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Sassaki C.Y.,Sao Paulo State University | Colodel M.M.,Sao Paulo State University | Ferreira I.,Sao Paulo State University | Nogueira F.S.,Foundation Medicine | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins Including Tropical Diseases | Year: 2011

Uninfected dogs (n = 10) and those naturally infected with leishmaniasis (n = 10) were subjected to several diagnostic tests, namely: hemoculture, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of hemoculture, indirect immunofuorescence (RIFI), cytological examination of lymph node aspirate, culture of lymph node aspirate and PCR of lymph node aspirate. RIFI - followed by PCR of lymph node aspirate culture - presented more positive results in infected dogs than in uninfected ones. In infected animals, RIFI was more efective than PCR of lymph node aspirate culture. There was no statistical diference in positivity between RIFI and hemoculture; lymph node aspirate culture/cytological examination of lymph node aspirate and PCR of hemoculture; and between PCR of lymph node aspirate culture and PCR of hemoculture. All infected and uninfected animals had positive and negative results in at least one test. In conclusion, the association of several tests improves the efcacy of canine visceral leishmaniasis diagnosis. Source


Borghi E.,Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation Embrapa | Crusciol C.A.C.,Sao Paulo State University | Mateus G.P.,Sao Paulo Agency of Agribusiness Technology APTA | Nascente A.S.,Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation Embrapa | Martins P.O.,Sao Paulo State University
Crop Science | Year: 2013

Intercropping corn (Zea mays L.) with forages, such as palisadegrass {Urochloa brizantha (Hochst. ex A. rich.) r. D. Webster [syn. Brachiaria brizantha (Hochst. ex A. rich.) Stapf]} or guineagrass [Megathyrsus maximus (Jacq.) B. K. Simon & S. W. L. Jacobs (syn. Panicum maximum Jacq.)], provides large amounts of biomass for use as straw in no-tillage systems or as pasture. However, it is important to evaluate what time these forages have to be sown into corn systems to avoid reductions in both corn and forage production. This study, conducted for three growing seasons at Botucatu, Brazil, evaluated nutrient concentration and yield of corn as affected by time of forage intercropped as well as forage's dry matter production. our data showed that intercropping systems did not reduce leaf nutrient concentrations and grain yield of corn in relation to sole corn. The simultaneous intercropping of corn and guineagrass resulted in the lowest plant population (51, 200 plant ha-1), number of ears per plant (1.0), and, consequently, the lowest corn grain yield (9801 kg ha-1). Guineagrass seeded at the time of corn fertilizer topdressing resulted in the highest plant population (59, 400 plants ha-1), number of ears per plant (1.2), and corn grain yield (12, 077 kg ha-1). Forage production was highest when intercrop was done simultaneously. palisadegrass could be intercropped with corn both simultaneously or at topdressing fertilization stage. In contrast, it is recommended that guineagrass should only be intercropped with corn at topdressingfertilization. © Crop Science Society of America. Source


Crusciol C.A.C.,Sao Paulo State University | Nascente A.S.,BRAian Agricultural Research Corporation EMBRAPA | Mateus G.P.,Sao Paulo Agency of Agribusiness Technology APTA | Martins P.O.,Sao Paulo State University | Borghi E.,EMBRAPA - Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuaria
European Journal of Agronomy | Year: 2014

Integrated no-till crop and livestock production systems may help rejuvenate degraded pastures, increase land use efficiency (LUE), and increase enterprise revenue. Our objectives were to evaluate: (1) planting date effects on seed yield and nutrient concentration of an early-maturing, no-till system (NTS) soybean (Glycine max) when intercropped with palisade grass (Brachiaria brizantha); (2) dry matter production and protein concentration of the grass pasture after soybean harvest; and (3) overall revenue and LUE for the intercrop system. Experiments were performed during two growing seasons in Botucatu, Brazil using a randomized complete block experimental design. When palisade grass and soybean were sown simultaneously, soybean yield averaged 3.28Mgha-1. Similar seed yields were observed when palisade grass was planted either 30d after soybean emergence (DAE) (3.29Mgha-1) or at the soybean reproductive stage R6 (full seed) (3.50Mgha-1). Monocrop soybean yield averaged 3.50Mgha-1. First cut dry matter forage production was greater when palisade grass was sown at the same time as soybean or 30 DAE of soybean. This indicates that interseeding palisade grass with soybean does not significantly affect soybean nutrition or yield. Intercropping did increase LUE and resulted in 1.6 times more revenue than soybean alone. However, sowing palisade grass at the soybean reproductive stage R6 (full seed) significantly reduced the forage yield compared to early planting. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. Source


Borghi E.,Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation Embrapa | Crusciol C.A.C.,Sao Paulo State University | Trivelin P.C.O.,University of Sao Paulo | Nascente A.S.,EMBRAPA - Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuaria | And 2 more authors.
Revista Brasileira de Ciencia do Solo | Year: 2014

Nitrogen is required in large amounts by plants and their dinamics in corn and perennial forages intercropped is little known. This study analyzed the efficiency of nitrogen fertilization (15NH4NO3) applied after corn grain harvest to palisadegrass (Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu) in intercrops sown at two times, as well as the N residual effect on the subsequent corn crop. The field experiment was performed in Botucatu, São Paulo State, in southeastern Brazil, on a structured Alfisol under no-tillage. The experiment was arranged in a randomized block design in a split plot scheme with four replications. The main plots consisted of two intercropping systems (corn and palisadegrass sown together and palisadegrass sown later, at corn top-dressing fertilization). The subplots consisted of four N rates (0, 30, 60, and 120 kg ha−1 N). The subplots contained microplots, in which enriched ammonium nitrate (15NH4NO3) was applied at the same rates. The time of intercrop sowing affected forage dry matter production, the amount of fertilizer-derived N in and the N use efficiency by the forage plants. Nitrogen applied in autumn to palisadegrass intercropped with corn, planted either at corn sowing or at N top-dressing fertilization, increased the forage yield up to a rate of 60 kg ha−1. The amount of fertilizer-derived N by the forage plants and the fertilizer use efficiency by palisadegrass were highest 160 days after fertilization for both intercrop sowing times, regardless of N rates. Residual N did not affect the N nutrition of corn plants grown in succession to palisadegrass, but increased grain yield at rates of 60 and 120 kg ha−1 N, when corn was grown on palisadegrass straw from the intercrop installed at corn fertilization (top-dressing). Our results indicated that the earlier intercropping allowed higher forage dry matter production. On the other hand, the later intercrop allowed a higher corn grain yield in succession to N-fertilized palisadegrass. © 2014, Revista Brasileira de Ciencia do Solo. All rights reserved. Source


Crusciol C.A.C.,Sao Paulo State University | Nascente A.S.,GO Corporation | Mateus G.P.,Sao Paulo Agency of Agribusiness Technology APTA | Borghi E.,EMBRAPA - Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuaria | And 2 more authors.
Agronomy Journal | Year: 2013

Intercropping corn (Zea mays L.) with palisadegrass [Brachiaria brizantha (Hochst. ex A. Rich) Stapf] can result in high amounts of residue and improve nutrient cycling. Long-season corn hybrids will live longer, competing with palisadegrass, which may reduce both corn and forage biomass yields. This study, conducted in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, had the objective of evaluating nutrient concentration and yield of corn hybrids with different maturity ratings as affected by intercropped palisadegrass as well as forage dry matter production. Te experimental design was randomized blocks with a factorial arrangement of eight treatments consisting of two cropping systems (corn alone and intercropped with palisadegrass) and four corn hybrids (105-, 121-, 132, and 144-d relative maturity). Compared with corn grown alone, intercropping treatments resulted in corn grain yields of 107% (105-d hybrid) to 71.7% (144-d hybrid). In the corn-alone system, the 132- and 144-d corn hybrids provided the highest corn yields (9581 and 9606 kg ha-1, respectively). Corn yield was similar between the single-crop and intercrop systems when using 105-, 121-, and 132-d hybrids. Intercropping with the 144-d hybrid reduced forage production (6619 kg ha-1) and quality of palisadegrass (86 g kg-1 of crude protein) compared with the other hybrids. Te intercropping system with the 132-d hybrid allowed both the highest corn grain (8860 kg ha-1) and palisadegrass (8256 kg ha-1) yields. Therefore, intercropping palisadegrass with the earlier (105-, 121-, and 132-d) corn hybrids is a viable option for crop-livestock integration because it did not affect either corn or palisadegrass yield. © 2013 by the American Society of Agronomy, 5585 Guilford Road, Madison, WI 53711. All rights reserved. Source

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