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Wei Q.,Los Alamos National Laboratory | Wei Q.,Santa Fe Science and Technology, Inc. | Yang D.,Los Alamos National Laboratory | Fan M.,University of Wyoming | Harris H.G.,University of Wyoming
Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology | Year: 2013

Human activities have affected the global environmental system, resulting in drastic problems such as pollutants control either in solid, liquid or gas forms. The authors provide a thorough review on this pollution control topic covering from traditional decontamination processes, traditional materials used in these processes, to current status of nanomaterials, especially nanomaterial-based membranes that are used. An effort on the state-or-art works on metal-organic frameworks based membranes for gas separation is emphasized also in this review. © 2013 Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

Kenarsari S.D.,University of Wyoming | Yang D.,Los Alamos National Laboratory | Jiang G.,University of Wyoming | Jiang G.,Georgia Institute of Technology | And 6 more authors.
RSC Advances | Year: 2013

This review provides a comprehensive assessment of recently improved carbon dioxide (CO2) separation and capture systems, used in power plants and other industrial processes. Different approaches for CO2 capture are pre-combustion, post-combustion capture, and oxy-combustion systems, which are reviewed, along with their advantages and disadvantages. New technologies and prospective "breakthrough technologies", for instance: novel solvents, sorbents, and membranes for gas separation are examined. Other technologies including chemical looping technology (reaction between metal oxides and fuels, creating metal particles, carbon dioxide, and water vapor) and cryogenic separation processes (based on different phase change temperatures for various gases to separate them) are reviewed as well. Furthermore, the major CO2 separation technologies, such as absorption (using a liquid solvent to absorb the CO2), adsorption (using solid materials with surface affinity to CO2 molecules), and membranes (using a thin film to selectively permeate gases) are extensively discussed, though issues and technologies related to CO2 transport and storage are not considered in this paper. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Agency: National Aeronautics and Space Administration | Branch: | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 99.16K | Year: 2007

With the expected extension of duration of the space missions outlined in NASA's Vision of Space Exploration, such as a manned mission to Mars or the establishment of a lunar base, the need to produce potable water from onboard wastewater streams in a closed-loop system becomes critical for life support and health of crew members. Reverse osmosis (RO) is a compact process that has proven its ability to remove inorganic and organic contaminants from space mission wastewater. The objective of this Phase I study is to ascertain whether composite hollow fiber membrane elements are a more efficient alternative to the current generation of spiral wound membrane elements for the reclamation of space mission wastewater. In particular, the use of low-energy composite hollow fiber membrane elements being developed at SFST for treating multi-component (both inorganic and organic contaminants) wastewater streams found aboard spacecraft will be investigated. The higher membrane surface area of these composite hollow fiber membrane elements enables the RO membrane element to have 30% higher water productivity at substantially higher single-pass recoveries (60-75% vs 10-20% for spiral wound elements). Furthermore, we will also investigate possible solutions to minimize fouling of these hollow fiber membranes by increasing the hydrophilicity of the membrane surface using a variety of surface modification techniques. Such hollow fiber membranes are expected to show better resistance to fouling by hydrophobic compounds, and thus these membranes will be less likely to be clogged by potential foulants. These improvements to the RO membrane element have the potential to decrease the mass, size and power requirements of the RO subsystem, and also decrease the size of the pre-treatment unit.

Agency: National Aeronautics and Space Administration | Branch: | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 99.89K | Year: 2007

Future NASA planetary exploration missions require secondary (rechargeable) batteries that can operate at extreme temperatures (-60oC to 60oC) yet deliver high specific energies (> 180 W·hr/kg) and long cycle life (>2,000 cycles). Functional organic materials are a promising technology for use as the cathode in Li-Ion batteries due to their high specific energy density. It is also expected that the use of polymeric cathodes instead of lithium metal oxides will make Li-Ion batteries thinner, lighter and less environmentally hazardous. This Phase I proposal is based on demonstrating the feasibility of fully packaged Li-Ion batteries that have a superior specific energy (>200 W·hr/kg) through the use of novel polymeric cathodes (composite conducting polymer/disulfide materials) when coupled with room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) electrolyte. Compared to traditional organic electrolyte systems (e.g. (e.g. lithium salts dissolved in alkyl carbonates), RTIL electrolytes have favorable electrochemical windows (> 5 V) and high ionic conductivity over a wide range of temperatures from –60?C to 250?C and are known to prolong the lifetime of conducting polymer electrochemical devices. Besides these highly desirable characteristics for use in these novel Li-ion batteries, RTILs have inherent safety characteristics by virtue of their thermal stability, non-flammability, non-volatility and low heat of reaction with active materials.

Wei Q.,Santa Fe Science and Technology, Inc. | Yang D.,Los Alamos National Laboratory | Larson T.E.,Los Alamos National Laboratory | Kinnibrugh T.L.,New Mexico Highlands University | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Materials Chemistry | Year: 2012

A new porous MOF, Zn(TBC)2·{guest}, is synthesized and studied by the single crystallography, N2 isothermal adsorption and GC separation of CO2 from air. This MOF shows large hysteresis on N2 adsorption at 77 K up to a P/Po of 0.9, which arises from the unique zig-zag channel structures of the framework. The MOF shows promising separation ability for CO2 from air. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

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