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Nandyāl, India

Chakravarthi K.,Santhiram Medical College | Avadhani R.,Mangalore University
Journal of Natural Science, Biology and Medicine | Year: 2014

Background: In the traditional system of medicine, the roots and rhizomes of Glycyrrhiza glabra (Gg) (family: Leguminosae) have been in clinical use for centuries. Aim: In the present study, we investigated the role of aqueous extract of root of Gg treatment on the dendritic morphology of hippocampal Cornu Ammonis area three (CA3) neurons, one of the regions concerned with learning and memory, in 1-month-old male Wistar albino rats. Materials and Methods: The aqueous extract of root of Gg was administered orally in four doses (75, 150, 225 and 300 mg/kg) for 4 weeks. After the treatment period, all experimental animals were subjected to spatial learning (Morris water maze, Hebb-William's maze and elevated plus maze) tests. At the end of the spatial memory tests, the rats were deeply anesthetized with Pentobarbitone and killed their brains were removed rapidly and fixed in rapid Golgi fixative. Hippocampal CA3 neurons were traced using camera lucida, and dendritic arborization and intersections were quantified. These data were compared to those of age-matched control rats. Results: The aqueous root extract of Gg in the dose of 150 and 225 mg/kg/p.o showed a significant (P < 0.01) enhancement of dendritic arborization (dendritic branching points) and dendritic intersections along the length of both apical and basal dendrites in hippocampal (CA3) pyramidal neurons is comparable to control. Conclusion: Based on our results obtained, we conclude that constituents present in aqueous root extract of Gg have neuronal dendritic growth stimulating properties. Source


Chakravarthi K.,Santhiram Medical College
Journal of Natural Science, Biology and Medicine | Year: 2014

Knowledge of the branching pattern of the abdominal aorta is clinically important for any abdominal surgeon operating on parts of the gut or neighboring structures.Variations of these vessels may influences urological, renal transplantation and laparoscopic surgeries. We present an unreported case of multiple variations of branching pattern of abdominal aorta. It includes double renal arteries for left kidney, a common trunk with right and left phrenic, right and left superior suprarenal and left middle supra renal arteries, and a common trunk originate 2.5 cm above the bifurcation of abdominal aorta gave off inferior mesenteric, accessory renal artery to the left kidney and left testicular arteries in the middle-aged normal male cadaver. The embryogenesis of such multiple variations of branches of abdominal aorta is not clear, but the anatomic consequences may have important clinical implications. Knowledge of these variations is important for urologists, radiologists and surgeons in general. Source


Dhachinamoorthi D.,Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University Anantapur | Chandra Sekhar K.B.,Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University Anantapur | Madhu A.,Santhiram Medical College
Research Journal of Pharmaceutical, Biological and Chemical Sciences | Year: 2010

To develop the sustained release matrix tablets of baclofen, for treatment ofspastically resulting from multiple sclerosis, flexor spasm and muscular rigidity. The matrix tablets were prepared by wet granulation method using hydroxypropyl methylcellulose K4M, K100M and Xanthan gum in various concentrations. The granules showed satisfactory flow properties and compressibility. All the nine formulations showed acceptable pharmacopoeial standards. The resultofformulation B7 (25% hydroxypropyl methylcellulose K4M and K100M) extented the release of baclofen up to 12hrs.Model fitting analysis for formulation B7 fitted in the zero order model and korsemeyer- peppas model. The 'n' values obtained from the peppas-korsemeyer equation suggested that, drug release was non-Fickian difussion mechanism. Successful formulation was found stable after evaluation for physicochemical parameters when kept for 30 days at room temperature, 40°C and 2-8°C. It concluded that sustained release matrix tablets of baclofen containing 25% of HPMC K4M and HPMC K100M provide a better option for extended release of drug. Source


Uma Maheshwara Rao K.,Melmaruvathur Adhiparasakthi Institute of Medical science and Research | Ramanarayana Reddy R.V.,Melmaruvathur Adhiparasakthi Institute of Medical science and Research | Vangoori Y.,Santhiram Medical College | Mohana Sundharam J.,Melmaruvathur Adhiparasakthi Institute of Medical science and Research
Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research | Year: 2014

OBJECTIVE: The experimental study was designed to evaluate the hepatoprotective (preventive and curative) activity of Ethanolic extract of leaves of ROSA CENTIFOLIA (RC) in experimental animals (rats). METHODS: In both models (preventive and curative) the Liver was damaged by giving Carbon tetra chloride (CCl4)-1ml/kg-p.o. Increased in the levels of biochemical markers of Hepatic damage like SGPT, SGOT, ALP and BILURUBIN (TB). Treatment with extract of ROSA CENTIFOLIA (300mg, 600mg/kg) in preventive model for 7 days and then from 7 to 14 days in curative model. The extract of RC was effectively reduced the high levels of enzymes in the plasma in preventive than curative models in the dose dependent manner. The enzyme level reduction in serum was considered as Hepatoprotective property of RC. Pathological changes like centribular necrosis and vacuolization were observed in CCl4 treated rats, the same pathological changes were not observed in groups treated with RC and Silymarin (100mg/kg/day). CONCLUSION: The Ethanolic extract of RC has shown good hepatoprotective activity in preventive than curative research models against CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Source


Chakravarthi K.K.,Santhiram Medical College | Avadhani R.,Mangalore University
Journal of Natural Science, Biology and Medicine | Year: 2013

Background: In the traditional system of medicine, the roots and rhizomes of Glycyrrhiza glabra (Gg) (family: Leguminosae) have been studied for their ability to improve a variety of health ailments. Aims: The present study was designed to investigate the beneficial effects of Gg root extract on learning and memory in 1-month-old male Wistar albino rats. Four doses (75, 150, 225, and 300 mg/kg) of aqueous extract of root of Gg was administered orally for six successive weeks. Materials and Methods: The aqueous extracts were evaluated for their effect on spatial learning and memory in rats using the elevated plus maze, Hebb-William maze, and Morris water maze tests which served as the exteroceptive behavioral model. Diazepam-induced amnesia served as the interoceptive behavioral model. Results: Results showed that all the doses of aqueous root extract of Gg significantly enhanced the memory; however, in the doses of 150 and 225 mg/kg, it showed a significant (P < 0.01) enhancement in learning and memory. Furthermore, Diazepam-induced amnesia was reversed by the aqueous root extract of Gg (150 and 225 mg/kg, p.o.). Conclusion: These findings suggest that the memory enhancement effects of Gg may be mediated by its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. Thus, Gg appears to be a promising drug for improving memory in the management of impaired learning, dementia, Alzheimer's disease, and other neurodegenerative disorders. Source

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