Sanquin Research and Landsteiner Laboratory Academic Medical Center

Amsterdam, Netherlands

Sanquin Research and Landsteiner Laboratory Academic Medical Center

Amsterdam, Netherlands

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Pouw M.F.,Jan Medical | Krieckaert C.L.,Jan van Breemen Research Institute Reade | Nurmohamed M.T.,Jan van Breemen Research Institute Reade | van der Kleij D.,Biologicals Laboratory | And 3 more authors.
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases | Year: 2013

Objective: To determine a concentration-effect curve of adalimumab in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients taking into account the effect of methotrexate (MTX) on concentration and effect and to identify a therapeutic range for adalimumab concentrations. Methods: In a prospective observational cohort study, 221 consecutive patients with RA were treated with 40 mg adalimumab subcutaneously every other week. The relationship between adalimumab trough level and clinical efficacy after 28 weeks of follow-up was determined in a concentration-effect curve. A receiver-operator characteristics (ROC) curve established a therapeutic cut-offconcentration. The effect of MTX on adalimumab trough levels was shown by dividing patients that are and are not concomitantly using MTX in the concentration-effect curve and a concentration table. Results: Clinical efficacy improved with increasing adalimumab concentration and reached a maximum (mean disease activity score in 28 joints improvement of 2) with levels between 5-8 μg/mL. Levels exceeding 8 μg/mL were illustrated to have no additional beneficial effect on disease activity. The ROC curve showed an area under the curve of 0.695 (95% CI 0.626 to 0.764) for European League Against Rheumatism response and adalimumab levels: good responders versus non-responders and moderate responders. A cut-offof 5 μg/mL had a sensitivity of 91% and a specificity of 43%. Adalimumab levels are influenced by concomitant MTX use: patients on adalimumab monotherapy had a median adalimumab level of 4.1 μg/mL (IQR 1.3-7.7), whereas patients concomitantly taking MTX had a median level of 7.4 μg/mL (IQR 5.3-10.6, p<0.001). Conclusions: Adalimumab trough levels in a range of 5-8 μg/mL are sufficient to reach adequate clinical response. These levels are influenced substantially by concomitant MTX use. © 2013 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd & European League Against Rheumatism.


Kneepkens E.L.,Jan van Breemen Research Institute Reade | Cheng-Chung Wei J.,Chung Shan Medical University | Nurmohamed M.T.,VU University Amsterdam | Yeo K.-J.,Chung Shan Medical University | And 6 more authors.
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases | Year: 2013

Background: Immunogenicity influences adalimumab levels and therefore clinical response in patients with rheumatic diseases. Objectives: To study the relationship between clinical response, adalimumab levels and antidrug antibodies (ADAb) in ankylosing spondylitis (AS). Methods: Observational cohort study of 115 consecutive AS patients treated with adalimumab in the Netherlands (n=85) and Taiwan (n=30), monitored during 24 weeks. Adalimumab levels and ADAb titres were determined using an ELISA and an antigen binding test (ABT), respectively, designed by Sanquin Research, Amsterdam. Response to adalimumab treatment was defined as a Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI) response, and disease activity was measured using the Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Score using C-reactive protein (CRP) (ASDAS). Results: At baseline, median BASDAI (IQR) was 6.4 (4.5-7.6) and mean ASDAS (SD) was 3.5 (1.0). After 24 weeks, 49 (42.6%) patients were BASDAI50 responders and mean ASDAS (SD) for responders was 1.5 (1.0) vs 2.6 (1.0) for non-responders (p<0.001). Thirty-one (27.0%) patients had detectable ADAb. After 24 weeks, adalimumab levels (mg/L) (IQR) were significantly higher in ADAb-negative patients than in ADAb-positive patients (12.7 (8.2-18.0) vs 1.2 (0.0-2.0), (p<0.001)). A significant association was demonstrated between adalimumab levels and ASDAS (p=0.02; RC -1.1; 95% CI -2.0 to -0.2). Eleven (9.6%) patients had no detectable adalimumab levels and high detectable ADAb titres (>100 AU/mL). In these patients, CRP and erythrocyte sedimentation rate remained elevated during treatment. Conclusions: Adalimumab levels are related to clinical response in AS patients measured with ASDAS and are influenced by ADAb detectable with an ABT. © 2013 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd & European League Against Rheumatism.


Schuijt T.J.,Yale University | Schuijt T.J.,University of Amsterdam | Schuijt T.J.,Leiden University | Coumou J.,Yale University | And 14 more authors.
Cell Host and Microbe | Year: 2011

The Lyme disease agent Borrelia burgdorferi is primarily transmitted to vertebrates by Ixodes ticks. The classical and alternative complement pathways are important in Borrelia eradication by the vertebrate host. We recently identified a tick salivary protein, designated P8, which reduced complement-mediated killing of Borrelia. We now discover that P8 interferes with the human lectin complement cascade, resulting in impaired neutrophil phagocytosis and chemotaxis and diminished Borrelia lysis. Therefore, P8 was renamed the tick salivary lectin pathway inhibitor (TSLPI). TSLPI-silenced ticks, or ticks exposed to TSLPI-immune mice, were hampered in Borrelia transmission. Moreover, Borrelia acquisition and persistence in tick midguts was impaired in ticks feeding on TSLPI-immunized, B. burgdorferi-infected mice. Together, our findings suggest an essential role for the lectin complement cascade in Borrelia eradication and demonstrate how a vector-borne pathogen co-opts a vector protein to facilitate early mammalian infection and vector colonization. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.


Krieckaert C.L.M.,Jan Van Breemen Research Institute | Nair S.C.,University Utrecht | Nurmohamed M.T.,Jan Van Breemen Research Institute | Nurmohamed M.T.,VU University Amsterdam | And 8 more authors.
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases | Year: 2015

Objective: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of personalised treatment for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) using clinical response and serum adalimumab levels. Methods: A personalised treatment algorithm defined, based on clinical (European League Against Rheumatism) response and drug levels at 6 months, whether adalimumab treatment should be continued in a specific dose or discontinued and/or switched to a next biological. Outcomes were simulated using a patient level Markov model, with 3 months cycles, based on a cohort of 272 adalimumab-treated patients with RA for 3 years and data of patients from the Utrecht Rheumatoid Arthritis Cohort. Costs, clinical effectiveness and quality adjusted life years (QALYs) were compared with outcomes as observed in usual care and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios were calculated. Analyses were performed probabilistically. Results: Clinical effectiveness was higher for the cohort simulated to receive personalised care compared with usual care; the average difference in QALYs was 3.84 (95 percentile range -8.39 to 16.20). Costs were saved on drugs: €2 314 354. Testing costs amounted to €10 872. Mean total savings were €2 561 648 (95 percentile range -3 252 529 to -1 898 087), resulting in an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of €666 500 or €646 266 saved per QALY gained from a societal or healthcare perspective, respectively. In 72% of simulations personalised care saved costs and resulted in more QALYs, in 28% it was cost saving with lower QALYs. Scenario analyses showed cost saving along with QALYs gain or limited loss. Conclusions: Tailoring biological treatment to individual patients with RA starting adalimumab using drug levels and short-term outcome is cost-effective. Results underscore the potential merit of personalised biological treatment in RA. © 2015, BMJ Publishing Group. All right reserved.


Kneepkens E.L.,Jan Van Breemen Research Institute Reade | Wei J.C.-C.,Chung Shan Medical University | Nurmohamed M.T.,Jan Van Breemen Research Institute Reade | Nurmohamed M.T.,VU University Amsterdam | And 9 more authors.
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases | Year: 2015

Background: Immunogenicity influences adalimumab levels and therefore clinical response in patients with rheumatic diseases. Objectives: To study the relationship between clinical response, adalimumab levels and antidrug antibodies (ADAb) in ankylosing spondylitis (AS). Methods: Observational cohort study of 115 consecutive AS patients treated with adalimumab in the Netherlands (n=85) and Taiwan (n=30), monitored during 24 weeks. Adalimumab levels and ADAb titres were determined using an ELISA and an antigen binding test (ABT), respectively, designed by Sanquin Research, Amsterdam. Response to adalimumab treatment was defined as a Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI) response, and disease activity was measured using the Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Score using C-reactive protein (CRP) (ASDAS). Results: At baseline, median BASDAI (IQR) was 6.4 (4.5-7.6) and mean ASDAS (SD) was 3.5 (1.0). After 24 weeks, 49 (42.6%) patients were BASDAI50 responders and mean ASDAS (SD) for responders was 1.5 (1.0) vs 2.6 (1.0) for non-responders (p<0.001). Thirty-one (27.0%) patients had detectable ADAb. After 24 weeks, adalimumab levels (mg/L) (IQR) were significantly higher in ADAb-negative patients than in ADAb-positive patients (12.7 (8.2-18.0) vs 1.2 (0.0-2.0), (p<0.001)). A significant association was demonstrated between adalimumab levels and ASDAS (p=0.02; RC -1.1; 95% CI -2.0 to -0.2). Eleven (9.6%) patients had no detectable adalimumab levels and high detectable ADAb titres (>100 AU/mL). In these patients, CRP and erythrocyte sedimentation rate remained elevated during treatment. Conclusions: Adalimumab levels are related to clinical response in AS patients measured with ASDAS and are influenced by ADAb detectable with an ABT. © 2015, BMJ Publishing Group. All rights reserved.


van Schouwenburg P.A.,Sanquin Research and Landsteiner Laboratory Academic Medical Center | van Schouwenburg P.A.,Jan van Breemen Institute | Bartelds G.M.,Sanquin Research and Landsteiner Laboratory Academic Medical Center | Hart M.H.,Sanquin Research and Landsteiner Laboratory Academic Medical Center | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Immunological Methods | Year: 2010

Production of anti drug antibodies (ADA) in adalimumab treated RA patients is associated with reduced serum adalimumab levels and less clinical response. However, most current assays to measure ADA are unable to detect ADA in complex with adalimumab. Thus, ADA is only measured if antibody production exceeds drug levels in the serum, meaning that ADA formation is underestimated. The aim of this study is to develop a method to detect ADA in the presence of drug. A pH-shift-anti-idiotype Antigen binding test (PIA) was used to enable ADA measurement in the presence of adalimumab. ADA-adalimumab complexes were dissociated by acid treatment and addition of excess rabbit anti-idiotype-F(ab) before neutralization. Rabbit anti-idiotype-F(ab) blocks reformation of ADA-drug complexes by competing with patient ADA for adalimumab binding. Released ADA are measured by an antigen binding test (ABT). The PIA enabled detection of ADA in the presence of large excess of adalimumab and was used to measure ADA in 30 adalimumab treated rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients during the first 28weeks of treatment. It revealed ADA in 21 out of 30 tested patients, while the ABT detected ADA in only 5 patients. Indicating that an immunogenic reaction towards adalimumab is present in the majority of adalimumab treated patients. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.


PubMed | University hospitals Leuven, Catholic University of Leuven, Sanquin Diagnostics Services, Sanquin Research and Landsteiner Laboratory Academic Medical Center and AZ Delta
Type: | Journal: Journal of pharmaceutical and biomedical analysis | Year: 2016

A number of assays are currently available to support therapeutic drug monitoring of adalimumab. A complete characterization of the assays and comparison of different assays has not been performed. The aim of this study, therefore, is to generate and characterize of a panel of monoclonal antibodies towards adalimumab (MA-ADM); to use this panel to develop novel assays to determine adalimumab concentrations; to assess the impact of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and (non-)neutralizing antibodies on adalimumab detection and to compare the performance of assays. In total, ten specific MA-ADM were generated of which four revealed a neutralizing potency of >78%. At least six different clusters were identified using principal component analysis. MA-ADM40D8 was selected as detecting antibody to determine adalimumab in the TNF-coated ELISA (A) and the MA-ADM28B8/MA-ADM40D8 antibody pair was chosen for use in the MA-coated ELISA (B). The impact of TNF and (non-) neutralizing antibodies was similar in both ELISAs. Finally, serum samples of adalimumab-treated Crohns disease patients were collected and used for an external validation using the assay of Sanquin (C) and the apDia kit (D). All adalimumab assays showed excellent Pearson correlation: r=0.96 for A versus B, 0.96 for A versus C, 0.94 for A versus D, 0.97 for B versus C, 0.95 for B versus D and 0.94 for C and D. The excellent agreement with the two commercially available ELISAs allows harmonization of treatment algorithms in and between different hospitals/infusion centers.


PubMed | Janssen Research & Development LLC, Janssen Scientific Affairs LLC, LabCorp, Sanquin Research and Landsteiner Laboratory Academic Medical Center and 4 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The AAPS journal | Year: 2016

Monitoring infliximab (IFX) concentrations and antibodies-to-IFX (ATI) titers during inflammatory bowel disease treatment may allow more informed decisions in assessing exposure/response and determining appropriate dosing. To aid in interpreting results from different commercial tests in the context of Janssens published Remicade results, the reliability of Janssens IFX and ATI assays was compared with commercial assays from KU Leuven, Sanquin, Dynacare, and LabCorp. Test results were independently reported to Janssen. All assays were tested for specificity, selectivity, and precision. ATI assays were evaluated for sensitivity, drug interference, and potential interference of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-). IFX assays were specific, accurate, and reproducible. Intra-class correlation of Janssen IFX assay results with those from KU Leuven, Sanquin, Dynacare, and LabCorp were 0.960, 0.895, 0.931, and 0.971, respectively. ATI titers >10 interfered with IFX assessment in all IFX assays, whereas TNF- (50ng/mL) did not interfere with IFX detection in any assay. ATI assays specifically and reproducibly detected ATI. Janssen, Sanquin, and LabCorp ATI methods were more resistant to IFX interference than Dynacare and KU Leuven, which were affected by IFX concentrations at 2g/mL. TNF- (<5ng/mL) did not interfere with ATI detection. Strong agreement was observed between Janssens IFX and ATI assays and the diagnostic service provider assays. Our study results indicate that all four commercially available assays are suitable for therapeutic drug monitoring of IFX. The substantial agreement reported here between the comparator assays and the Janssen drug-tolerant assay provides support to clinicians in their use of these commercial assays, and for understanding their patients IFX and ATI results relative to published data from clinical studies of Remicade.


PubMed | University of Amsterdam, Jan van Breemen Research Institute Reade, Sanquin Diagnostic Services, La Paz University Hospital Idipaz and Sanquin Research and Landsteiner Laboratory Academic Medical Center
Type: Comparative Study | Journal: Clinical and experimental rheumatology | Year: 2016

The aim of this study is to compare clinical outcomes, incidence of flares and administered drug reduction between rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients under TNF inhibitors (TNFi) tapering strategy and RA patients on standard regimen.Two groups of RA patients on TNFi with DAS28<3.2 were compared: the tapering group (TG: 67 pts from Spain) and the control group with standard therapy regimen (CG: 77 pts from the Netherlands). DAS28 was measured at different time points: visit 0 (prior starting TNFi), visit 1 (prior to start tapering in TG and with DAS28<3.2 in TG and CG), visit 2 (6 months after visit 1), visit 3 (1 year after visit 1), visit 4 (the last visit available after visit 1) and visit-flare (visit with the worst flare between visit 1 and visit 4).Despite the reduction of administered drug at visit 4 in the TG (interval elongation of 32.8% in infliximab, 52.9% in adalimumab and 52.6% in etanercept), the DAS28 remained similar between groups at the end of the study (DAS28: 2.70.9 in TG vs. 2.51 in CG, p=0.1). No differences were seen in the number of patients with flares [26/67 (38.9%) in the TG vs. 30/77 (39%) in the CG, p=0.324] and only nineteen out of 136 patients (14%) had anti-drug antibodies at the end of the study.The tapering strategy of TNFi in RA patients result in a reduction of the drug administered, while the disease control is not worse than patients on the standard regimen.


Bartelds G.M.,Jan Van Breemen Research Institute | Krieckaert C.L.M.,Jan Van Breemen Research Institute | Nurmohamed M.T.,Jan Van Breemen Research Institute | Van Schouwenburg P.A.,Sanquin Research and Landsteiner Laboratory Academic Medical Center | And 3 more authors.
JAMA - Journal of the American Medical Association | Year: 2011

Context Short-term data on the immunogenicity of monoclonal antibodies showed associations between the development of antidrug antibodies and diminished serum drug levels, and a diminished treatment response. Little is known about the clinical relevance of antidrug antibodies against these drugs during long-term follow-up. Objective To examine the course of antidrug antibody formation against fully human monoclonal antibody adalimumab and its clinical relevance during long-term (3- year) follow-up of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Design, Setting, and Patients Prospective cohort study February 2004- September 2008; end of follow-up was September 2010. All 272 patients were diagnosed with RA and started treatment with adalimumab in an outpatient clinic. Main Outcome Measures Disease activity was monitored and trough serum samples were obtained at baseline and 8 time points to 156 weeks. Serum adalimumab concentrations and antiadalimumab antibody titers were determined after follow-up. Treatment discontinuation, minimal disease activity, and clinical remission were compared for patients with and without antiadalimumab antibodies. Results After 3 years, 76 of 272 patients (28%) developed antiadalimumab antibodies- 51 of these (67%) during the first 28 weeks of treatment. Patients without antiadalimumab antibodies had much higher adalimumab concentrations (median, 12 mg/L; IQR, 9-16 mg/L) compared with patients with antibody titers from 13 to 100 AU/mL (median, 5 mg/L; IQR, 3-9 mg/L; regression coefficient, -4.5; 95% CI, -6.0 to -2.9; P<.001) and also those greater than 100 AU/mL (median, 0 mg/L; IQR, 0-3 mg/L; regression coefficient, -7.1; 95% CI, -8.4 to -5.8; P<.001). Patients with antiadalimumab antibodies more often discontinued participation due to treatment failure (n=29 [38%]; hazard ratio [HR], 3.0; 95% CI, 1.6-5.5; P<.001) compared with antiadalimumab antibody-negative ones (n=28 [14%]). Ninety-five of 196 patients (48%)without antiadalimumab antibodies had minimal disease activity vs 10 of 76 patients (13%) with antiadalimumab antibodies; patients with antiadalimumab antibodies less often had sustained minimal disease activity score in 28 joints (DAS28) (<3.2; HR, 3.6; 95% CI, 1.8-7.2; P<.001) compared with antiadalimumab antibody-negative ones. Three of 76 patients (4%) with antiadalimumab antibodies achieved sustained remission compared with 67 of 196 (34%) antiadalimumab antibody-negative ones; patients with antiadalimumab antibodies less often achieved remission (DAS28 <2.6; HR, 7.1; 95% CI, 2.1- 23.4; P<.001) compared with antiadalimumab antibody-negative ones. Conclusion Among outpatients with RA inwhomadalimumab was started over 3 years, the development of antidrug antibodies was associated with lower adalimumab concentration and lower likelihood of minimal disease activity or clinical remission. © 2011 American Medical Association. All rights reserved.

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