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Esposito F.,Santobono Pausilipon Pediatric Hospital | Senese R.,University of Naples Federico II | Salvatore P.,University of Naples Federico II | Vallone G.,University of Naples Federico II
Journal of Ultrasound | Year: 2011

Rotavirus enteritis is an infectious disease of the small bowel caused by an RNA reovirus. It is manifested by cytotoxic diarrhea [1]. Rotavirus is the most common viral cause of enteritis (incidence 15-35%) [2]. In infants and children with abdominal pain and diarrhea, ultrasonography is the diagnostic study of choice, and its use has increased significantly in young patients. We describe two cases in which portal-vein gas was detected on abdominal ultrasound scans in children with severe dehydration secondary to rotavirus gastroenteritis, which resolved rapidly after treatment. L'enterite da Rotavirus è una patologia virale del piccolo intestino dovuta ad un RNA reovirus e si manifesta con diarrea citotossica. Il Rotavirus è fra le più comuni cause di enterite. Nei neonati e nei bambini con dolore addominale e diarrea l'ecografia è considerata la metodica di scelta ed il suo impiego è significativamente cresciuto in questa tipologia di pazienti. Descriviamo due casi di pneumatosi portale in neonati con severa disidratazione da gastroenetrite virale, risoltasi rapidamente dopo il trattamento. © 2011 Elsevier Srl.

Spennato P.,Santobono Pausilipon Pediatric Hospital | Ruggiero C.,Santobono Pausilipon Pediatric Hospital | Aliberti F.,Santobono Pausilipon Pediatric Hospital | Nastro A.,Pediatric Neuroradiology | And 2 more authors.
World Neurosurgery | Year: 2013

Background: Endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) is the treatment of choice for noncommunicating hydrocephalus. In the last decade, its routine use also has taken place in patients who have previously undergone shunt placement (secondary ETV). Methods: This study reviews the specific anatomy of the ventricular system in patients presenting with shunt malfunction, the criteria for patient selection, and the results of ETV performed as an alternative to shunt revision in cases of shunt malfunction or infection. Results: The success rate of secondary ETV in well-selected cases is not different from that of primary ETV; it should be reasonable to offer all patients with blocked shunts and suitable anatomy indicating an obstructive cause the opportunity for shunt independence regardless of the original cause of the hydrocephalus. Conclusions: Shunt infection should not be considered a contraindication to ETV, even if the success rate may be lower. Considering the higher complication rate and higher risk of intraoperative failure, secondary ETV should be performed by expert neuroendoscopists. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Spennato P.,Santobono Pausilipon Pediatric Hospital | Tazi S.,UPEC | Bekaert O.,UPEC | Cinalli G.,Santobono Pausilipon Pediatric Hospital | Decq P.,UPEC
World Neurosurgery | Year: 2013

Background: Idiopathic aqueductal stenosis is a cause of noncommunicating hydrocephalus, which actual treatment with endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) could assess without any interference with the etiology. The results of ETV in this indication therefore could be interpreted as the result of the surgical procedure alone, without any additional factors related to the etiology of the cerebrospinal fluid pathway obstruction, such as hemorrhage, infection, brain malformations, or brain tumors or cysts. Methods: After a brief description of pathogenesis of hydrocephalus in aqueductal stenosis, the authors review the literature for studies on ETV, extrapolating patients with idiopathic aqueductal stenosis in infancy, childhood, and adulthood. Differences in outcome between patients treated with ETV and patients treated with ventriculoperitoneal shunt (VPS) are also reviewed. Results: The overall success rates of ETV range between 23% to 94%, with a mean of 68%; when only patients affected by obstructive triventricular hydrocephalus secondary to aqueductal stenosis are considered, the success rate is actually quite homogeneous and stable, being above 60% at any age, even if a trend in lower success rate in very young infants (younger than 6 months of age) is noticeable. The few reports on intellectual outcome failed to demonstrate differences between ETV and VPS. Conclusions: Several issues, such as the cause of failures in well-selected patients, long-term outcome in infants treated with ETV, effects of persistent ventriculomegaly on neuropsychological developmental, remain unanswered. Larger and more detailed studies are needed. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Foltran F.,University of Padua | Passali F.M.,University of Rome Tor Vergata | Berchialla P.,University of Turin | Gregori D.,University of Padua | And 79 more authors.
International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology | Year: 2012

Foreign body (FB) inhalation, aspiration or ingestion are relatively common events in children. Despite many efforts made in several countries to achieve acceptable safety levels for consumer products devoted to children, small toys or toy parts are still frequently mentioned among risky foreign bodies. The aim of the present study is to characterize the risk of complications and prolonged hospitalization due to toys inhalation, aspiration or ingestion according to age and gender of patients, FB characteristics, circumstances of the accident, as emerging from the Susy Safe Registry. The Susy Safe Registry started in the 2005 to collect data to serve as a basis for a knowledge-based consumer protection activity. It is actually one of the wider databases collecting foreign body injuries in the upper aero-digestive tract in pediatric patients. It is distinguished by a deep characterization of objects which caused the injuries and a multi-step quality control procedure which assures its reliability.Preventive strategies imposing a regulation of industrial production, even if fundamental, are not sufficient and need to be integrated along with other intervention addressed to make aware caregivers toward a proper surveillance of children. © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

Gregori D.,University of Padua | Foltran F.,University of Padua | Ballali S.,Prochild ONLUS | Berchialla P.,University of Turin | And 75 more authors.
International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology | Year: 2012

Objectives: to collect relevant, up-to-date, representative, accurate, systematic information, related to foreign bodies (FB) injuries. Methods: The "Susy Safe" registry, a DG SANCO co-funded project gathering data on choking in all EU Countries and beyond, was established in order to create surveillance systems for suffocation injuries able to provide a risk-analysis profile for each of the products causing the injury. Main findings after 4 years of activities are resumed here. Results: 16,878 FB injuries occurred in children aged 0-14 years have been recorded in the SUSY SAFE databases; 8046 cases have been reported from countries outside EU. Almost one quart of the cases involving very young children (less than one year of age) presented a FB located in bronchial tract, thus representing a major threat to their health. Esophageal foreign bodies are still characterizing injuries occurred to children younger than one year, in older children the most common locations are the ears and the nose. FB type was specified in 10,564 cases. Food objects represented the 26% of the cases, whereas non-food objects were the remaining 74%. Among food objects, the most common were bones, nuts and seed, whereas for the non-food objects pearls, balls and marbles were observed most commonly (29%). Coins were involved in 15% of the non-food injuries and toys represented the 4% of the cases. Conclusions: this data collection system should be been taken into consideration for the calculation of the risk of injuries in order to provide the EU Commission with all the relevant estimates on FB injuries. © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

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