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Chen S.,University of Southern California | Chen S.,China Medical University at Taichung | Wolf S.L.,Emory University | Zhang Q.,University of Washington | And 2 more authors.
Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair | Year: 2012

Background. Efficacy of task-oriented training can be reliably trusted only when the inherent measurement variability is determined. The Actual Amount of Use Test (AAUT) and the Motor Activity Log (MAL) have been used together as measures of spontaneous arm use after an intervention; however, the minimal detectable change (MDC) of AAUT and MAL has not been addressed. Objective. To compare the MDC90 of the AAUT and the MAL in the context of a randomized controlled trial of a neurorehabilitation intervention, the Extremity Constraint-Induced Therapy Evaluation trial. Methods. A preplanned secondary analysis was conducted using pre-post test data from the control group. Estimated MDC90 were normalized to the maximum value of the scale of the AAUT and the MAL for each subscale: amount of use (AAUTa, MALa) and quality of movement (AAUTq, MALq). Results. The MDC90 of the AAUTq and the MALq were 14.4% and 15.4%, respectively. However, the MDC90 required greater change for the AAUTa (24.2%) than the MALa (16.8%). The training-induced spontaneous arm use exceeded the MDC90 for the MAL but fell below that for the AAUT immediately after the intervention and at 1-year follow-up visit. Conclusions. The greater variability and insensitivity to treatment effect for the AAUTa is likely because of the low resolution of its scoring system. As such, there is a considerable need to develop valid and reliable tools that capture purposeful arm use outside the laboratory, perhaps through leveraging new sensing technologies with objective activity monitoring. © The Author(s) 2012.

Jordan M.,University of North Dakota | Nagpal A.,Mayo Medical School | Newman W.,University of North Dakota | Thompson P.A.,Sanford Research USD | Carson P.J.,University of North Dakota
Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology | Year: 2012

Purpose. Diagnosis of WNV (WNV) relies upon serologic testing which may take several days after the onset of clinical symptoms to turn positive. Anecdotal reports suggest the presence of plasma cells or plasmacytoid lymphocytes in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) may be an early indicator of WNV infection. Methods. The CSFs of 89 patients (12 with WNV, 12 with other viral illness OVI , and 65 with nonviral illness NVI ) were compared for the presence of either plasma cells or plasmacytoid lymphocytes. Results. Plasma cells were rarely seen in any of the patients. Plasmacytoid lymphocytes were more commonly seen in WNV (58) and OVI (50) than NVI (11). The differences were significant for WNV versus NVI, but not WNV versus OVI (P < 0.001 and P = 0.58, resp.). Conclusions. A CSF pleocytosis with plasma cells or plasmacytoid lymphocytes was neither sensitive nor specific for the diagnosis of WNV infection. Copyright © 2012 Michael Jordan et al.

Four breakpoint cluster region (BCR)-ABL1 tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are currently available for the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML): imatinib, nilotinib, dasatinib, and bosutinib. Choosing the most appropriate TKI requires clinicians to consider a host of patient-, disease-, and treatmentrelated factors, not the least of which include the safety profiles of the agents. This review discusses the potential impact of treatment-, patient-, and disease-related characteristics on the emergence of adverse events during TKI therapy, with a focus on the underlying mechanisms believed to be responsible for a number of important adverse events associated with these agents and what implications they may have for treatment choice, particularly in the setting of first-line treatment. A literature search of the PubMed database was conducted to identify articles that described the molecular mechanisms of BCR-ABL1- mediated leukemic transformation, the efficacy and safety of imatinib, nilotinib, dasatinib, and bosutinib in patients with CML, the kinase-binding spectrum of each TKI, and evidence suggesting a link between the TKI-binding profile and adverse events. The pattern of adverse events associated with each agent is important when selecting treatment with a TKI. Clinical studies suggest that imatinib, nilotinib, dasatinib, and bosutinib have differing safety profiles, which are in part attributable to the specificity and selectivity of each agent. Although much basic research must be conducted to further illuminate the mechanisms responsible for TKI-related adverse events, on- and off-target effects are believed to be at least partly responsible for cardiovascular toxicity, myelosuppression, fluid retention, gastrointestinal toxicity, and dermatologic toxicity. Increased understanding of the factors that affect TKI-associated adverse events and long-term safety data will enable a more informed approach to the selection of therapy best suited to the individual needs of patients with CML. © 2013 Pharmacotherapy Publications, Inc.

Agency: NSF | Branch: Standard Grant | Program: | Phase: RSCH EXPER FOR UNDERGRAD SITES | Award Amount: 337.05K | Year: 2016

This project is funded from the Research Experiences for Undergraduates (REU) Sites program in the SBE Directorate. As such, it has both scientific and societal benefits, and it integrates research and education. The Social-Behavioral Research Training in American Indian Community-Based Projects REU will provide a 10-week hands-on research experience and training activities including weekly training seminars/journal club. Underrepresented students (women, racial and ethnic minorities, rural, first-generation college students) will be recruited utilizing recruitment methods and contacts previously established with a successful summer internship for American Indian undergraduates. The undergraduates benefiting from this program will be able to contribute to projects which are advancing knowledge of American Indian infants, children, adolescents, and communities in the social- behavioral research context. The results of these innovative studies fill a gap in the research literature, because there is little published on American Indian populations. The proposed program fits well with several aspects of the NSF mission and impacting society. For example, it increases diversity in the social science workforce, particularly among women, American Indian, rural, and first generation undergraduates. Undergraduate research training for underrepresented students has the potential to reduce educational disparities for these groups by increasing the number of underrepresented students matriculating from 4-year universities with degrees in the social-behavioral sciences, which in turn will increase the diversity in the regional and national scientific community.

This investment in building Rosebud Sioux Tribe and Oglala Sioux Tribes research infrastructure is critical, and the proposed REU expands networks and partnerships, enhancing the social capital of the trainees, mentors, and broader American Indian communities. Some of the projects the students work on involve quantitative and qualitative methods to explore the role of adolescent self-efficacy, empowerment, historical trauma, family and peer norms in decision-making in risky behaviors; Risk Models for infant death (vulnerable infant, critical developmental period, & exogenous stressor) to establish the risk profile that combines genetic, environmental, biochemical, and physiologic information; community-based participatory research, with a needs assessment of the obesity epidemic and associated factors; and other projects in the general areas related to American Indian community. The objectives are to a) increase students research skills and knowledge of the research process and b) assist students in short- and long-term goal setting to help increase their future educational and research-related career success. The long-term intended impact is to increase the diversity of the social-behavioral science workforce with graduate degrees. This REU will benefit society through its results which will inform new areas for research, interventions, and ultimately public policy. This research has great potential for transformative outcomes for population health and wellness, through informing best practices in interventions for American Indian communities. The ultimate focus of the evaluation will determine the degree to which the REU achieves its objectives and works towards the overall mission of increasing the diversity of the social-behavioral science research workforce with graduate degrees through increasing the number of underrepresented undergraduates completing hands-on, independent research internships in the social-behavioral sciences. Our program is guided by the Circle of Courage model, which emphasizes the importance of fostering a sense of belonging, mastery, independence, and generosity among the trainees.
This project is co-funded by the NSF EPSCoR program.

Agency: NSF | Branch: Standard Grant | Program: | Phase: RSCH EXPER FOR UNDERGRAD SITES | Award Amount: 352.54K | Year: 2013

A Research Experience for Undergraduates (REU) Sites award has been made to Sanford Research/USD in collaboration with Augustana College to provide research training for 10 students, for 10 weeks during the summers of 2013-2015. The Augustana College REU Site in Cell and Molecular Biology focuses on cell and molecular biology, with hypothesis-driven projects that include investigation of cell signaling events via characterization of macromolecular interactions and proteomic, genomic, and metabolomic changes across a variety of model organisms. REU students will directly contribute to the understanding of these areas of research. Sanford Research and Augustana College have 19 research mentors with exciting, hands-on projects that range from neuroscience to yeast biology. Each project allows students to learn modern molecular methods. Students will also gain valuable experience by attending career development workshops that cover professional integrity in research, the graduate school application process, careers in science, GRE-preparation, the importance of increasing diversity in research, and how to balance family and career. Students will give an oral presentation of their project at the beginning of the summer, a poster presentation at the end of the summer, and are encouraged to present at and attend national meetings. REU students will be exposed to the cutting-edge facilities and equipment that are housed amongst the various departments and cores at Sanford Research and Augustana College. Recruitment is carried out directly via faculty mentor visits to the students institutions and attendance at undergraduate conferences, along with email and social media, with an aim to reach out to students who would not usually be exposed to such an opportunity. Students are selected based upon academic record, work ethic, scientific potential, and evidence of enthusiasm for participating in cell and molecular biology research. Upon completion of the program, alumni are surveyed to measure the influence that participation in the program had on their academic performance, scientific interests, and long-term career path. The REU common assessment tool at www.bioreu.org will be used to evaluate program impacts. More information is available by visiting http://www.sanfordresearch.org/education/undergraduates/spur/, or by contacting the PI (Dr. David Pearce at David.Pearce@sanfordhealth.org) or co-PI (Dr. Seasson Vitiello at Seasson.Vitiello@augie.edu).

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