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São Luís, Brazil

Rodrigues A.,Santa Casa de Sao Paulo | Befi-Lopes D.M.,University of Sao Paulo
CoDAS | Year: 2013

The purpose of this study was to design a short-term memory test, to describe quantitative performance in typically language developing children and to verify the relationship between the non-words repetition and oral phonological measure. The participants included 136 typically language developing children aged from 3 years to 6 years and 11 months old in this study, who were evaluated. The test consisted of 40 non-words of one, two, three, and four syllables. The subjects' repetitions were transcribed and the number of right answers was calculated for each age range. The effect of age was observed in the test, as well as the effect of length, only for disyllabic non-words. The performance in the non-word repetition task showed correlation with the oral phonology measure. The test designed in this research was able to verify the short-term memory in typically language developing children and the results showed correlation between this memory and phonological performance. Source


Schizophrenia is a severe psychotic disorder with recurrent relapse and functional impairment. It results from a poorly understood geneenvironment interaction. The Taq1A polymorphism (located in the gene cluster NTAD) is a likely candidate for schizophrenia. Its rs1800497 polymorphism was shown to be associated with DRD2 gene expression. Therefore the present work aims to investigate a possible association between schizophrenia and such polymorphism. The compared distribution of the alleles and genotypes of the studied polymorphism was investigated in a Brazilian sample of 235 patients and 834 controls. Genotypic frequencies were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. There was a trend of allelic association between the Taq1A polymorphism (rs1800497) with schizophrenia in the studied sample. However no statistically differences were found between cases and controls when analyzed by gender or schizophrenia subtypes. Source


Igami T.Z.,University of Sao Paulo | Holzchuh R.,University of Sao Paulo | Osaki T.H.,Santa Casa de Sao Paulo | Santo R.M.,University of Sao Paulo | And 2 more authors.
Cornea | Year: 2011

PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of oral azithromycin in patients with posterior blepharitis. METHODS: Twenty-six eyes of 13 patients with posterior blepharitis diagnosed by a qualified ophthalmologist were enrolled in this study. Patients were instructed to use oral azithromycin 500 mg per day for 3 days in 3 cycles with 7-day intervals. Subjective clinical outcomes were graded and scored 1 day before and 30 days after the end of the treatment (53 days after initiating the treatment) based on severity scores of: (1) eyelid debris; (2) eyelid telangiectasia; (3) swelling of the eyelid margin; (4) redness of the eyelid margin; and (5) ocular mucus secretion. For the assessment of global efficacy, patients were asked by the investigator to rate the subjective symptoms (eyelid itching, ocular itching, eyelid hyperemia, ocular hyperemia, ocular mucus secretion, photophobia, foreign body sensation, and dry eye sensation) on a scale of 0 (no symptoms) to 5 (severe symptoms). Break-up time, Schirmer I test, corneal fluorescein staining score, and rose bengal staining score were also performed in all patients. RESULTS: All clinical outcomes scoring showed statistically significant improvement after oral azithromycin, except for eyelid swelling. Average subjective symptom grading improved statistically after treatment with oral azithromycin, except for eyelid hyperemia, photophobia, and foreign body sensation. Average tear film break-up time values showed statistically significant improvement after the treatment with oral azithromycin. No statistically significant improvement was observed on average values of Schirmer I test, corneal fluorescein staining score, and rose bengal staining score. CONCLUSIONS: The combination of multiple clinical parameters shown in this study supports the clinical efficacy of pulsed oral azithromycin therapy for the management of posterior blepharitis. Copyright © 2011 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Source


Damasceno R.W.,Federal University of Sao Paulo | Osaki M.H.,Federal University of Sao Paulo | Dantas P.E.C.,Santa Casa de Sao Paulo | Belfort R.,Federal University of Sao Paulo
Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery | Year: 2011

PURPOSE: To determine the prevalence of involutional entropion and ectropion of the lower eyelid in the elderly population; to examine how these disorders are related to gender, age, skin color, and axial ocular globe projection; and to define the incidence of associated ocular surface and pathologic eyelid findings. METHODS: An ophthalmic survey was conducted in 24,565 elderly people. All participants underwent ophthalmic examination by general ophthalmologists to identify entropion and ectropion. Information about associated ocular surface and pathologic eyelid findings were collected from all patients with involutional eyelid malposition. Patients with involutional entropion and ectropion underwent measurements of the axial ocular globe projection. The Pearson chi-square test and the Mann-Whitney U test were performed. RESULTS: The prevalence of involutional entropion was 2.1%; 1.9% in men and 2.4% in women. The prevalence of involutional ectropion was 2.9%; 5.1% in men and 1.5% in women. Dry eye syndrome, lower retractor laxity, and superficial punctate keratopathy were seen significantly more often in patients with involutional entropion than in those with involutional ectropion (p < 0.001). Chronic conjunctivitis was significantly more common in patients with involutional ectropion than in those with involutional entropion (p < 0.001). The axial ocular globe projection was significantly smaller in patients with involutional entropion than in those with involutional ectropion (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of involutional entropion and ectropion in the elderly population is 2.1% and 2.9%, respectively. The axial ocular globe position plays a pathogenic role in involutional lower eyelid malposition. © 2011 The American Society of Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Inc. Source


Damasceno R.W.,Federal University of Sao Paulo | Osaki M.H.,Federal University of Sao Paulo | Dantas P.E.C.,Santa Casa de Sao Paulo | Belfort R.,Federal University of Sao Paulo
Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery | Year: 2011

PURPOSE: To investigate the clinicopathologic correlation between horizontal eyelid laxity and extracellular matrix components, such as collagen and elastic fibers, in involutional ectropion and entropion. Another goal was to compare the differences between involutional ectropion and entropion in regard to extracellular matrix content using computer-assisted morphometry. METHODS: This clinicopathologic study included 20 consecutive patients with involutional ectropion (group 1) and 20 consecutive patients with involutional entropion (group 2). The pinch test was performed to measure horizontal eyelid laxity in both groups. Full-thickness eyelid biopsy specimens were examined by light microscopy and computer-assisted morphometry. The Mann-Whitney U test, the Pearson chi-square test, the Pearson correlation coefficient calculation, and a linear regression analysis were performed. RESULTS: All sections of specimens from patients in groups 1 and 2 revealed abnormal collagen and elastic fibers. The Pearson correlation coefficient revealed a significant negative correlation between horizontal eyelid laxity and extracellular matrix content in the eyelid skin, the pretarsal orbicularis oculi muscle, the perimeibomian tarsal stroma, and the intermeibomian tarsal stroma. Linear regression demonstrated that horizontal eyelid laxity is dependent upon extracellular matrix components in all eyelid regions. Collagen fiber content was significantly increased in specimens from patients in group 1 compared with specimens from patients in group 2. CONCLUSIONS: The present findings suggest that a reduction of collagen and elastic fibers may contribute to the development of excessive horizontal eyelid laxity in patients with involutional ectropion and entropion of the lower eyelid. © 2011 The American Society of Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Inc. Source

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