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Port Adelaide, Australia

Guillen Falcon G.E.,SANTOS Ltd
Society of Petroleum Engineers - SPE Asia Pacific Unconventional Resources Conference and Exhibition | Year: 2015

Early Permian Cattle Creek Coals in Fairview Field in Queensland Australia is an insitu multicomponent Coal Seam Gas Reservoir. The Early Permian East coals or Springwater play typically occur at depths between 1,100 m to 1,800 m. These medium volatile bituminous coals are characterized as having lower permeability (5 mD), a high gas content (10 - 15 m3/t daf), an elevated concentration of ethane and heavier hydrocarbon components (2 - 14% C2), and higher inerts concentration (0.2 - 12% CO2 3% N2) than found in many CSG fields. . An analysis and history match of the production data from existing appraisal wells with a particular emphasis on the produced gas composition and its variation with depletion was performed using both an in-house compositional simulator which used the extended Langmuir Isotherm as the basis for the equilibrium relationship between the free and the sorbed gas phase and a commercial compositional simulator. Methane, Carbon Dioxide, Ethane, Propane and Nitrogen were simulated during this study. The results showed potential differences between the produced gas composition obtained during well production (considering the adsorption/desorption behavior of a multicomponent gas in a coal seam reservoir) and the in-situ gas composition determined from gas sampling during desorption tests. Heating value profiles were generated and compared illustrating the potential impact of the reservoir dynamic behaviour. The results also showed how the produced concentration of N2 (free gas phase) can be 4 to 7 times higher than its insitu concentration and that a variation of up to 75% of the initial concentration in free gas phase of CO2 and C2H6 concentration is possible due to the variability of the isotherms indicated from core. Copyright 2015 Society of Petroleum Engineers. Source


Lemon P.,SANTOS Ltd | Zeinijahromi A.,University of Adelaide | Bedrikovetsky P.,University of Adelaide | Shahin I.,QGC
Journal of Canadian Petroleum Technology | Year: 2011

Permeability decline during corefloods with varying water composition, especially with low-salinity water, has been observed in numerous laboratory studies. It has often been explained by the lifting, migration, and subsequent plugging of pores by fine particles, which have been observed in numerous coreflood tests with altered water composition. In this paper, we investigated the concept that this permeability decline may be used for mobility control during waterflooding. The Dietz model for waterflooding in a layer-cake reservoir with a given injection and production rate was combined with a particle- detachment model to provide a simple analytical model for the process. The application of the model to an example data set showed that the induced fines migration may improve sweep efficiency. © 2011 Society of Petroleum Engineers. Source


Gardner B.,SANTOS Ltd
Society of Petroleum Engineers - 2014 SPE Artificial Lift Conference - North America | Year: 2014

Santos has produced oil from the Cooper Basin, central Australia since 1983. A range of artificial lift systems are used, dependent on fluid rate and reservoir depth with the beam pump the dominant artificial lift system. Historically the fleet experienced high subsurface failure frequency and increasing operating cost. Information regarding pump operating conditions and the root cause of failure was inconsistent in reporting standard and not readily available. As a consequence the details and mode of failure were not well understood. This paper will focus on analysis of beam pump failure root causes and trends, and how the operator has used this data combined with automated equipment to reduce failure frequency and operating cost. Santos started a program of beam pump automation in 2006. Before 2009, Santos relied on review of individual well files to determine pump operating history and failure mode. No central collation of well history or pump failure information was available. A database was built, which compiled failure details for more than 2,000 pump installations. This database has enabled run life, failure mode and frequency to be tracked and analysed. A program of automation and control upgrades to 85% of the beam pump population has provided greater visibility of operating conditions and parameters by means of telemetry to the office. This information in conjunction with the database is now used to better understand reasons for failure, and to design future downhole configurations as a result. In 2006, all Santos beam pumps were non-automated and had a failure frequency of 0.4 failures per well per year. Since the implementation of the automated fleet and the database, data shows frequency has reduced by 70% for automated wells. In comparison, the remaining non-automated beam pumps continue to have a failure frequency of 0.3 to 0.4. Since 2006 the beam pump well count has increased by 60% while the number of annual pump repairs has reduced by 30%. The data indicates failure modes are different on wells with automation. As an example, automated wells have a lower frequency of parted rods, resulting from better rod string design and control. This paper will assist operators to benchmark beam pump run life in similar operating conditions such as the Cooper Basin. It also presents data and findings to support the benefit a beam pump automation and control program may provide. Detailed understandings of failure modes have helped Santos and its joint venture partners gain significant economic benefit, and develop "Best Practice" guidelines for beam pump system design as a consequence. Source


Wilson M.E.J.,Curtin University Australia | Chambers J.L.C.,SANTOS Ltd | Manning C.,Royal Holloway, University of London | Nas D.S.,Geological Research and Development Center
Sedimentary Geology | Year: 2012

The variability in low to moderate energy carbonate platform margins is poorly known from the geological record. Here, the spatial and temporal evolution of platform margin and adjacent basinal deposits is evaluated from the little known Tertiary Kedango Limestone that developed in a semi-enclosed marine embayment in SE Asia. The hypothesis here is that platform margin development will reflect regional and perhaps global influences, such as tectonics, eustasy or biotic change, rather than windward-leeward effects and storms that typically impact strongly upon open oceanic platforms. The development of the carbonate platform was determined through logging, petrography, facies evaluation, provenance and high-resolution dating studies. Eleven carbonate facies were identified from the 30. km long western margin of the >600 m thick platform and its adjacent slope and basinal deposits. Larger benthic foraminifera and coralline algal packstones and wackestones dominated in shallow waters. During the Oligo-Miocene, coral patch reef-related floatstones, rudstones and less commonly boundstones were also present on the platform top. Perhaps surprisingly for a low energy platform there was considerable variation along the platform margin and much reworking of material into slope and basinal deposits during the Oligo-Miocene. Reworked material includes shallow water bioclasts, clasts from older siliciclastics, fresh feldspars, lithified slope and platform top carbonate clasts, some of the latter showing evidence for karstification. The western platform margin varied laterally over a few kilometres from a gently sloping unrimmed platform, to a probable bank top, with in places coral-fringed, bypass and erosional faulted escarpment margins. Eustasy may have influenced shallowing and deepening trends on the platform top, but apparently had little impact on mass wasting. Instead platform margin development was strongly impacted by tectonics (including active faulting), terrestrial runoff, together with changes in carbonate producers and local variability on the platform top. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. Source


Clarke F.,SANTOS Ltd
Society of Petroleum Engineers - Progressing Cavity Pumps Conference 2013 | Year: 2013

The Cooper Basin is one of Australia's largest onshore resource projects. It is geographically located in central Australia in a remote and harsh area commonly known as the "Outback". On behalf of its joint venture partners, Santos operates more than 400 oil wells and 820 gas wells covering an extended operating area of approximately 12,000 square miles. A variety of artificial lift systems are used dependent on reservoir depth and fluid rate. This paper will focus on the application of Progressing Cavity Pumps (PCP) with a review of historical run life data and key lessons learned from 2004 to 2012. Santos installed its first PCP system in 1990. The trial was considered unsuccessful as a result of a pump failure occurring within a matter of days. No further trials of a PCP system were undertaken until 2004. This second 2 well trial was able to demonstrate the operability of the PCP system by achieving run lives of 180 and 250 days. These results were encouraging enough to move forward with expanded trials in a wider range of reservoirs located in various fields. The peak of the PCP implementation program in the Cooper Basin reached 145 installations in 2008. Unfortunately many of the applications fell outside of newly understood technical limits. Consequently a number of subsurface failures occurred which resulted in many unplanned workovers. As a result of poor PCP reliability, a change to more dependable forms of artificial lift was undertaken. The total PCP installation base has decreased to 38 systems of which 18 are operating in one particular field achieving pump run lives of 400 to 800 days. This paper will assist operators to benchmark PCP system performance in similar light oil applications as found in the Cooper Basin. Additionally, the paper will outline a set of technical limits developed from our operating experience and lastly, it will provide a guideline to understand the risks associated with operating PCP systems in a light oil application. Copyright 2013, Society of Petroleum Engineers. Source

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