properties of nonoriented electrical steels; its relations to microstructural features like grain size, nonmetallic inclusions, dislocation density distribution, crystallographic texture, and residual stresses; and its processing by cold rolling and annealing are overviewed, using quantitative relations whenever available. © 2012 TMS. Source

Ferreira Jr. A.F.G.,Sao Paulo Institute for Technological Research
Journal of Physics: Conference Series | Year: 2011

This work presents the characterization of modified FEL 1000W lamp housing to be used as a transference standard in the blue light irradiance intercomparison. It aims to support the metrological issues of medical equipment manufactures concerning the phototherapy treatment stated on the standard NBR/IEC 60601-2-50. The light source characterization consists of lamp seasoning, lamp short-term drift and lamp irradiance relative spatial distribution at the plane of measurement. The lamp seasoning is performed by a software developed in LabView® which measures the lamp voltage, current and irradiance at each 5 minutes during 25 hours of seasoning. The lamp short-term drift is evaluated by measuring the lamp irradiance during a sequence of 2 hours of lamp using. The lamp irradiance relative spatial distribution is verified using a radiometer head with a reduced aperture attached to an YZ positing system at each 2 mm in an interval of 24 mm. The lamp presented variation of about 0.1%/h during seasoning. Short-term drift for the lamp after a warm-up of 20 minutes was less than 0.9% for series of 4 lamp switching cycles. Lamp irradiance relative spatial distribution showed a variation of ±1.25% for a circular diameter of 20 mm. The overall uncertainty for lamp irradiance was 3.65%. Source

Torrisi N.M.,Federal University of ABC | De Oliveira J.F.G.,Sao Paulo Institute for Technological Research
International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology | Year: 2012

Process analytical technology encourages the industry to adopt innovative technologies to increase quality. The key components of this approach are better understanding the product manufacturing process, data analysis, process analytical tools, process monitoring, and continuous feedback during the manufacturing process. Remote process analytical technology over public IP networks can significantly reduce the cost of maintenances and technical support, and simplify the classical OPC-like architecture based on multiple server gateways. The requirements for using remote process analytical technology for high-speed processes are mainly concerned with cyber security and high data refresh rate on the remote monitoring machine. This work intends to evaluate a new, open application protocol named CyberOPC dedicated to CNC machines. The CyberOPC version presented in this paper supersedes the first version presented in previous papers, which had no streaming features. The CyberOPC technology is not only an open alternative to other data exchange protocols, but it also introduces streaming capabilities to gain high refresh rate on remote control stations. It is based on the Client/Server Model, where a software layer is introduced between CNC and the remote monitoring station, on the Server side of CyberOPC. Even if the case study adopts a tunneling Schema that includes server gateways, the requirements to develop protocols in embedded devices and modern CNC are fulfilled by several devices that include a TCP/IP stack. © 2011 Springer-Verlag London Limited. Source

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