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Van Soest R.W.M.,Netherlands Center for Biodiversity Research | Kaiser K.L.,Santa Barbara Museum of Natural History | Van Syoc R.,California Academy of Sciences
Zootaxa | Year: 2011

Twenty sponge species (totalling 190 individuals) were collected during the 1938, 1994 and 2004/5 expeditions to the remote island of Clipperton in the East Pacific Ocean. Seven species are widespread Indo-Pacific sponges; nine species comprise sponges new to science; four species were represented only by small thin patches insufficient for proper characterization and could be only determined to genus. The new species may not be necessarily endemic to the island, as several show similarities with species described from elsewhere in the East and West Pacific. Four species: Tethya sarai Desqueyroux-Faúndez & Van Soest (1997), Callyspongia (Callyspongia) roosevelti n.sp., Spongia (Spongia) sweeti (Kirkpatrick, 1900) and Suberea etiennei n.sp. were found commonly occurring in localities around the island in depths between 10 and 55 m, growing on dead corals, under overhangs and rubble stones. The remaining sponges were either rare or were thinly encrusting on coral fragments. The latter may be more abundant than appears from the present study as they are probably not easily observed. The sponge fauna of Clipperton Island shows strongest affinities with the Central and West Pacific regions and only two or three species are shared with the East Pacific region. Copyright © 2011.


Lindgren A.R.,University of California at Santa Barbara | Lindgren A.R.,Portland State University | Pankey M.S.,University of California at Santa Barbara | Hochberg F.G.,Santa Barbara Museum of Natural History | Oakley T.H.,University of California at Santa Barbara
BMC Evolutionary Biology | Year: 2012

Background: The marine environment is comprised of numerous divergent organisms living under similar selective pressures, often resulting in the evolution of convergent structures such as the fusiform body shape of pelagic squids, fishes, and some marine mammals. However, little is known about the frequency of, and circumstances leading to, convergent evolution in the open ocean. Here, we present a comparative study of the molluscan class Cephalopoda, a marine group known to occupy habitats from the intertidal to the deep sea. Several lineages bear features that may coincide with a benthic or pelagic existence, making this a valuable group for testing hypotheses of correlated evolution. To test for convergence and correlation, we generate the most taxonomically comprehensive multi-gene phylogeny of cephalopods to date. We then create a character matrix of habitat type and morphological characters, which we use to infer ancestral character states and test for correlation between habitat and morphology. Results: Our study utilizes a taxonomically well-sampled phylogeny to show convergent evolution in all six morphological characters we analyzed. Three of these characters also correlate with habitat. The presence of an autogenic photophore (those relying upon autonomous enzymatic light reactions) is correlated with a pelagic habitat, while the cornea and accessory nidamental gland correlate with a benthic lifestyle. Here, we present the first statistical tests for correlation between convergent traits and habitat in cephalopods to better understand the evolutionary history of characters that are adaptive in benthic or pelagic environments, respectively. Discussion: Our study supports the hypothesis that habitat has influenced convergent evolution in the marine environment: benthic organisms tend to exhibit similar characteristics that confer protection from invasion by other benthic taxa, while pelagic organisms possess features that facilitate crypsis and communication in an environment lacking physical refuges. Features that have originated multiple times in distantly related lineages are likely adaptive for the organisms inhabiting a particular environment: studying the frequency and evolutionary history of such convergent characters can increase understanding of the underlying forces driving ecological and evolutionary transitions in the marine environment. © 2012 Lindgren et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Caterino M.S.,Santa Barbara Museum of Natural History | Tishechkin A.K.,Louisiana State University
ZooKeys | Year: 2013

Here we present a complete revision of the species of Baconia. Up until now there have been 27 species assigned to the genus (Mazur 2011), in two subgenera (Binhister Cooman and Baconia s. str.), with species in the Neotropical, Nearctic, Palaearctic, and Oriental regions. We recognize all these species as valid and correctly assigned to the genus, and redescribe all of them. We synonymize Binhister, previously used for a polyphyletic assemblage of species with varied relationships in the genus. We move four species into Baconia from other genera, and describe 85 species as new, bringing the total for the genus to 116 species. We divide these into 12 informal species groups, leaving 13 species unplaced to group. We present keys and diagnoses for all species, as well as habitus photos and illustrations of male genitalia for nearly all. Te genus now contains the following species and species groups: Baconia loricata group [B. loricata Lewis, 1885, B. patula Lewis, 1885, B. gounellei (Marseul, 1887a), B. jubaris (Lewis, 1901), B. festiva (Lewis, 1891), B. foliosoma sp. n., B. sapphirina sp. n., B. furtiva sp. n., B. pernix sp. n., B. applanatis sp. n., B. disciformis sp. n., B. nebulosa sp. n., B. brunnea sp. n.], B. godmani group [B. godmani (Lewis, 1888), B. venusta (J. E. LeConte, 1845), B. riehli (Marseul, 1862), comb. n., B. scintillans sp. n., B. isthmia sp. n., B. rossi sp. n., B. navarretei sp. n., B. maculata sp. n., B. deliberata sp. n., B. excelsa sp. n., B. violacea (Marseul, 1853), B. varicolor (Marseul, 1887b), B. dives (Marseul, 1862), B. eximia (Lewis, 1888), B. splendida sp. n., B. jacinta sp. n., B. prasina sp. n., B. opulenta sp. n., B. illustris (Lewis, 1900), B. cho-aspites (Lewis, 1901), B. lewisi Mazur, 1984], B. salobrus group [B. salobrus (Marseul, 1887b), B. turgifrons sp. n., B. crassa sp. n., B. anthracina sp. n., B. emarginata sp. n., B. obsoleta sp. n.], B. rufcauda group [B. rufcauda sp. n., B. repens sp. n.], B. angusta group [B. angusta Schmidt, 1893a, B. incognita sp. n., B. guartela sp. n., B. bullifrons sp. n., B. cavei sp. n., B. subtilis sp. n., B. dentipes sp. n., B. rubripennis sp. n., B. lunatifrons sp. n.], B. aeneomicans group [B. aeneomicans (Horn, 1873), B. pulchella sp. n., B. quercea sp. n., B. stephani sp. n., B. irinae sp. n., B. fornix sp. n., B. slipinskii Mazur, 1981, B. submetallica sp. n., B. diminua sp. n., B. rufescens sp. n., B. punctiventer sp. n., B. aulaea sp. n., B. mustax sp. n., B. plebeia sp. n., B. castanea sp. n., B. lescheni sp. n., B. oblonga sp. n., B. animata sp. n., B. teredina sp. n., B. chujoi (Cooman, 1941), B. barbarus (Cooman, 1934), B. reposita sp. n., B. kubani sp. n., B. wallacea sp. n., B. bigemina sp. n., B. adebratti sp. n., B. silvestris sp. n.], B. cylindrica group [B. cylindrica sp. n., B. chatzimanolisi sp. n.], B. gibbifer group [B. gibbifer sp. n., B. piluliformis sp. n., B. maquipucunae sp. n., B. tenuipes sp. n., B. tuberculifer sp. n., B. globosa sp. n.], B. insolita group [B. insolita (Schmidt, 1893a), comb. n., B. burmeisteri (Marseul, 1870), B. tricolor sp. n., B. pilicauda sp. n.], B. riouka group [B. riouka (Marseul, 1861), B. azuripennis sp. n.], B. famelica group [B. famelica sp. n., B. grossii sp. n., B. redemptor sp. n., B. fortis sp. n., B. longipes sp. n., B. katieae sp. n., B. cavifrons (Lewis, 1893), comb. n., B. haete-rioides sp. n.], B. micans group [B. micans (Schmidt, 1889a), B. carinifrons sp. n., B. fulgida (Schmidt, 1889c)], Baconia incertae sedis [B. chilense (Redtenbacher, 1867), B. glauca (Marseul, 1884), B. coerulea (Bickhardt, 1917), B. angulifrons sp. n., B. sanguinea sp. n., B. viridimicans (Schmidt, 1893b), B. nayarita sp. n., B. viridis sp. n., B. purpurata sp. n., B. aenea sp. n., B. clemens sp. n., B. leivasi sp. n., B. atricolor sp. n.]. We designate lectotypes for the following species: Baconia loricata Lewis, 1885, Phelister gounellei Marseul, 1887, Baconia jubaris Lewis, 1901, Baconia festiva Lewis, 1891, Platysoma venustum J.E. Le-Conte, 1845, Phelister riehli Marseul, 1862, Phelister violaceus Marseul, 1853, Phelister varicolor Marseul, 1887b, Phelister illustris Lewis, 1900, Baconia choaspites Lewis, 1901, Epierus festivus Lewis, 1898, Phelister salobrus Marseul, 1887, Baconia angusta Schmidt, 1893a, Phelister insolitus Schmidt, 1893a, Pachycraerus burmeisteri Marseul, 1870, Phelister riouka Marseul, 1861, Homalopygus cavifrons Lewis, 1893, Phelister micans Schmidt, 1889a, Phelister coeruleus Bickhardt, 1917, and Phelister viridimicans Schmidt, 1893b. We designate neotypes for Baconia patula Lewis, 1885 and Hister aeneomicans Horn, 1873, whose type specimens are lost. © M.S. Caterino, A.K. Tishechkin.


Garfinkle E.A.R.,Santa Barbara Museum of Natural History
ZooKeys | Year: 2012

North American members in the genus Radiolucina are reviewed. A lectotype for the type species, Radiolucina amianta, is designated and descriptions and illustrations are provided. A description of a new species, Radiolucina jessicae, from the west coast of Mexico is presented. Key diagnostic species characteristics are outlined and compared among members of the genus. © Elizabeth A. R. Garfinkle.


Rick T.C.,Smithsonian Institution | Culleton B.J.,University of Oregon | Smith C.B.,University of Oregon | Johnson J.R.,Santa Barbara Museum of Natural History | Kennett D.J.,University of Oregon
Journal of Archaeological Science | Year: 2011

Stable carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) isotope analyses of dog (Canis familiaris), island fox (Urocyon littoralis), and human bone collagen from CA-SRI-2 (AD 130-1830) on Santa Rosa Island, California provide a proxy of diet and the relationships between humans and these animals. Carbon isotopic signatures indicate that Native Americans and their dogs at CA-SRI-2 subsisted almost exclusively on marine resources, while the island fox ate primarily terrestrial foods. Nitrogen isotopes and archaeofaunal remains indicate that humans and dogs also ate higher trophic level foods, including finfishes, marine mammals, and seabirds with smaller amounts of shellfish. The CA-SRI-2 island foxes appear to have eaten higher amounts of terrestrial foods, similar to the diets observed in modern fox populations. These data generally confirm the commensal relationship assumed to exist between domesticated dogs and people, but the carbon isotopic composition of dogs is enriched ∼2‰ compared to humans. We hypothesize that the difference in carbon isotopes between dogs and humans may have resulted from a higher consumption of C3 plants with lower δ13C values by humans, or less likely from the ingestion by dogs of significant amounts of bone collagen, which is enriched by ∼4‰ over associated muscle. © 2011.

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