Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences
Lucknow, India

Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical science is a medical institute of India located in Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh. It was established in 1983 and is named after Sanjay Gandhi.The institute is on a 550 acres residential campus at Raebareli Road, 15 km from the main city. The institute offers its own degrees, which are recognized by the Medical Council of India. SGPGIMS delivers tertiary medical care, super-specialty teaching, training and research. It offers DM, MCh, MD, Ph.D., postdoctoral fellowships and postdoctoral certificate courses , and senior residency. Wikipedia.

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Misra U.K.,Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences | Kalita J.,Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences
Progress in Neurobiology | Year: 2010

Japanese encephalitis (JE) is one of the most important endemic encephalitis in the world especially in Eastern and Southeastern Asia. JE affects over 50,000 patients and results in 15,000 deaths annually. JE virus is a single stranded positive sense RNA virus belonging to family flaviviridae. JE virus is transmitted through a zoonotic cycle between mosquitoes, pigs and water birds. Humans are accidentally infected and are a dead end host because of low level and transient viremia. In the northern region, large epidemics occur during summers whereas in the southern region JE tends to be endemic: cases occur throughout the year with a peak in the rainy season. Occurrence of JE is more closely related to temperature than to humidity. JE is regarded as a disease of children in the endemic areas but in the newly invaded areas, it affects both the adults and children because of the absence of protective antibodies. For every patient of JE, there are large numbers of subclinical cases (25-1000). Symptomatic JEV infection manifests with nonspecific febrile illness, aseptic meningitis or encephalitis. Encephalitis manifests with altered sensorium, seizures and focal neurological deficit. Acute flaccid paralysis may occur due to anterior horn cell involvement. A wide variety of movement disorders especially transient Parkinsonian features and dystonia (limb, axial, orofacial) are reported in 20-60% patients. JE mainly affects thalamus, corpus striatum, brainstem and spinal cord as revealed by MRI and on autopsy studies. Coinfection of JE and cysticercosis occurs because of the important role of pigs in the life cycle of both JEV and cysticercosis.Laboratory diagnosis of JE is by IgM capture ELISA, which has high sensitivity and specificity. In the absence of specific antiviral therapy, JE is managed by symptomatic and supportive therapies and preventive measures. Purified formalin inactivated mouse brain derived vaccine and live attenuated vaccine (SA 14-14-2) are available; the latter is reported to be safe, effective and cheap. The role of Chimeric recombinant attenuated JE vaccine is under investigation. Control of JE is related to the wider issues of hygiene, environment, education and economy. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Aggarwal R.,Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences
Virus Research | Year: 2011

Hepatitis E is a form of acute hepatitis, which is caused by infection with hepatitis E virus. The infection is transmitted primarily through fecal-oral route and the disease is highly endemic in several developing countries with opportunities for contamination of drinking water. In these areas with high endemicity, it occurs as outbreaks and as sporadic cases of acute hepatitis. The illness often resembles that associated with other hepatotropic viruses and is usually self-limiting; in some cases, the disease progresses to acute liver failure. The infection is particularly severe in pregnant women. Patients with chronic liver disease and superimposed HEV infection can present with severe liver injury, the so-called acute-on-chronic liver failure. In recent years, occasional sporadic cases with locally acquired hepatitis E have been reported from several developed countries in Europe, United States, and Asia. In these areas, in addition to acute hepatitis similar to that seen in highly endemic areas, chronic hepatitis E has been reported among immunosuppressed persons, in particular solid organ transplant recipients. HEV-infected mothers can transmit the infection to foetus, leading to premature birth, increased fetal loss and hypoglycaemia, hypothermia, and anicteric or icteric acute hepatitis in the newborns. Occasional cases with atypical non-hepatic manifestations, such as acute pancreatitis, hematological abnormalities, autoimmune phenomena, and neurological syndromes have been reported from both hyperendemic and non-endemic regions. The pathogenesis of these manifestations remains unclear. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Aggarwal R.,Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences
Nature Reviews Gastroenterology and Hepatology | Year: 2013

Hepatitis E, caused by infection with hepatitis E virus (HEV), is a common cause of enterically-transmitted acute hepatitis in developing countries. Occasional cases of sporadic hepatitis E have been increasingly recognized in developed countries over the past decade. These cases differ from those in developing countries in being possibly caused by zoonotic transmission, often affecting people with a suppressed immune system and occasionally leading to persistent HEV infection. The commonly used tests for HEV infection include detection of IgM and IgG anti-HEV antibodies and detection of HEV RNA. IgM anti-HEV antibodies can be detected during the first few months after HEV infection, whereas IgG anti-HEV antibodies represent either recent or remote exposure. The presence of HEV RNA indicates current infection, whether acute or chronic. Although several diagnostic assays for anti-HEV antibodies are available, they have undergone fairly limited testing and often provide discordant results, particularly for IgG antibodies. Thus, although the available antibody assays might be useful for case diagnosis in areas with high disease endemicity, their use for case diagnosis in areas with low endemicity and for seroprevalence studies remains problematic. Improved validation of existing anti-HEV antibody assays or development of new assays with superior performance characteristics is urgently needed. © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

Ghoshal U.C.,Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences
Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility | Year: 2011

Hydrogen breath tests using various substrates like glucose, lactulose, lactose and fructose are being used more and more to diagnose small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) and lactose or fructose malabsorption. Though quantitative culture of jejunal aspirate is considered as gold standard for the diagnosis of SIBO, hydrogen breath tests, in spite of their low sensitivity, are popular for their non-invasiveness. Glucose hydrogen breath test is more acceptable for the diagnosis of SIBO as conventionally accepted double-peak criterion on lactulose hydrogen breath test is very insensitive and recently described early-peak criterion is often false positive. Hydrogen breath test is useful to diagnose various types of sugar malabsorption. Technique and interpretation of different hydrogen breath tests are outlined in this review. © 2011 The Korean Society of Neurogastroenterology and Motility.

Ghoshal U.C.,Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences
Nature Reviews Gastroenterology and Hepatology | Year: 2014

2013 saw several advances in small bowel endoscopy: new 3D visualization software, increased battery life, side-viewing cameras and higher frame rate. Studies on prokinetics for patient preparation, safety in the elderly, rebleeding after negative capsule endoscopy and defining optimum training requirements for fellows were encouraging. Procedure time and small bowel length evaluated by double-balloon and spiral endoscopy were shown to be comparable.

Misra R.,Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences
Rheumatology (Oxford, England) | Year: 2013

There are no valid instruments to measure disease activity in Takayasu arteritis (TA). We aim to provide a valid measure to assess clinical disease activity with or without incorporating acute phase reactants. The Indian Takayasu Clinical Activity Score (ITAS) was initially derived from disease manifestations scored in the Disease Extent Index (DEI.Tak). The ITAS was validated by a group of physicians scoring both live and paper cases for inter-rater reliability (IRR), convergence with BVAS, correlation with the Physician's Global Assessment (PGA) and ESR/CRP. It was further validated at a single centre in 177 patients for its ability to discriminate between active and inactive disease state at first visit and sensitivity to change in 132 active patients measured serially at two follow-up visits. ITAS-A also included graded scores for ESR/CRP. The final ITAS2010 contains 44 items with 33 features arising from the cardiovascular system. Seven key items are weighted to score 2 and all others score 1 only. Inter-observer variability was highly satisfactory (IRR 0.97). The ITAS showed superior inter-rater agreement compared with the BVAS (IRR 0.9) and PGA (IRR 0.82). In the single-centre study, median ITAS scores at first visit were significantly higher in active disease (5.62 ± 3.14) compared with grumbling (3.36 ± 1.96) and inactive disease (1.27 ± 1.26, P < 0.0001). The therapy induced a significant decrease in the ITAS2010 but the higher ITAS-A scores remained elevated. The ITAS2010, validated in over 300 TA patients and sensitive to change, is a useful measure of clinical disease activity for patient monitoring. Higher ITAS-A scores suggest poor control of active disease by current therapy.

Dhir V.,Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences
Arthritis care & research | Year: 2012

There are sparse data on outcome of lupus nephritis from developing countries. This study looks at outcome in Asian Indians. This retrospective study included patients at a single center over 20 years. Patients were treated as per standard protocols. The primary outcome measure was chronic renal failure or death; the secondary outcome was end-stage renal disease or death. The worst-case scenario was also calculated, considering those lost to followup in the first year as events. Kaplan-Meier survival curves and the log rank test were used for survival analysis. Data are shown as the mean ± SD. We included 188 patients with lupus nephritis, with a female:male ratio of 11:1, a mean ± SD age at onset of 23.6 ± 10.5 years, and a median followup time of 6 years (interquartile range 3-9 years). Of 136 patients with a biopsy sample, the distribution was as follows: class II in 22, class III in 36, class IV in 61, class V in 16, and class VI in 1. Survival with normal renal function was 84%, 69%, and 57% at 5, 10, and 15 years, respectively; in the worst-case scenario, survival was 77%, 63%, and 51%, respectively. There was no difference in survival by histologic class; however, nonbiopsied patients had lower survival. Renal survival was 91%, 81%, and 76% at 5, 10, and 15 years, respectively; in the worst-case scenario, survival was 79%, 70%, and 66%, respectively. Risk factors for poor outcome were low C3, hematuria, hypertension, creatinine, lack of remission, and occurrence of major infection. There was a high rate of major infections of 42.3%, with tuberculosis at 11.5%. Infections caused one-half of all deaths. The outcome of lupus nephritis in Asian Indians with standard immunosuppressive regimens is reasonable, but immunosuppression is associated with a high rate of infection. Copyright © 2012 by the American College of Rheumatology.

Aggarwal R.,Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences | Jameel S.,Virology Group
Hepatology | Year: 2011

Hepatitis E refers to liver disease caused by the hepatitis E virus (HEV), a small, nonenveloped virus with a single-stranded RNA genome. The virus has four genotypes, but only one serotype. Genotypes 1 and 2 exclusively infect humans, whereas genotypes 3 and 4 also infect pigs and several other mammalian species. Though HEV does not grow well in cell culture, several aspects of its biology and pathogenesis have been worked out using animal models and cell transfection studies, and by analogy with other related viruses. HEV itself appears noncytopathic, and the liver injury during hepatitis E may be mediated by the host immune response. In areas with poor sanitation, HEV infection is common and presents as outbreaks and also as sporadic cases with acute self-limited hepatitis. The transmission is feco-oral, usually through contaminated drinking water. The disease often affects young adults and is particularly severe among pregnant women and persons with preexisting liver cirrhosis. In the developed world, the disease is being increasingly recognized. It occurs as occasional sporadic cases, most often among elderly men with coexisting illnesses. These appear to be related to zoonotic transmission. Chronic infection is known among immunosuppressed persons in these regions and may progress to liver cirrhosis. Serological tests for diagnosis of HEV exposure and recent infection, namely immunoglobulin (Ig)G and IgM anti-HEV, respectively, need further improvement in sensitivity and specificity, particularly when used in developed countries. Two recombinant protein vaccines have undergone successful human trials, but are not yet commercially available. Recent development of cell-culture methods for HEV should allow a better understanding of this enigmatic agent. (HEPATOLOGY 2011) © 2011 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

Singhi P.,Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences
Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology | Year: 2011

Central nervous system (CNS) infections are the main cause of seizures and acquired epilepsy in the developing world. Geographical variations determine the common causes in a particular region. Acute seizures are common in severe meningitis, viral encephalitis, malaria, and neurocysticercosis, and in most cases are associated with increased mortality and morbidity, including subsequent epilepsy. Neuronal excitability secondary to proinflammatory signals induced by CNS infections are an important common mechanism for the generation of seizures, in addition to various other specific mechanisms. Newer insights into the neurobiology of these infections and the associated epilepsy could help in developing neuroprotective interventions. Management issues include prompt treatment of acute seizures and the underlying CNS infection, correction of associated predisposing factors, and decisions regarding the appropriate choice and duration of antiepileptic therapy. Strategies for the prevention of epilepsy in CNS infections such as early anti-infective and anti-inflammatory therapy need scientific exploration. Prevention of CNS infections is the only definitive way forward to reduce the burden of epilepsy in developing countries. © The Author. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology © 2011 Mac Keith Press.

Aggarwal R.A.,Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences
Seminars in Liver Disease | Year: 2013

Infection with hepatitis E virus (HEV), mostly genotype 1, is endemic in several developing countries. It can be asymptomatic, be associated with acute hepatitis or fulminant hepatic failure, or present as acute-on-chronic liver disease. Pregnant women are at particular risk of serious outcomes and death. Chronic HEV infection has not been reported from these areas. Diagnosis of acute hepatitis E depends on detection of IgM anti-HEV antibodies or HEV RNA. Current assays for IgM anti-HEV are suboptimal, with high rates of interassay discordance. Though they perform reasonably well in disease-endemic areas, positive test results in low-endemicity areas require confirmation using HEV RNA testing. Detection of IgG anti-HEV antibodies indicates exposure to HEV, either recent or remote. Assays for these too have low concordance, making comparisons of seroprevalence rates using different assays difficult to interpret. There is an urgent need to develop better assays for markers of HEV infection and exposure.

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