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Lucknow, India

Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical science is a medical institute of India located in Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh. It was established in 1983 and is named after Sanjay Gandhi.The institute is on a 550 acres residential campus at Raebareli Road, 15 km from the main city. The institute offers its own degrees, which are recognized by the Medical Council of India. SGPGIMS delivers tertiary medical care, super-specialty teaching, training and research. It offers DM, MCh, MD, Ph.D., postdoctoral fellowships and postdoctoral certificate courses , and senior residency. Wikipedia.

Aggarwal R.,Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences
Nature Reviews Gastroenterology and Hepatology | Year: 2013

Hepatitis E, caused by infection with hepatitis E virus (HEV), is a common cause of enterically-transmitted acute hepatitis in developing countries. Occasional cases of sporadic hepatitis E have been increasingly recognized in developed countries over the past decade. These cases differ from those in developing countries in being possibly caused by zoonotic transmission, often affecting people with a suppressed immune system and occasionally leading to persistent HEV infection. The commonly used tests for HEV infection include detection of IgM and IgG anti-HEV antibodies and detection of HEV RNA. IgM anti-HEV antibodies can be detected during the first few months after HEV infection, whereas IgG anti-HEV antibodies represent either recent or remote exposure. The presence of HEV RNA indicates current infection, whether acute or chronic. Although several diagnostic assays for anti-HEV antibodies are available, they have undergone fairly limited testing and often provide discordant results, particularly for IgG antibodies. Thus, although the available antibody assays might be useful for case diagnosis in areas with high disease endemicity, their use for case diagnosis in areas with low endemicity and for seroprevalence studies remains problematic. Improved validation of existing anti-HEV antibody assays or development of new assays with superior performance characteristics is urgently needed. © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

Ghoshal U.C.,Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences
Nature Reviews Gastroenterology and Hepatology | Year: 2014

2013 saw several advances in small bowel endoscopy: new 3D visualization software, increased battery life, side-viewing cameras and higher frame rate. Studies on prokinetics for patient preparation, safety in the elderly, rebleeding after negative capsule endoscopy and defining optimum training requirements for fellows were encouraging. Procedure time and small bowel length evaluated by double-balloon and spiral endoscopy were shown to be comparable.

Misra R.,Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences
Rheumatology (Oxford, England) | Year: 2013

There are no valid instruments to measure disease activity in Takayasu arteritis (TA). We aim to provide a valid measure to assess clinical disease activity with or without incorporating acute phase reactants. The Indian Takayasu Clinical Activity Score (ITAS) was initially derived from disease manifestations scored in the Disease Extent Index (DEI.Tak). The ITAS was validated by a group of physicians scoring both live and paper cases for inter-rater reliability (IRR), convergence with BVAS, correlation with the Physician's Global Assessment (PGA) and ESR/CRP. It was further validated at a single centre in 177 patients for its ability to discriminate between active and inactive disease state at first visit and sensitivity to change in 132 active patients measured serially at two follow-up visits. ITAS-A also included graded scores for ESR/CRP. The final ITAS2010 contains 44 items with 33 features arising from the cardiovascular system. Seven key items are weighted to score 2 and all others score 1 only. Inter-observer variability was highly satisfactory (IRR 0.97). The ITAS showed superior inter-rater agreement compared with the BVAS (IRR 0.9) and PGA (IRR 0.82). In the single-centre study, median ITAS scores at first visit were significantly higher in active disease (5.62 ± 3.14) compared with grumbling (3.36 ± 1.96) and inactive disease (1.27 ± 1.26, P < 0.0001). The therapy induced a significant decrease in the ITAS2010 but the higher ITAS-A scores remained elevated. The ITAS2010, validated in over 300 TA patients and sensitive to change, is a useful measure of clinical disease activity for patient monitoring. Higher ITAS-A scores suggest poor control of active disease by current therapy.

Ghoshal U.C.,Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences
Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility | Year: 2011

Hydrogen breath tests using various substrates like glucose, lactulose, lactose and fructose are being used more and more to diagnose small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) and lactose or fructose malabsorption. Though quantitative culture of jejunal aspirate is considered as gold standard for the diagnosis of SIBO, hydrogen breath tests, in spite of their low sensitivity, are popular for their non-invasiveness. Glucose hydrogen breath test is more acceptable for the diagnosis of SIBO as conventionally accepted double-peak criterion on lactulose hydrogen breath test is very insensitive and recently described early-peak criterion is often false positive. Hydrogen breath test is useful to diagnose various types of sugar malabsorption. Technique and interpretation of different hydrogen breath tests are outlined in this review. © 2011 The Korean Society of Neurogastroenterology and Motility.

Dhir V.,Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences
Arthritis care & research | Year: 2012

There are sparse data on outcome of lupus nephritis from developing countries. This study looks at outcome in Asian Indians. This retrospective study included patients at a single center over 20 years. Patients were treated as per standard protocols. The primary outcome measure was chronic renal failure or death; the secondary outcome was end-stage renal disease or death. The worst-case scenario was also calculated, considering those lost to followup in the first year as events. Kaplan-Meier survival curves and the log rank test were used for survival analysis. Data are shown as the mean ± SD. We included 188 patients with lupus nephritis, with a female:male ratio of 11:1, a mean ± SD age at onset of 23.6 ± 10.5 years, and a median followup time of 6 years (interquartile range 3-9 years). Of 136 patients with a biopsy sample, the distribution was as follows: class II in 22, class III in 36, class IV in 61, class V in 16, and class VI in 1. Survival with normal renal function was 84%, 69%, and 57% at 5, 10, and 15 years, respectively; in the worst-case scenario, survival was 77%, 63%, and 51%, respectively. There was no difference in survival by histologic class; however, nonbiopsied patients had lower survival. Renal survival was 91%, 81%, and 76% at 5, 10, and 15 years, respectively; in the worst-case scenario, survival was 79%, 70%, and 66%, respectively. Risk factors for poor outcome were low C3, hematuria, hypertension, creatinine, lack of remission, and occurrence of major infection. There was a high rate of major infections of 42.3%, with tuberculosis at 11.5%. Infections caused one-half of all deaths. The outcome of lupus nephritis in Asian Indians with standard immunosuppressive regimens is reasonable, but immunosuppression is associated with a high rate of infection. Copyright © 2012 by the American College of Rheumatology.

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