Mallol R.,Rovira i Virgili University |
Mallol R.,Spanish Biomedical Research Center in Diabetes and Associated Metabolic Disorders |
Amigo N.,Rovira i Virgili University |
Amigo N.,Spanish Biomedical Research Center in Diabetes and Associated Metabolic Disorders |
And 17 more authors.
Journal of Lipid Research | Year: 2015
Determination of lipoprotein particle size and number using advanced lipoprotein tests (ALTs) is of particular importance to improve cardiovascular risk prediction. Here we present the Liposcale test, a novel ALT based on 2D diffusion-ordered 1H NMR spectroscopy. Our method uses diffusion coefficients to provide a direct measure of the mean particle sizes and numbers. Using 177 plasma samples from healthy individuals and the concentration of ApoB and ApoA from isolated lipoprotein fractions, our test showed a stronger correlation between the NMR-derived lipoprotein particle numbers and apolipoprotein concentrations than the LipoProfile ® test commercialized by Liposcience. We also converted LDL particle numbers to ApoB equivalents (milligrams per deciliter) and our test yielded similar values of LDL-ApoB to the LipoProfile ® test (absolute mean bias of 8.5 and 7.4 mg/dl, respectively). In addition, our HDL particle number values were more concordant with the calibrated values determined recently using ion mobility. Finally, principal component analysis distinguished type 2 diabetic patients with and without atherogenic dyslipidemia (AD) on a second cohort of 307 subjects characterized using the Liposcale test (area under the curve = 0.88) and showed concordant relationships between variables explaining AD. Altogether, our method provides reproducible and reliable characterization of lipoprotein particles and it is applicable to pathological states such as AD. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.
News Article | February 16, 2017
The consumption of butter, which is rich in saturated fatty acids and trans fats, has been related to a high risk of suffering from this disease Recently, dietary guidelines for the general population have shifted towards a plant-based diet (rich in legumes, whole-grain cereals, fruits, vegetables and nuts) and low in animal-based foods (like red meat and pastries). Increasing evidence is suggesting that plant-based diets are beneficial for health and they also have less impact on the environment. Researchers at the Unit of Human Nutrition of the Universitat Rovira i Virgili (Tarragona-Spain), in collaboration with other centers from the PREDIMED Study and Harvard University, have evaluated the associations between total and subtypes of fat intake and the risk of type 2 diabetes. In addition, they have evaluated the relationship between food sources rich in saturated fatty acids and the incidence of type 2 diabetes. The research's main findings showed that those participants who consumed higher amounts of saturated fatty acids and animal fat had a twofold higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes than those participants with a lower intake of saturated and animal fat. The consumption of 12 grams per day of butter was associated with a twofold higher risk of diabetes after 4.5 years of follow-up, whereas the intake of whole-fat yogurt was associated with a lower risk. The present study analyzed data from 3,349 participants in the PREDIMED Study who were free of diabetes at baseline but at high cardiovascular risk. After 4.5 years of follow-up, 266 participants developed diabetes. This study will be published in the scientific journal The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition in February 2017 and was led by doctors Marta Guasch-Ferré;, researcher at Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Nerea Becerra-Tomás, researcher at the URV's Unit of Human Nutrition, and Jordi Salas-Salvadó;, who is head of the URV's Unit of Human Nutrition, Clinical Director of Nutrition at the Internal Medicine Service of the Sant Joan University Hospital in Reus, principal investigator at the CIBERObn, and member of the Pere Virgili Health Research Institute (IISPV). According to the researchers, these findings emphasize the healthy benefits of a Mediterranean diet for preventing chronic diseases, particularly type 2 diabetes, and the importance of substituting saturated and animal fats (especially red and processed meat) for those found in vegetable sources such as olive oil and nuts.
Del Castillo Dejardin D.,Sant Joan University Hospital |
Del Castillo Dejardin D.,Rovira i Virgili University |
Sabench Pereferrer F.,Rovira i Virgili University |
Hernandez Gonzalez M.,Sant Joan University Hospital |
And 4 more authors.
Surgery (United States) | Year: 2013
Background: Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy in morbid obesity has proved to be a safe and reproducible technique. Sleeve gastrectomy, however, is not free of complications. On the other hand, gastric volvulus is reported in those subjects where, either because of laxity of the gastric anatomical fixations or incorrect position of the stomach, rotation or turning is facilitated. Case: We report the case of a patient with morbid obesity (Bone mass index / BMI 63 Kg/m2), who in the post-operative period immediately following a sleeve gastrectomy, presented early symptoms of upper gastrointestinal occlusion indicative of gastric volvulus of the gastric sleeve. Results: The patient developed a partial obstruction secondary to a mixed volvulus mechanism (organo-axial and partially mesenteric-axial) after sleeve gastrectomy. We performed a laparoscopic antrectomy of the gastric sleeve and then a gastroileal anastomosis, a form of biliopancreatic diversion, with a common channel of 80 cm and alimentary limb of 160 cm). 18 months after, the patient has a BMI of 28 kg/m2 and enjoys a good quality of life. Conclusion: Sleeve gastrectomy leaves the stomach with no fixations along the entire greater curvature, which may predispose to volvulus. This complication is a rare finding and not reported to date following this intervention, but still needs to be considered in this type of patient. © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Sabench Pereferrer F.,Rovira i Virgili University |
Vives Espelta M.,Rovira i Virgili University |
Cabrera Vilanova A.,Rovira i Virgili University |
Hernandez Gonzalez M.,Sant Joan University Hospital |
And 7 more authors.
Obesity Surgery | Year: 2015
Background: Metabolic surgery can modulate weight as well as food intake and basal energy expenditure. In this study, we evaluate the effectiveness of duodenal exclusion by analysing anthropometric results, intake variations, food behaviour and calorimetric parameters. Methods: This is an experimental study with 8-week-old Sprague-Dawley male rats. The sequences used are as follows: Cafeteria diet for 3 weeks, followed by surgery and sacrifice at 4 weeks. Four experimental groups are as follows: two non-obese groups (n = 15; surgery = 10, sham = 5) and two obese groups by cafeteria diet (n = 15; surgery = 10, sham = 5). Surgery performed was duodenal exclusion with physical barrier. Weight, intake, glycaemia and basal energy expenditure by indirect calorimetry were monitored before and after surgery. Results: Weight changes in groups that underwent intervention were significant. The reduction in calorie consumption after surgery was significant in the obese intervention group despite an increased standard feed consumption (161 ± 11 vs 139 ± 13 Kcal/day, p < 0.05; due to a lower consumption of cafeteria diet). In non-obese animals, changes were transient. Basal energy expenditure decreased in both intervention groups: 6.2 ± 0.5 vs 5.5 ± 0.4 Kcal/kg/h in non-obese animals and 5.6 ± 0.3 vs 4.7 ± 0.3 Kcal/kg/h in obese animals (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Duodeno-jejunal tube placement stops weight gain in obese and non-obese animals. In obese animals, there is an important qualitative change in appetite towards standard feed with a significant decrease in caloric intake. In non-obese animals, changes in quantitative intake are transient. This surgery decreases basal energy expenditure in obese animals. This may be attributed to an enhanced thermogenic effect of food and a slowing in the animal’s weight gain. © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media New York.
Megias-Rangil I.,Sant Joan University Hospital |
Merino J.,Rovira i Virgili University |
Ferre R.,Rovira i Virgili University |
Plana N.,Rovira i Virgili University |
And 5 more authors.
Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases | Year: 2014
Background and aims: Obesity is associated with increased cardiovascular risk. However, the impact of morbid obesity on vascular structure and function is not well understood. This study was designed to appraise subclinical atherosclerosis markers, including carotid intima media thickness (cIMT), endothelial function, and arterial wall stiffness, and their determinants, in morbidly obese patients. Methods and results: In this cross-sectional study 194 overweight and obese patients were distributed in morbid-obese patients (MOP, n = 110), obese (OP, n = 84) and overweight patients (OwP, n = 33) groups. Demography, anthropometry, clinical and standard biochemical data were recorded. cIMT, endothelial function, defined as the small artery reactivity index (saRHI), and artery wall rigidity, studied by the augmentation index, were determined.More than 50% of the MOP, OP and OwP had a cIMT above the 75th percentile per age and gender. No differences in cIMT or saRHI were observed, although overweight and obese patients (OOP) had higher arterial rigidity compared with the morbid-obese patients. In a multivariate regression test, while cholesterol was the main determinant of cIMT in overweight and obese patients, glucose metabolism was the determinant in MOP. Conclusion: More than half of the population have a cIMT above general population ranges. OwP, OP and MOP have similar cIMT and saRHI. However, OOP have greater arterial wall rigidity. Dysglycemia is the main factor associated with subclinical atherosclerosis in MOP. © 2014 Elsevier B.V..
Torrents-Barrena J.,Rovira i Virgili University |
Valls A.,Rovira i Virgili University |
Radeva P.,University of Barcelona |
Arenas M.,Sant Joan University Hospital |
Puig D.,Rovira i Virgili University
Frontiers in Artificial Intelligence and Applications | Year: 2015
Breast cancer disease has recently been classified into four subtypes regarding the molecular properties of the affected tumor region. For each patient, an accurate diagnosis of the specific type is vital to decide the most appropriate therapy in order to enhance life prospects. Nowadays, advanced therapeutic diagnosis research is focused on gene selection methods, which are not robust enough. Hence, we hypothesize that computer vision algorithms can offer benefits to address the problem of discriminating among them through X-Ray images. In this paper, we propose a novel approach driven by texture feature descriptors and machine learning techniques. First, we segment the tumour part through an active contour technique and then, we perform a complete fractal analysis to collect qualitative information of the region of interest in the feature extraction stage. Finally, several supervised and unsupervised classifiers are used to perform multiclass classification of the aforementioned data. The experimental results presented in this paper support that it is possible to establish a relation between each tumor subtype and the extracted features of the patterns revealed on mammograms. © 2015 The authors and IOS Press. All rights reserved..
Hernandez-Martinez C.,Rovira i Virgili University |
Arija Val V.,Rovira i Virgili University |
Escribano Subias J.,Sant Joan University Hospital |
Canals Sans J.,Rovira i Virgili University
Early Human Development | Year: 2012
Maternal smoking during pregnancy is one of the most modifiable causes of morbidity and mortality for both pregnant women and their fetuses. The long-term effects of prenatal exposure to smoke on child behavior and development have been the subject of more extensive research than have the short-term effects. Therefore, the aim of this work is to examine the effects of smoke exposure during pregnancy on neonatal behavior, including in our study a group of mothers exposed to secondhand smoke. The behavior of 282 healthy full-term newborns was assessed using the Neonatal Behavior Assessment Scale (NBAS) at 48-72. h of life. Sixty-two mothers smoked during pregnancy (no mother smoked more than 15. cig/day) and 17 were exposed to secondhand smoke. After adjusting for socio-demographic and obstetric factors, both newborns whose mothers smoked and those whose mothers were exposed to secondhand smoke showed significantly lower scores in the habituation cluster than non-smoking mothers. Exposure to secondhand smoke was also related to lower motor system cluster scores as well as some supplementary items and the newborns of smoking mothers showed significantly lower scores in the state regulation cluster and in some items of the state organization cluster than the newborns of non-smoking mothers. We conclude that active and passive smoking during pregnancy affects several aspects of neurobehavioral development, regardless of socio-demographic, obstetric and pediatric factors. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.
Sabater S.,Complejo Hospitalario Universitario |
Mur E.,Sant Joan University Hospital |
Muller K.,Sant Joan University Hospital |
Arenas M.,Sant Joan University Hospital
Clinical and Translational Oncology | Year: 2012
Objective Brain radiotherapy is the main treatment for patients with brain metastases but its goal is just symptom control. Our aim was to study if different performance tools, used in geriatric practice, could improve patient selection for decision-making in the palliative brain radiotherapy setting. Patients and methods Data from 61 consecutive patients were analysed. In addition to Karnofsky Performance Status (KPS) their physical activity was assessed by means of the activity of daily living (ADL) and instrumental ADL (IADL) scales. A neurocognitive evaluation was performed with the Pfeiffer Short Portable Mental Status Questionnaire (SPMSQ) and with the Mini-Mental Status Exam (MMSE). Radiotherapy compliance and short survival were the endpoints of the study. Results High rates of cognitive impairment were found by both neurocognitive tools (Pfeiffer: 19.7% of patients; MMSE: 30%). Dependence was also highly prevalent, either measured by the ADL (50.8%) or by the IADL (43.3%). Nearly one third (27.9%) of patients died soon after radiotherapy evaluation. Longer survival was related to female, younger than 60 years, breast cancer primary tumour, steroid response, RPA class, and higher performance and neurocognitive score tools. A premature death was associated with neurocognitive tools, IADL and longer interval from brain metastatic diagnosis to radiotherapy. Twenty-three percent of patients were not able to fi nish the WBRT course due to clinical deterioration. The only variable related to compliance was a low MMSE score. Conclusions Results suggest that the geriatric tools analysed could offer information on brain palliative radiotherapy complementary to that offered by the more usual tools. It will be interesting to study if our data could be extrapolated to the general palliative oncological fi eld.