Entity

Time filter

Source Type


Production information of 29 milk producers in the southern region of Chile was studied with the objective of characterizing and classifying different dairy production systems, evaluating various associations between quantitative and qualitative studied variables and analyzing the effect of the production system and the quality of bovine milk according to the month of the year that it was processed. The classification of production groups was based on the implementation of the exploratory multivariate technique, main components analysis and conglomerates or cluster analysis. The applied statistical model was: yijk = μ + Mi + SPj + MSPij + eijk, where yijk=dependent variables (fat, protein, count of somatic cells and colony forming units); μ=general average; Mi=effect of i-th month; SPj=effect of j-th productive system; MSPij=month-productive system interaction; eijk=random residual effect. The price per liter of milk paid to producer was discarded for the construction of groups, since they presented a low discriminatory power given a coefficient of less than 20 % variation. Different correlations between analyzed variables are discussed. Five production systems are described using the qualifying variables and original systems. In general, more intensive production systems presented lower values of fat (%) and protein (%), but showed greater superiority in the quality of sanitary milk than dairy farms with minor animal load. Regarding seasonality, as winter turns to spring, protein (%) associated with a decrease in the fat (%) increases, which determines an inverse relationship between both variables. Source


Figueroa P.,Washington State University | Figueroa P.,Santo Tomas University of Chile | Browse J.,Washington State University
Plant Journal | Year: 2015

Jasmonate hormone (JA) plays critical roles in both plant defense and reproductive development. Arabidopsis thaliana plants deficient in JA-biosynthesis or -signaling are male-sterile, with defects in stamen and pollen development. MYC2, MYC3 and MYC4 are JAZ-interacting bHLH transcription factors that play a major role in controlling JA responses in vegetative tissue, but are not likely to play a role in reproductive tissue. We found that a closely related transcription factor, MYC5 (bHLH28), was able to induce JAZ promoters that control some of the early JA-responsive genes in a Daucus carota (carrot) protoplast expression system. A G-box sequence in the JAZ2 promoter was necessary and sufficient for induction by MYC5 (as it is for MYC2, MYC3 and MYC4), and induction of JAZ genes was repressed by co-expression of a stabilized, JAZ1ΔJas repressor. Two allelic myc5 mutants exhibited no overt phenotype; however, transgenic lines expressing MYC5 fused to an SRDX (SUPERMAN repressive domain X) motif phenocopied mutants defective in JA signaling. In particular, MYC5-SRDX plants were male-sterile, with defects in stamen filament elongation, anther dehiscence and pollen viability. Importantly, expression of MYB21 and other transcription factors required for stamen and pollen maturation was strongly reduced in stamens of MYC5-SRDX plants relative to the wild type. Taken together, these results indicate that MYC5, probably together with other, redundant transcription factors, may be activated by JA signaling to induce the expression of MYB21 and components required for male fertility. © 2015 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Source


Segura-Aguilar J.,University of Sfax | Paris I.,University of Sfax | Paris I.,Santo Tomas University of Chile | Munoz P.,University of Sfax | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Neurochemistry | Year: 2014

The molecular mechanisms causing the loss of dopaminergic neurons containing neuromelanin in the substantia nigra and responsible for motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease are still unknown. The discovery of genes associated with Parkinson's disease (such as alpha synuclein (SNCA), E3 ubiquitin protein ligase (parkin), DJ-1 (PARK7), ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase isozyme L1 (UCHL-1), serine/threonine-protein kinase (PINK-1), leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2), cation-transporting ATPase 13A1 (ATP13A), etc.) contributed enormously to basic research towards understanding the role of these proteins in the sporadic form of the disease. However, it is generally accepted by the scientific community that mitochondria dysfunction, alpha synuclein aggregation, dysfunction of protein degradation, oxidative stress and neuroinflammation are involved in neurodegeneration. Dopamine oxidation seems to be a complex pathway in which dopamine o-quinone, aminochrome and 5,6-indolequinone are formed. However, both dopamine o-quinone and 5,6-indolequinone are so unstable that is difficult to study and separate their roles in the degenerative process occurring in Parkinson's disease. Dopamine oxidation to dopamine o-quinone, aminochrome and 5,6-indolequinone seems to play an important role in the neurodegenerative processes of Parkinson's disease as aminochrome induces: (i) mitochondria dysfunction, (ii) formation and stabilization of neurotoxic protofibrils of alpha synuclein, (iii) protein degradation dysfunction of both proteasomal and lysosomal systems and (iv) oxidative stress. The neurotoxic effects of aminochrome in dopaminergic neurons can be inhibited by: (i) preventing dopamine oxidation of the transporter that takes up dopamine into monoaminergic vesicles with low pH and dopamine oxidative deamination catalyzed by monoamino oxidase (ii) dopamine o-quinone, aminochrome and 5,6-indolequinone polymerization to neuromelanin and (iii) two-electron reduction of aminochrome catalyzed by DT-diaphorase. Furthermore, dopamine conversion to NM seems to have a dual role, protective and toxic, depending mostly on the cellular context. Dopamine oxidation to dopamine o-quinone, aminochrome and 5,6-indolequinone plays an important role in neurodegeneration in Parkinson's disease since they induce mitochondria and protein degradation dysfunction; formation of neurotoxic alpha synuclein protofibrils and oxidative stress. However, the cells have a protective system against dopamine oxidation composed by dopamine uptake mediated by Vesicular monoaminergic transporter-2 (VMAT-2), neuromelanin formation, two-electron reduction and GSH-conjugation mediated by Glutathione S-transferase M2-2 (GSTM2). Dopamine oxidation to dopamine o-quinone, aminochrome and 5,6-indolequinone plays an important role in neurodegeneration in Parkinson's disease since they induce mitochondria and protein degradation dysfunction; formation of neurotoxic alpha synuclein protofibrils and oxidative stress. However, the cells have a protective system against dopamine oxidation composed by dopamine uptake mediated by Vesicular monoaminergic transporter-2 (VMAT-2), neuromelanin formation, two-electron reduction and GSH-conjugation mediated by Glutathione S-transferase M2-2 (GSTM2). © 2014 International Society for Neurochemistry. Source


Vargas A.,Santo Tomas University of Chile | Bustos-Obregon E.,University of Chile | Hartley R.,University of Chile
Biological Research | Year: 2011

Hypobaric hypoxia is of interest due to an increase of human populations working at high altitude. Testicular damage is related to the physiological response (neoangiogenesis) to increased intrascrotal blood fl ow as temperature rises. Hypoxia is a stress factor with overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The effect of hypoxia in mice reproductive parameters is analyzed. Animals were exposed to simulated hypoxia of 4,200 meters above sea level (m.a.s.l.) in a chamber for 33.2 days, both to continuous (HH) or intermittent hypoxia (HI) with an intermittency period of 4 days hypoxia /4 days normoxia (500 m.a.s.l.). The anti-infl ammatory drug Ibuprofen was administered to a group of mice to control vasodilation and increased blood fl ow. Melatonin was administered to another group of mice as a potent ROS scavenger. Animals in both HH and HI exposure were compared to normoxic nontreated controls. There was a hematological response in hypoxia, with an increase in hematocrit and reticulocytosis. There was also increased teratozoospermia. This damage was more pronounced in HH than HI, suggesting that alternating normoxic periods permits compensation for the effects of hypoxia. In both hypoxia systems, the level of lipoperoxidation and the instability of DNA increased. In HH, there was a reduction of teratozoospermia in melatonin-treated mice. Ibuprofen presented a protective effect on the same parameters as melatonin with both HI and HH. The quality of sperm DNA, fragmentation, unpacking and DNA stability diminished. In conclusion, reproductive damage elicited by HH or HI was partially ameliorated by simultaneous treatment with antifl ogistic and/or antioxidant agents. Source


Saldivia C.,Santo Tomas University of Chile | Vizcarra B.,University of the Frontier
Terapia Psicologica | Year: 2012

The present investigation aimed to describe the relationship between drug use and dating violence in university students of southern Chile. A sample of 205 Students completed two instruments: a questionnaire for detecting problematic use of alcohol and other drugs and a questionnaire for detecting intimate partner violence in young people. Results show a significant and direct relationship between drugs and alcohol use and dating violence. Regarding consumption and types of violence, a significant association between consumption and being victim of psychological and physical violence was found. Results are discussed as to their theoretical and practical implications, indicating the limitations of this research and suggestions for future studies. Source

Discover hidden collaborations