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Tang A.L.,Victoria University of Melbourne | Walker K.Z.,Monash University | Wilcox G.,Monash University | Strauss B.J.,Monash University | And 2 more authors.
Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition | Year: 2010

Calcium loss after menopause increases the risk of osteoporosis in aging women. Soymilk is often consumed to reduce menopausal symptoms, although in its native form, it contains significantly less calcium than cow's milk. Moreover, when calcium is added as a fortificant, it may not be absorbed efficiently. This study compares calcium absorption from soymilk fortified with a proprietary phosphate of calcium versus absorption from cow's milk. Preliminary studies compared methods for labelling the calcium fortificant either before or after its addition to soymilk. It was established that fortificant labelled after it was added to soymilk had a tracer distribution pattern very similar to that shown by fortificant labelled before adding to soymilk, provided a heat treatment (90°C for 30 min) was applied. This method was therefore used for further bioavailability studies. Calcium absorption from fortified soy milk compared to cow's milk was examined using a randomised single-blind acute cross-over design study in 12 osteopenic post-menopausal women aged (mean ± SD) 56.7±5.3 years, with a body mass index of 26.5±5.6 kg/m2. Participants consumed 20 mL of test milk labelled after addition of fortificant with 185 kBq of 45Ca in 44 mg of calcium carrier, allowing the determination of the hourly fractional calcium absorption rate (α) using a single isotope radiocalcium test. The mean hourly fractional calcium absorption from fortified soymilk was found to be comparable to that of cows' milk: α = 0.65±0.19 and α =0.66±0.22, p>0.05, respectively. Source

Cheung A.L.T.F.,Victoria University of Melbourne | Wilcox G.,Victoria University of Melbourne | Wilcox G.,Monash University | Walker K.Z.,Monash University | And 4 more authors.
British Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2011

Ageing women may choose to drink soya milk to reduce menopausal symptoms. As fermentation enriches soya milk with isoflavone aglycones, its beneficial qualities may improve. To reduce osteoporotic risk, however, soya milk must be Ca enriched, and it is not known how fermentation affects Ca bioavailability. A randomised crossover pilot study was undertaken to compare the Ca absorption of fortified soya milk with that of fermented and fortified soya milk in twelve Australian osteopenic post-menopausal women. The fortified soya milk was inoculated with Lactobacillus acidophilus American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) 4962 and fermented for 24h at 37C. Ca absorption from soya milk samples was measured using a single isotope radiocalcium method. Participants had a mean age of 548 (sd 123)years, with mean BMI of 265 (sd 55)kg/m2 and subnormal to normal serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (mean 625 (sd 191)nmol/l). Participants consumed 185kBq of 45Ca in 44mg of Ca carrier. The mean fractional Ca absorption () from soya milk and fermented soya milk was 064 (sd 023) and 071 (sd 029), respectively, a difference not of statistical significance (P=0122). Although fermentation of soya milk may provide other health benefits, fermentation had little effect on acute Ca absorption. © 2010 The Authors. Source

Wills R.B.H.,Newcastle University | Harris D.R.,Sanitarium Development and Innovation | Seberry J.A.,Newcastle University
Food Australia | Year: 2012

Laboratory studies were conducted to examine the feasibility of inhibiting the ripening of bananas during long distance road transport by ventilating with ambient air as an alternative to the current practice of using refrigerated vehicles. Ventilation at 14 L/h per kg of fruit was found able to maintain ethylene at the desired concentration of 0.01 μL/L to prevent ripening during transit but the air needed to be humidified to ≥90% RH to ensure weight loss remained well below the target loss of 4%. Modelling against an actual vehicle route in Australia of about 2600 km from North Queensland to Sydney under climatic conditions prevailing over the four seasons showed that it was feasible to maintain ambient air at 90% RH with an on-board water tank. It was concluded that transport of bananas with ventilation in a non-refrigerated vehicle could be a cost effective alternative to refrigeration. Ventilation could also have application in developing regions where refrigerated transport is not routinely available or affordable. Source

Tang A.L.,Victoria University of Melbourne | Wilcox G.,Monash Medical Center | Walker K.Z.,BakerIDI Heart and Diabetes Research Institute | Shah N.P.,Victoria University of Melbourne | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Food Science | Year: 2010

The presence of phytate in calcium-fortified soymilk may interfere with mineral absorption. Certain lactic acid bacteria (LAB) produce the enzyme phytase that degrades phytates and therefore may potentially improve mineral bioavailability and absorption. This study investigates the phytase activity and phytate degradation potential of 7 strains of LAB including: Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC4962, ATCC33200, ATCC4356, ATCC4161, L. casei ASCC290, L. plantarum ASCC276, and L. fermentum VRI-003. Activity of these bacteria was examined both in screening media and in calcium-fortified soymilk supplemented with potassium phytate. Most strains produced phytase under both conditions with L. acidophilus ATCC4161 showing the highest activity. Phytase activity in fortified soymilk fermented with L. acidophilus ATCC4962 and L. acidophilus ATCC4161 increased by 85% and 91%, respectively, between 12 h and 24 h of fermentation. All strains expressed peak phytase activity at approximately pH 5. However, no phytate degradation could be observed. © 2010 Institute of Food Technologists®. Source

Donkor O.N.,Victoria University of Melbourne | Stojanovska L.,Victoria University of Melbourne | Ginn P.,Sanitarium Development and Innovation | Ashton J.,Sanitarium Development and Innovation | Vasiljevic T.,Victoria University of Melbourne
Food Chemistry | Year: 2012

Germination of seven selected commercially important grains was studied to establish its effects on the nutritional and chemical composition. The changes in the concentration of the nutrients, bioactive compounds and the inhibitory effect of extracts on α-glucosidase and α-amylase activities were investigated. These were measured through proximate analysis, inhibition assays and HPLC. Germinated sorghum and rye extracts inhibited (p < 0.05) α-glucosidase activity, whereas barley and sorghum extracts exhibited higher inhibitory activities against α-amylase. Germinated grains contained substantial amounts of total phenolics with rye having significantly higher content compared with the non-germinated grains. Radical scavenging activities of the phenolic extracts were between 13% and 73% for non-germinated and 14% and 53% for germinated. Inositol phosphate (InsP) 4, 5 and 6 were noted in all the grains, but InsP 6 was significantly lower in concentration. This study indicates the potential of germinated barley, sorghum and rye for the development of effective physiologically bioactive compounds for the reduction of the risk of diabetic agents and colon cancer. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

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