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Hertoghs K.M.L.,Academic Medical Center | Hertoghs K.M.L.,Renal Transplant Unit | Moerland P.D.,Netherlands Bioinformatics Center | Van Stijn A.,Academic Medical Center | And 10 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Investigation | Year: 2010

CD8+ T cells play a critical role in the immune response to viral pathogens. Persistent human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection results in a strong increase in the number of virus-specific, quiescent effector-type CD8+ T cells with constitutive cytolytic activity, but the molecular pathways involved in the induction and maintenance of these cells are unknown. We show here that HCMV infection induced acute and lasting changes in the transcriptomes of virus-reactive T cells collected from HCMV-seropositive patients at distinct stages of infection. Enhanced cell cycle and metabolic activity was restricted to the acute phase of the response, but at all stages, HCMV-specific CD8+ T cells expressed the Th1-associated transcription factors T-bet (TBX21) and eomesodermin (EOMES), in parallel with continuous expression of IFNG mRNA and IFN-γ-regulated genes. The cytolytic proteins granzyme B and perforin as well as the fractalkine-binding chemokine receptor CX3CR1 were found in virus-reactive cells throughout the response. During HCMV latency, virus-specific CD8+ T cells lacked the typical features of exhausted cells found in other chronic infections. Persistent effector cell traits together with the permanent changes in chemokine receptor usage of virus-specific, nonexhausted, long-lived CD8+ T cells may be crucial to maintain lifelong protection from HCMV reactivation.


Collette S.,EORTC Headquarters | Suciu S.,EORTC Headquarters | De Groot E.R.,Sanquin Research at CLB | Kruit W.H.,Erasmus Medical Center | And 3 more authors.
Melanoma Research | Year: 2011

Adjuvant therapy with interferon-α (IFN) only benefits a small subgroup of melanoma patients and a predictive marker selecting responders does not exist. IFN induces increased ferritin and decreased C-reactive protein (CRP) levels; however, an association with treatment effect was not studied. Serum was collected from patients participating in the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer 18 952 trial comparing adjuvant treatment with IFN to observation. Serial ferritin and CRP levels were determined using enzyme-linked immusorbent assays, before treatment and up to 24 months. Ferritin levels are influenced by sex and age; therefore ratios of serial ferritin and CRP values with corresponding pretreatment values were calculated. Cox regression model and landmark method at end of induction and 6 months were used to evaluate the association between ferritin, CRP and distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS). Baseline ferritin levels were comparable in the two treatment groups (P=0.92). However, ferritin ratios were significantly higher in IFN-treated patients (N=96) compared with untreated patients (N=21) at end of induction (mean: 2.88 vs. 0.75; P=0.0003) and at 6 months (mean: 3.18 vs. 1.02; P=0.009). In the IFN arm, higher ferritin ratios at end of induction and at 6 months were not associated with improved outcome (respectively, P=0.66 and 0.86). Concerning CRP ratios, no differences between the treatment groups, neither an association with DMFS, were observed. Administration of IFN in melanoma patients induced increase in ferritin levels but not in CRP levels. Ferritin and CRP ratios have no prognostic value regarding DMFS. © 2011 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.


PubMed | Renal Transplant Unit, Albert Ludwigs University of Freiburg and Sanquin Research at CLB
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of virology | Year: 2014

Human cytomegalovirus (hCMV) infection is characterized by a vast expansion of resting effector-type virus-specific T cells in the circulation. In mice, interleukin-7 receptor (IL-7R)-expressing cells contain the precursors for long-lived antigen-experienced CD8(+) T cells, but it is unclear if similar mechanisms operate to maintain these pools in humans. Here, we studied whether IL-7R-expressing cells obtained from peripheral blood (PB) or lymph nodes (LNs) sustain the circulating effector-type hCMV-specific pool. Using flow cytometry and functional assays, we found that the IL-7R(+) hCMV-specific T cell population comprises cells that have a memory phenotype and lack effector features. We used next-generation sequencing of the T cell receptor to compare the clonal repertoires of IL-7R(+) and IL-7R(-) subsets. We observed limited overlap of clones between these subsets during acute infection and after 1 year. When we compared the hCMV-specific repertoire between PB and paired LNs, we found many identical clones but also clones that were exclusively found in either compartment. New clones that were found in PB during antigenic recall were only rarely identical to the unique LN clones. Thus, although PB IL-7R-expressing and LN hCMV-specific CD8(+) T cells show typical traits of memory-type cells, these populations do not seem to contain the precursors for the novel hCMV-specific CD8(+) T cell pool during latency or upon antigen recall. IL-7R(+) PB and LN hCMV-specific memory cells form separate virus-specific compartments, and precursors for these novel PB hCMV-specific CD8(+) effector-type T cells are possibly located in other secondary lymphoid tissues or are being recruited from the naive CD8(+) T cell pool.Insight into the self-renewal properties of long-lived memory CD8(+) T cells and their location is crucial for the development of both passive and active vaccination strategies. Human CMV infection is characterized by a vast expansion of resting effector-type cells. It is, however, not known how this population is maintained. We here investigated two possible compartments for effector-type cell precursors: circulating acute-phase IL-7R-expressing hCMV-specific CD8(+) T cells and lymph node (LN)-residing hCMV-specific (central) memory cells. We show that new clones that appear after primary hCMV infection or during hCMV reactivation seldom originate from either compartment. Thus, although identical clones may be maintained by either memory population, the precursors of the novel clones are probably located in other (secondary) lymphoid tissues or are recruited from the naive CD8(+) T cell pool.


Ter Weeme M.,OLVG | Kupreishvili K.,Institute for Cardiovascular Research ICaR VU | Van Ham M.,Sanquin Research at CLB | Zeerleder S.,Sanquin Research at CLB | And 7 more authors.
European Journal of Clinical Investigation | Year: 2010

Background Recent studies indicate a role for complement in the pathogenesis of aortic valve disease. However, the role of naturally occurring anti-complement mediators in this context is unknown. In this study, we have analysed this in three different pathological conditions of the aortic valve: degeneration, atherosclerosis and bacterial endocarditis. Materials and methods Human aortic valves were obtained at autopsy (n = 30): 5 control valves, 10 aortic valves with atherosclerotic changes, 10 aortic valves with degenerative changes and 5 degenerative changed aortic valves with bacterial infection. These valves were analysed immunohistochemically for the presence of activated complement (C3d and C5b9) and the complement inhibitors C1-inh and clusterin. Areas of positivity were then quantified. Results C3d, C5b9 and the complement inhibitors C1-inh and clusterin depositions were mainly found in the endothelium and extracellular matrix in aortic valves. All these mediators were already present in control valves, but the area of positivity increased significantly in response to the different diseases, with the highest increase in response to bacterial endocarditis. Interestingly, in all three aortic diseases, the depositions of complement were significantly more widespread than that of their inhibitors. Conclusions Our study indicates that anti-complement mediators (C1-inh and clusterin) are deposited in diseased aortic valves together with activated complement, indicating an existing counter response against complement locally in the valve. However, deposition of activated complement is significantly more widespread than that of its inhibitors, which could explain ongoing inflammation in those diseased aortic valves. © 2009 Stichting European Society for Clinical Investigation Journal Foundation.


Daniels G.,Bristol Institute for Transfusion science | van der Schoot C.E.,Sanquin Research at CLB | Olsson M.L.,Lund University
Vox Sanguinis | Year: 2011

The fourth International Society of Blood Transfusion (ISBT) workshop on molecular blood group genotyping was held in 2010, with a feedback meeting at the ISBT Congress in Berlin, Germany. Fifty laboratories participated, 17 more than in 2008. Six samples were distributed. Samples 1-3 were DNA samples for all red cell blood group tests available to the participants. Of the 46 laboratories that tested these samples, 37 obtained completely correct results, although the extent of testing varied considerably. Sample 4, also a DNA sample, was an Rh problem in which RHDΨ and RHCE*ceCF were present, but the participants were only informed that the donor's red cells typed as positive with some monoclonal anti-D. Of the 42 laboratories that participated in this exercise, seven performed the sequencing necessary to obtain the correct result. Samples 5 and 6 were plasma samples from RhD-negative pregnant women, for foetal RhD testing. These were sent to 25 laboratories, and two incorrect results were reported. Overall, the level of accuracy was about equal to that of the previous workshop. The main conclusion for the last two workshops can be reiterated: with greater care and attention to detail, very high standards could be set for molecular blood group genotyping. © 2011 The Author(s). Vox Sanguinis © 2011 International Society of Blood Transfusion.


Stehouwer C.D.A.,Academic Hospital Maastricht | Verhoeven A.J.,Sanquin Research at CLB
Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology | Year: 2010

Subsequent to myocardial infarction, cardiomyocytes within the infarcted areas and border zones expose phosphatidylserine (PS) in the outer plasma membrane leaflet (flip-flop). We showed earlier that in addition to apoptosis, this flip-flop can be reversible in cardiomyocytes. We now investigated a possible role for Rho and downstream effector Rho-associated kinase (ROCK) in the process of (reversible) PS exposure and apoptosis in cardiomyocytes. In rat cardiomyoblasts (H9c2 cells) and isolated adult ventricular rat cardiomyocytes Clostridium difficile Toxin B (TcdB), a Rho GTPase family inhibitor, C3 transferase (C3), a Rho(A,B,C) inhibitor and the ROCK inhibitors Y27632 and H1152 were used to inhibit Rho-ROCK signaling. PS exposure was assessed via flow cytometry and fluorescent digital imaging microscopy using annexin V. Akt expression and phosphorylation were analyzed via Western blot, and Akt activity was inhibited by wortmannin. The cellular concentration activated caspase 3 was determined as a measure of apoptosis, and flippase activity was assessed via flow cytometry using NBD-labeled PS. TcdB, C3, Y27632 and H1152 all significantly increased PS exposure. TcdB, Y27632 and H1152 all significantly inhibited phosphorylation of the anti-apoptotic protein Akt and Akt inhibition by wortmannin lead to increased PS exposure. However, only TcdB and C3, but not ROCK- or Akt inhibition led to caspase 3 activation and thus apoptosis. Notably, pancaspase inhibitor zVAD only partially inhibited TcdB-induced PS exposure indicating the existence of apoptotic and non-apoptotic PS exposure. The induced PS exposure coincided with decreased flippase activity as measured with NBD-labeled PS flip-flop. In this study, we show a regulatory role for a novel signaling route, Rho-ROCK-flippase signaling, in maintaining asymmetrical membrane phospholipid distribution in cardiomyocytes. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.


Zeerleder S.,Sanquin Research at CLB | Zeerleder S.,University of Amsterdam
Netherlands Journal of Medicine | Year: 2011

Autoimmune haemolytic anaemia (AIHA) is a rare disease. in clinical practice, diagnosis and treatment of ai Ha turns out to be troublesome. Correct diagnosis is dependent on proper comprehension of the pathophysiology and the laboratory tests performed by the transfusion laboratory. the present review provides a short overview on the pathogenesis of autoimmune haemolytic anaemia. the diagnostic pitfalls will be discussed and a diagnostic algorithm for proper diagnosis of AIHA will be given. Moreover, a brief overview on the treatment of different forms of AIHA is given. © Van Zuiden Communications B.V. All rights reserved.

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