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Nevins D.,Santa Barbara City College
ACM Inroads | Year: 2013

This paper studies the languages used in introductory programming courses by all the computer science programs in the California Community College system for the calendar year 2012. Most colleges offer a single language (82%) using the face-to-face modality (73%) with C++ (48% of total sections offered) as their instructional language. Other instructional languages and percent using them are Java (31%), C (9%), BASIC (8%), and Others (4%). Comparing these use patterns to other language adoption studies shows that the California Community College system differs from most other institutions in its choice of C++ over Java. Source


Gonella M.P.,Santa Barbara City College | Gonella M.P.,Miami University Ohio | Baldwin D.W.,Miami University Ohio | Greenberg A.M.,Miami University Ohio
Ethnobotany Research and Applications | Year: 2016

Rapid loss of indigenous ethnobotanical traditions has created a need to triage research efforts to preserve this traditional knowledge. A triage process, however, is best led by those who understand the cultural context of historical data and are keenly aware of the community’s pressing needs—the indigenous community itself. Non-community researchers can be involved by lending research skills and connections towards the community-established research goals. This study described a process by which two non-indigenous community researchers supported an indigenous, Myaamia (Miami) research scholar in triaging Myaamia ethnobotanical research priorities and in conducting a focused study on the highest priority plant according to that community: corn (Zea mays L.). Data gathered regarding Myaamia corn traditions allowed the reconstruction of the traditional corn cultivation cycle. Description of traditional corn processing techniques, recipes, and identifying traditional corn varieties is helping the Myaamia community in their efforts to preserve cultural historical knowledge associated with planting of corn and in so doing revitalize Myaamia language and culture. © 2016, University of Hawaii at Manoa. All rights reserved. Source


Alvarez-Filip L.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Alvarez-Filip L.,Simon Fraser University | Paddack M.J.,Simon Fraser University | Paddack M.J.,Santa Barbara City College | And 3 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

Caribbean coral reefs are becoming structurally simpler, largely due to human impacts. The consequences of this trend for reef-associated communities are currently unclear, but expected to be profound. Here, we assess whether changes in fish assemblages have been non-random over several decades of declining reef structure. More specifically, we predicted that species that depend exclusively on coral reef habitat (i.e., habitat specialists) should be at a disadvantage compared to those that use a broader array of habitats (i.e., habitat generalists). Analysing 3727 abundance trends of 161 Caribbean reef-fishes, surveyed between 1980 and 2006, we found that the trends of habitat-generalists and habitat-specialists differed markedly. The abundance of specialists started to decline in the mid-1980s, reaching a low of ∼60% of the 1980 baseline by the mid-1990s. Both the average and the variation in abundance of specialists have increased since the early 2000s, although the average is still well below the baseline level of 1980. This modest recovery occurred despite no clear evidence of a regional recovery in coral reef habitat quality in the Caribbean during the 2000s. In contrast, the abundance of generalist fishes remained relatively stable over the same three decades. Few specialist species are fished, thus their population declines are most likely linked to habitat degradation. These results mirror the observed trends of replacement of specialists by generalists, observed in terrestrial taxa across the globe. A significant challenge that arises from our findings is now to investigate if, and how, such community-level changes in fish populations affect ecosystem function. © 2015 Alvarez-Filip et al. Source


Sponaugle S.,University of Miami | Walter K.D.,University of Miami | Grorud-Colvert K.,Oregon State University | Paddack M.J.,Santa Barbara City College
Coral Reefs | Year: 2012

Coral reef fish recruitment to the upper Florida Keys was monitored monthly for 7 years (2003-2009) to establish a baseline and test whether recruitment varied between reserve and non-reserve sites. Recruits <30 days old were surveyed in two primary habitat types (reef and rubble) in each of two replicate reserve and non-reserve sites. Recruitment of all fish species peaked in the summer and early fall; winter recruitment was consistently low. Some interannual recruitment patterns were roughly similar among species, with recruitment generally lower in 2004 for several taxa, possibly reflecting a system-wide process. During 7 peak recruitment months each year, overall recruitment to reef habitat was significantly higher in non-reserve sites in 2 of 7 years. In contrast, recruitment to rubble habitat was significantly higher in reserves in 3 of 7 years. Specific fish taxa had variable patterns of recruitment to reserves and non-reserves: Despite high interannual variation in recruitment magnitude, Scaridae (parrotfish) densities were significantly higher in reserves than in non-reserves. Densities of two abundant goby taxa (Gnatholepis thompsoni and Coryphopterus spp.) were also higher in reserves than in non-reserves, but the magnitude varied among years. Recruitment of the bicolor damselfish, Stegastes partitus, did not differ consistently between reserves and non-reserves. Densities of Thalassoma bifasciatum had an opposite trend relative to other taxa, with densities typically higher in non-reserves than in reserves (in 6 of 7 years; significant in only 2 years). Higher recruit densities (scarids, gobies, and all rubble taxa together) within reserves were coupled with significantly lower densities of intermediate-sized piscivores and significantly greater cover of Dictyota spp. macroalgae and turfs relative to non-reserves. Reserves may be areas of relative refuge from predation for some fish recruits due to a combination of reduced predator abundance and enhanced small-scale structural habitat. © 2012 Springer-Verlag. Source


Adam T.C.,Florida International University | Adam T.C.,University of California at Santa Barbara | Burkepile D.E.,Florida International University | Ruttenberg B.I.,National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration | And 2 more authors.
Marine Ecology Progress Series | Year: 2015

Herbivory is a key process on coral reefs that can facilitate reef-building corals by excluding algae that otherwise negatively impact coral settlement, growth, and survivorship. Over the last several de cades, coral cover on Caribbean reefs has declined precipitously. On many reefs, large structurally complex corals have been replaced by algae and other non-reef-building organisms, resulting in the collapse of physical structure and the loss of critical ecosystem services. The drivers of coral decline on Caribbean reefs are complex and vary among locations. On many reefs, populations of key herbivores have been greatly reduced by disease and overfishing, and this has resulted in the proliferation of algae that hinder coral recovery following major disturbances. Yet, evidence that increases in herbivory can promote coral recovery on Caribbean reefs has been mixed. Here, we discuss key contingencies that will modify the relationships between herbivores, algae, and corals and identify critical knowledge gaps that limit our ability to predict when and where herbivores are most likely to facili tate coral persistence and recovery. Impacts of herbivores on coral reef ecosystems will vary greatly in space and time and will depend on herbivore diversity and species identity. While there are still a large number of knowledge gaps, we make several management recommendations based on our current understanding of the processes that structure reef ecosystems. Reversing the fate of Caribbean coral reefs will require the development of integrated management strategies that simultaneously address multiple stressors in addition to the impacts of fisheries on herbivore assemblages. © Inter-Research 2015. Source

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