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Bigelow J.,University of California at San Francisco | Bigelow J.,Sandler Neurosciences Center | Poremba A.,University of Iowa
Animal Cognition | Year: 2016

Many human behaviors are known to benefit from audiovisual integration, including language and communication, recognizing individuals, social decision making, and memory. Exceptionally little is known about the contributions of audiovisual integration to behavior in other primates. The current experiment investigated whether short-term memory in nonhuman primates is facilitated by the audiovisual presentation format. Three macaque monkeys that had previously learned an auditory delayed matching-to-sample (DMS) task were trained to perform a similar visual task, after which they were tested with a concurrent audiovisual DMS task with equal proportions of auditory, visual, and audiovisual trials. Parallel to outcomes in human studies, accuracy was higher and response times were faster on audiovisual trials than either unisensory trial type. Unexpectedly, two subjects exhibited superior unimodal performance on auditory trials, a finding that contrasts with previous studies, but likely reflects their training history. Our results provide the first demonstration of a bimodal memory advantage in nonhuman primates, lending further validation to their use as a model for understanding audiovisual integration and memory processing in humans. © 2016 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg

Swartling F.J.,Uppsala University | Cancer M.,Uppsala University | Frantz A.,Sandler Neurosciences Center | Frantz A.,University of California at San Francisco | And 3 more authors.
Cell and Tissue Research | Year: 2014

Neurogenesis, the generation of new neurons, is deregulated in neural stem cell (NSC)- and progenitor-derived murine models of malignant medulloblastoma and glioma, the most common brain tumors of children and adults, respectively. Molecular characterization of human malignant brain tumors, and in particular brain tumor stem cells (BTSCs), has identified neurodevelopmental transcription factors, microRNAs, and epigenetic factors known to inhibit neuronal and glial differentiation. We are starting to understand how these factors are regulated by the major oncogenic drivers in malignant brain tumors. In this review, we will focus on the molecular switches that block normal neuronal differentiation and induce brain tumor formation. Genetic or pharmacological manipulation of these switches in BTSCs has been shown to restore the ability of tumor cells to differentiate. We will discuss potential brain tumor therapies that will promote differentiation in order to reduce treatment resistance, suppress tumor growth, and prevent recurrence in patients. © 2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg

Kim A.S.,Sandler Neurosciences Center
CONTINUUM Lifelong Learning in Neurology | Year: 2014

PURPOSE OF REVIEW:: The potential for cardioembolic stroke has important implications for clinical management. This review describes the diagnostic workup and management options for this key stroke subtype. RECENT FINDINGS:: The suspicion for a cardioembolic source for stroke is raised with a large vessel occlusion or when strokes occur in multiple vascular territories. Diagnostic workup includes ECG, echocardiography, and cardiac monitoring. Atrial fibrillation is the most common cause of cardioembolic stroke and typically justifies anticoagulation therapy. New data on other mechanisms of cardioembolic stroke -such as congestive heart failure, prosthetic valves, and aortic arch disease -as well as the availability of novel oral anticoagulants have implications for optimizing stroke prevention. © 2014, American Academy.

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