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Hayashi T.,Beppu University | Furuta Y.,Sanwa Shurui Co. | Furukawa K.,Beppu University
Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering | Year: 2011

Respiration-deficient mutant (RDM) strains of Zymomonas mobilis were isolated from antibiotic-resistant mutants. These RDM strains showed various degrees of respiratory deficiency. All RDM strains exhibited much higher ethanol fermentation capacity than the wild-type strain under aerobic conditions. The strains also gained thermotolerance and exhibited greater ethanol production at high temperature (39°C), under both non-aerobic and aerobic conditions, compared with the wild-type strain. Microarray and subsequent quantitative PCR analyses suggest that enhanced gene expression involved in the metabolism of glucose to ethanol resulted in the high ethanol production of RDM strains under aerobic growth conditions. Reduction of intracellular oxidative stress may also result in improved ethanol fermentation by RDM strains at high temperatures. © 2010 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan.

Chaen K.,Kyushu University | Noguchi J.,Kyushu University | Omori T.,Sanwa Shurui Co. | Kakuta Y.,Kyushu University | Kimura M.,Kyushu University
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications | Year: 2012

Starch branching enzyme (SBE) catalyzes the cleavage of α-1,4-linkages and the subsequent transfer of α-1,4 glucan to form an α-1,6 branch point in amylopectin. We determined the crystal structure of the rice branching enzyme I (BEI) in complex with maltopentaose at a resolution of 2.2 å. Maltopentaose bound to a hydrophobic pocket formed by the N-terminal helix, carbohydrate-binding module 48 (CBM48), and α-amylase domain. In addition, glucose moieties could be observed at molecular surfaces on the N-terminal helix (α2) and CBM48. Amino acid residues involved in the carbohydrate bindings are highly conserved in other SBEs, suggesting their generally conserved role in substrate binding for SBEs. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.

Giriwono P.E.,Tohoku University | Shirakawa H.,Tohoku University | Hokazono H.,Sanwa Shurui Co. | Goto T.,Tohoku University | Komai M.,Tohoku University
Bioscience, Biotechnology and Biochemistry | Year: 2011

Utilizing phytochemicals in treating inflammation is becoming a viable alternative to pharmacological treatment. We have reported that fermented barley extract (FBE) effectively suppresses oxidative stress in chronically ethanol-fed rats. Here we report that FBE suppressed acute increases in oxidative stress as a response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation. Rats supplemented with FBE for 10 d showed decreases in plasma interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α by 25%, 34%, and 35% respectively after LPS challenge. Liver damage was significantly suppressed, as marked by a 44% decrease in plasma alanine aminotransferase. FBE supplementation sustained liver antioxidative enzymes, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase, at transcriptional and enzymatic levels, thus suppressing oxidative stress markers such as plasma nitric oxide and 8-hydroxy-2- deoxyguanosine, by 42% and 23% respectively. We concluded that active compounds in FBE effectively inhibited the propagation of inflammation by suppressing oxidative stress.

Ardiansyah,Tohoku University | Ardiansyah,University of Technology of Indonesia | Shirakawa H.,Tohoku University | Giriwono P.E.,Tohoku University | And 7 more authors.
Bioscience, Biotechnology and Biochemistry | Year: 2015

We studied the effects of fermented barley extract P (FBEP) in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP). Male 10-week-old SHRSP were divided into three groups that were fed: an AIN-93M diet (control), a low dose of FBEP (4 g/kg; FBEP1), and a high dose of FBEP (20 g/kg; FBEP2) for three weeks. Hypertension was significantly improved by the use of FBEP supplementation. The FBEP diet improved plasma triglyceride, insulin sensitivity, enhanced plasma catalase, and superoxide dismutase activities, and decreased plasma 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine levels. In addition, the FBEP diet upregulated hepatic antioxidative genes and modulated Nrf2 protein levels in the liver. Furthermore, a single oral dose of FBEP (2 g/kg body weight) was able to lower blood pressure in SHRSP. In conclusion, our data suggest that increased expression of hepatic antioxidative genes and modulation of Nrf2 may play a role in the regulation of metabolic diseases in SHRSP consuming a FBEP diet. © 2015 Japan Society for Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Agrochemistry.

Giriwono P.E.,Laboratory of Nutrition | Hashimoto T.,Laboratory of Nutrition | Ohsaki Y.,Laboratory of Nutrition | Shirakawa H.,Laboratory of Nutrition | And 2 more authors.
Food Research International | Year: 2010

Chronic consumption of alcohol leads to liver disorders primarily as hepatosteatosis, and increase of oxidative stress. The abundance of these reactive oxygen species (ROS) is a result of ethanol (ethyl alcohol) oxidation by alcohol dehydrogenase and cytochrome p450 2E1 (CYP2E1). In order to address this problem with natural substance, the high polyphenol content of barley has been numerously cited to provide excellent antioxidative effect. In this study, we investigated the effect of fermented barley extract (FBE) in chronic ethanol fed female Wistar rats. We obtained significant decrease of plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities in the FBE supplemented group. Further examinations revealed that FBE induces substantial improvement in hepatic gene expressions of key anti-oxidative genes, reinforced by its increase of enzymatic activities and subsequent suppression of oxidative stress. Thus we have demonstrated a novel approach for the use of barley as supplements to attenuate chronic alcohol consumption. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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