Ghāziābād, India
Ghāziābād, India

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Preeti S.,Santosh University | Pradeep K.,Santosh University | Rachna S.,Mc Sexena Medical College And Hospital | Kumar A.V.,Santosh University
Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research | Year: 2015

One of the major causes of the mortality from single infectious agent, tuberculosis (TB) is prevalent worldwide. India has the highest number of TB cases in the world. It is the leading cause of death, because of its high mortality and morbidity because of the disease. Reason lies in the emergence of multidrug-resistant TB strains, and the HIV infection, which reactivates the latent TB making it more severe. Moreover, failure to diagnose TB early remains one of the primary hurdles in controlling of the disease. TB is a potentially hazardous infectious disease attacks various organs, mainly affecting lungs. The bacteria causing TB are spread from one person to another. Tiny droplets released into the air via coughs and sneezes lead to the passage of infection. The disease is generally diagnosed by its symptoms, radiographic methods, and sputum smear microscopy and by cultivation of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which is considered as gold standard. Current advances in molecular biology and molecular epidemiology and a better understanding of drug resistance in TB have given a new horizon to its rapid diagnosis. However, the cost-effective techniques, and their requirement for sophisticated equipment and skilled personals have excluded their implementation on a routine basis, especially in low-income countries. © 2015, Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research. All rights reserved.


PubMed | Hospital & Research Center, Dr Dy Patil Dental College & Hospital, Private Practice and Santosh University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of international oral health : JIOH | Year: 2015

Oral squamous cell lesions are most commonly diagnosed lesions in India. Both premalignant and malignant lesions are frequently encountered. In this study, we evaluated the role and significance of apoptotic indices (AI) and proliferative indices (PI) in premalignant and malignant squamous cell lesions of the oral cavity.A total of 62 histologically proven cases of premalignant and malignant oral squamous cell lesions were analyzed. The biopsies were stained with hematoxylin and eosin and also with monoclonal antibody Ki-67. AI and PI were assessed using a light microscope.AI was found to increase gradually from normal to dysplasia to carcinoma. The highest AI was seen in well-differentiated squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs). PI also was found to increase significantly from normal to dysplasia to carcinoma. The highest PI was seen in poorly differentiated SCC.AI in conjunction with the PI offers an accurate idea as to the nature and course of the lesion and may help to plan timely surgical intervention that results in better clinical prognosis and outcome.


Suhail N.,A&M University | Bilal N.,A&M University | Khan H.Y.,A&M University | Hasan S.,A&M University | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics | Year: 2012

What is known and Objective: Reactive oxygen/nitrogen species generated by antineoplastic agents are prime suspects for the toxic side-effects of acute or chronic chemotherapy. The present study was undertaken to test whether vitamins C and E (VCE) supplementation protect against some of the harmful effects of commonly used anticancer drugs in breast-cancer patients. Methods: In a randomized 5-month study, the activity of various antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione-S-transferase and glutathione reductase) and the levels of malondialdehyde and reduced glutathione were measured in forty untreated breast-cancer patients (stage II) and compared with those of healthy controls. The degree of DNA damage was also assessed in the peripheral lymphocytes of the patients by alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis. The untreated patients were then randomly assigned to either treatment with chemotherapy alone (5-fluorouracil 500 mg/m 2 i.v. day 1, doxorubicin 50 mg/m 2 i.v. day 1 and cyclophosphamide 500 mg/m 2 i.v. day 1, every 3 weeks for six cycles) or to the same chemotherapy regimen supplemented with VCE (vitamin C 500 mg tablet and vitamin E 400 mg gelatin capsule). On completion of the treatments, both the groups were studied again for the levels of the markers measured prior to treatment. Results and Discussion: The untreated group showed significantly lower levels of antioxidant enzymes (P < 0·001) and reduced glutathione (P < 0·001), and more extensive lipid peroxidation (P < 0·001) and DNA damage than healthy controls. Similar but less pronounced patterns were observed in the patients receiving chemotherapy alone. The group of patients receiving VCE supplementation had all the marker levels moving towards normal values. Activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione-S-transferase and glutathione reductase, and the levels of reduced glutathione were significantly increased (P < 0·01) while, the levels of malondialdehyde and DNA damage were significantly (P < 0·01) reduced in the VCE supplemented group relative to those of patients receiving chemotherapy alone as well as relative to the pretreatment levels. What is new and Conclusion: Co-administration of VCE restored antioxidant status, lowered by the presence of breast-cancer and chemotherapy. DNA damage was also reduced by VCE. The results suggest that VCE should be useful in protecting against chemotherapy-related side-effects and a randomized control trial to evaluate the effectiveness of VCE in breast-cancer patients using clinical outcomes would be appropriate. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.


PubMed | Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, ICPO, Santosh Medical College & Hospital and Santosh University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The Indian journal of tuberculosis | Year: 2016

Elderly population is continuously increasing all over the world including India. Old age is associated with significant prevalence of chronic illnesses. Population based study to find prevalence & pattern of respiratory diseases in elderly in India is difficult to find. Present study was done in an urban locality of Ghaziabad inhabited mainly by low socio - economic status population. Two part questionnaire was used as main tool. Through part one 1522 elderly were screened for respiratory disease. Respiratory disease was confirmed & diagnosed by part two of questionnaire, physical examination & necessary investigations. Prevalence of respiratory diseases was 18.8% in this study. Prevalence of respiratory diseases was almost double in elderly males as compared to females. COPD was most prevalent respiratory disease followed by Bronchial asthma.


Kharb P.,Sharda University | Samanta P.P.,Sharda University | Jindal M.,Sharda University | Singh V.,Santosh University
Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research | Year: 2013

Introduction: The purpose of teaching is to facilitate learning and to encourage the learners to learn more effectively. The learning style is an individual's consistent way of perceiving, pro-cessing and retaining new information. Educational researchers have shown an increasing interest in the learning styles, the re-lated instructional methods and the andrgogical teaching tech-niques. This interest is spurred by a desire to help the students to become capable and successful learners. Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the preferred learning styles of medical students as well as their preferences of specific teaching-learning methods. Method: A cross sectional study was conducted on 100 first semester medical students who were enrolled at SMS & R, Sharda University, India. The VARK questionnaire, version 7.1 was used to categorize the learning preferences/modes as visual (V), auditory (A), read and write (R) and kinaesthetic (K). The students were also asked to rank the various teach-ing methodologies viz. lectures, tutorials, demonstrations and practicals/dissections from the most preferred choice to the least preferred one. Results: The majority (61%) of the students had multimodal VARK preferences. Among them, 41%, 14% and 6% preferred the bimodal, trimodal and the quadrimodal ways of informa-tion presentation. 39% of the respondents had one strong (unimodal) learning preference. The most common unimodal preference was kinaesthetic, followed by visual, auditory and read and write. The most preferred teaching methodology was practical/dissection (39%) and tutorial was the least preferred one (12%). Conclusion: One single approach to teaching does not work for every student or even for most of the students. The educa-tors' awareness of the various learning styles of the students and their efforts towards matching the teaching and learning styles may help in creating an effective learning environment for all the students.


Garg R.,Santosh University | Malhotra V.,Santosh University | Tripathi Y.,Santosh University | Agarawal R.,Santosh University
Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research | Year: 2016

Introduction: Yoga has beneficial effects on memory. In females, left hemisphere of the brain is responsible for verbal memory and right hemisphere is responsible for the spatial memory, while the opposite is true for males. Aim: Aim of the present was to study the effect of unilateral right nostril breathing, left nostril breathing and alternate nostril breathing on verbal and spatial memory scores. Materials and Methods: A total of 51 female subjects (age 18-25 years, mean±SD =21.71±3.11) were taken and divided into three groups (n=17). Each group was imparted one of the three different types of nostril breathing practices such as Right Nostril Breathing (RNB), Left Nostril Breathing (LNB) and Alternate Nostril Breathing (ANB) for 1 week for 45 minutes daily. Subjects were given the memory test, before and after 45 minutes of intervention for three consecutive days. Memory tests were performed by using Wechsler Adult Intelligent Scale. Statistical Analysis: Results were analysed by ANOVA with SPSS version 17.0. Results: Results showed that there was increase in recall of digit span-forward, digit-span backward, associate learning and spatial memory scores with RNB, LNB and ANB, which were statistically highly significant(p<0.005). Conclusion: Inclusion of nostril breathing in exercise regimen may be helpful in improving recall of memory. © 2016, Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research. All rights reserved.


Sharma R.,TSM Medical College and Hospital | Sharma P.,Santosh University | Kumar P.,Santosh University | Gupta G.,Santosh University
Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research | Year: 2016

Objective: Osteoporosis is quite common in elderly people, especially in post-menopausal women. The role of Magnesium, an impOrtant cation along with calcium for bone formation, is not very well-studied in osteoporosis as well as osteopenia group. Methods: Total 68 post-menopausal women 48-75 years of age group, were included in this study. In which, 33 women were having osteoporosis while rest 35 were from osteopenia. The differentiation between osteoporosis and osteopenia were done with the bone mineral density usually expressed in T score and Z score. Serum total calcium, ionized calcium, serum phosphate, serum alkaline phosphatase, and serum magnesium were estimated in post-menopausal women. Results: Significant results were obtained in various parameters. In osteopenic women, the mean values of total calcium (8.25±1.25 vs. 9.29±0.62) and ionized calcium (4.22±0.51 vs. 4.64±0.31) were significantly (<0.001) higher. The serum concentration of alkaline phosphatase (159.87±37.11 vs. 137.21±33.29) was significantly higher (<0.01) in osteoporosis group. The serum concentration of magnesium (1.95±0.44 vs. 2.22±0.42) was lower in osteoporosis group, and the result was statistically significant (<0.05). Conclusion: In post-menopausal women, osteoporosis is characterized by a lower concentration of magnesium. Hypomagnesemia may result in inflammatory disorders which have an existing relationship with bone loss. The dietary intake of magnesium supplement may be useful in reducing the adverse effect of osteoporosis. © 2016, Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research. All rights reserved.


Sharma P.,Santosh University | Sharma R.,TSM Medical College and Hospital | Kumar P.,Santosh University | Gupta G.,Santosh University
Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research | Year: 2016

Objective: Osteoporosis is a quite common in post-menopausal women due to estrogen deficiency. Uric acid (UA) concentration has found some controversial association with bone mineral density (BMD). Hence, the role of UA may be beneficial to know due to the sign and symptoms presented by osteoporosis patients. Methods: A total of 79 post-menopausal women were recruited without having a previous history of osteoporosis or the secondary osteoporosis. Their BMD was estimated by estimating T-score and Z-score at the tibia and radius level. Total calcium ionized calcium, serum phosphate, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and UA level were estimated by a colorimetric method. Results and Conclusions: There were 38 women having osteoporosis and remaining 41 with pre-osteoporosis or osteopenia. Significant results were obtained between these groups. Total calcium and ionized calcium were higher is osteopenic group and the result highly significant (<0.001). Serum concentration of phosphate and ALP were significantly (<0.01) higher in the osteoporotic group. The UA level was significantly higher (<0.001) in the osteoporotic women. There were positive association (standardized β=0.265, p=0.018) serum UA and ALP in the study group. In conclusion, post-menopausal women with pre-osteoporosis as well as osteoporosis are characterized by elevated concentration of UA. The role of UA in bone loss disorder could not be neglected as hyperuricemia may give rise to several other life-threatening diseases associated with this, in coming future. © 2016, Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research. All rights reserved.


Sharma P.,Santosh University | Kumar P.,Santosh University
Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research | Year: 2016

For thousands of years, yoga an ancient holistic relaxation practice has been used as an effective therapeutic tool that counteracts the adverse clinical conditions of human beings. A host of bodily changes has been observed under the influence of yoga. Such practices are really helpful in numerous disorders including hypertension, obesity, anxiety, insomnia and aging itself and a number of other disorders. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms that explain these clinical benefits are still an enigma. The efficacy of yoga and meditation as an adjunct to routine management of various diseases and disorder is a great challenge in the present scenario. Ayurvedic knowledge of yoga is much more incompatible with its understanding of biochemical and hematological changes. Exploring the biochemical association with various yogic postures and practices will definitely improve the practice as therapeutic adjuvant and thus, will improve the quality of life. © 2016, Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research. All rights reserved.


Gupta G.,Santosh University | Sharma P.,Santosh University | Kumar P.,Santosh University | Sharma R.,TSM Medical College and Hospital
Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research | Year: 2016

Objective: Cardiovascular risk as suggested by its name refers to altered lipid profile and C-reactive protein. It is associated with hypothyroidism due to the effect of abnormal concentrations of thyroid hormones in the cardiovascular system and increased the risk of atherosclerosis. Subclinical hypothyroidism is associated with cardiac abnormalities is not well-documented. C-reactive protein one of the markers of inflammation, considered to be the predictor of cardiovascular diseases. It may be helpful in the assessment of future developments of cardiovascular abnormalities in subclinical hypothyroidism. Methods: Recently diagnosed 71 subclinical hypothyroidism patients were enrolled in the study and compared with 63 healthy individuals. Patients were divided into two groups on the basis of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) concentration. Thyroid profile (TSH, free thyroxine, triiodothyroinine) and C-reactive protein were estimated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), and highdensity lipoprotein-cholesterol were investigated in the study population by a spectrophotometric method, and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) was measured by the Friedewald formula. Results and Conclusion: Altered lipid profile, as well as higher concentrations of C-reactive protein, was observed in subclinical hypothyroidism patients as compared to controls. Higher concentration of TC, TG, and LDL was observed in subclinical hypothyroidism patients while the concentration of high-density lipoprotein was lower in patients with subclinical hypothyroidism. The elevated concentration of C-reactive protein was also observed in the patient group. Patients having TSH > 10 μIU/ml have a higher risk of developing cardiovascular disease compared to patients having TSH < 10 μIU/ml and increasing concentration of C-reactive protein along with LDL-C may progress to cardiac abnormality. © 2016, Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research. All rights reserved.

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