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Dang B.,IBM | Bakir M.S.,United Microelectronics | Sekar D.C.,SanDisk | King Jr. C.R.,United Microelectronics | Meindl J.D.,United Microelectronics
IEEE Transactions on Advanced Packaging | Year: 2010

Power dissipation in microprocessors is projected to reach a level that may necessitate chip-level liquid cooling in the near future. An on-chip microchannel heat sink can reduce the total thermal interfaces between an integrated circuit chip and the convective cooling medium and therefore yield smaller junction-to-ambient thermal resistance. This paper reports the fabrication, assembly, and testing of a silicon chip with complementary metaloxidesemiconductor process compatible microchannel heat sink and thermofluidic chip input/output (I/O) interconnects fabricated using wafer-level batch processing. Ultra-small form factor, low-cost fabrication and assembly (system integration) are achieved for 2D and 3D chips, as the microchannel heat sink is fabricated directly on back-side of each chip. Through-wafer electrical and fluidic vias are used to interconnect the monolithically integrated microchannel heat sink to thermofluidic chip I/O interconnections. The feasibility of the novel fluidic I/O interconnect is demonstrated through preliminary thermal resistance measurements. © 2006 IEEE.

Patel K.,SanDisk | Patel K.,University of California at Berkeley | Wallow T.,Globalfoundries | Levinson H.J.,Globalfoundries | Spanos C.J.,University of California at Berkeley
Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering | Year: 2010

In this paper, we conduct a comprehensive comparative study of next-generation lithography (NGL) processes in terms of their line width roughness (LWR) performance. We investigate mainstream lithography options such as double patterning lithography (DPL), self-aligned double patterning (SADP), and extreme ultra-violet (EUV), as well as alternatives such as directed self-assembly (DSA) and nano-imprint lithography (NIL). Given the distinctly different processing steps, LWR arises from different sources for these patterning methods, and a unified, universally applicable set of metrics must be chosen for useful comparisons. For each NGL, we evaluate the LWR performance in terms of three descriptors, namely, the variation in RMS amplitude (σ), correlation length (see manuscript) and the roughness exponent (α). The correlation length (which indicates the distance along the edge beyond which any two linewidth measurements can be considered independent) for NGL processes is found to range from 8 to 24 nm. It has been observed that LWR decreases when transferred from resist into the final substrate and all NGL technology options produce < 5% final LWR. We also compare our results with 2008 ITRS roadmap. Additionally, for the first time, spatial frequency transfer characteristics for DSA and SADP are being reported. Based on our study, the roughness exponent (which corresponds to local smoothness) is found to range from ~0.75-0.98; it is close to being ideal (α = 1) for DSA. Lastly using EUV as an example, we show the importance of process optimization as these technologies mature. © 2010 SPIE.

We compiled a list to show you what further purchases will make your flagship acquisition shine at its maximum potential. Among the nifty capabilities of Galaxy S7 and S7 Edge sit wireless charging and fast charging, and you can use both of them at the same time. By using the Fast Charge Wireless Charging Stand, you can place your device in a vertical position and watch it refilling its battery, wirelessly. The charger is Qi-certified by the WPC and is perfect for desks or bedside tables. You can purchase it from Samsung for $70. Those who find themselves often on the road can look into the TYLT VU Wireless Charging Car Mount. The gadget lets you put S7's wireless charging abilities at work while you're driving. Simply stick the mount to the car's dashboard, put your phone in the dock, and let it charge. Two devices can be charged simultaneously via the mount's USB port. One area where Samsung's flagships excel is battery life, yet busy entrepreneurs might find that they need more juice than the average user. The RAVPower 16,750mAh battery pack comes to the rescue. The dimensions of the device give it a sleek look and the ability to keep your S7 charged after many hours of continuous use. Just like in the case of the wireless car mount, two devices can be charged at once thanks to the two USB ports. You also get a built-in flashlight for those dark nights in the woods. Amazon makes an offer few can refuse by selling the gadget for $30. The latest Samsung devices play nice with the virtual reality headset manufactured by the company, Gear VR. If you visit the Oculus Store you get access to an exclusive library of Gear VR titles that are up for grabs. In spite of looking a bit lumpy in images, the headset weighs little, increasing comfort for the wearer. Amazon asks $100 for the Gear VR. Albeit there are newer and fancier headphones on the market, we recommend the Audio-Technica ATH-M70x as one of the best deals. The headset features great quality in both music quality and visual sleekness, and its price tag dropped consistently since it first rolled out. Should you be a music aficionado, check out the $222 headphones on Amazon. Another nice touch that Samsung brought back into its latest S7 series is the memory expansion capability. You can get a solid 200 Gb of storage for only $130 on Amazon by buying the SanDisk Ultra 200 GB Micro SD. Should you be interested in a smaller upgrade, try out the SanDisk Ultra 32GB MicroSDHC, which sells for $13. There a numerous cases that can improve the look and durability of your Galaxy S7 and Galaxy S7 Edge, and we already covered them in our story. We get it, not everyone loves peel-and-stick screen protectors. Luckily, there is an alternative in form of a wet install screen protector. It is much easier to install them, and air bubbles are no longer an issue. The IQ Shield LIQuidSkin kit costs no more than $8 on Amazon.

Brooks Herring, former corporate executive officer at Showa Shell Sekiyu (the parent company of Solar Frontier), is now GM of acquisitions and divestments at Shell. Holger Giebel is the new CEO of racking firm Mounting Systems. Giebel founded and sold Timber Towers, a developer of wooden wind turbine towers. Solazyme once aspired to produce algae-based biofuel. The company has settled on being a supplier of algae-based ingredients and is looking for a replacement for CEO Jonathan Wolfson, who is now assuming the role of chairman of the board. The firm is changing its name to TerraVia as it focuses on food, nutrition and specialty ingredients. Louis-Philippe Lalonde is now chief marketing officer at Ygrene Energy Fund, a provider of property-assessed clean energy (PACE) financing for residential and commercial sites. Previously, Lalonde served as GM at Akeena Solar and VP at Enecsys. Michael Kanellos is now head of corporate communications at OSIsoft. As Jeff St. John reported, OSIsoft develops data historian software for North American utilities, and uses geographic information system (GIS) software tools from big utility vendors such as Esri. Most recently, Kanellos was editor-in-chief at SanDisk. He also served as GTM's editor-in-chief a few years back. Richard Huntley has joined EEme, a "disaggregation-as-a-service" platform, as a sales and business development executive. Huntley has held leadership positions with Oracle, Retroficiency and Aclara. Forum Equity Partners named Nikolas Novograd as principal for energy and renewables. Most recently, Novograd was VP of origination at Renewable Energy Trust Capital. Before RETC, he was a director in Wells Fargo’s Renewable Energy and Environmental Finance Group. Forum is an investment firm with a focus on renewable energy and infrastructure with $1 billion in assets under management. Thomas Golden has left his technology development manager role at Duke Energy in order to become manager of energy market design at the New York Independent System Operator (NYISO). Cary Hayes, formerly VP of sales and marketing at Pristine Sun, has joined Clean Focus as VP of sales and business development. Clean Focus is a commercial and utility-scale solar developer, financier and independent power producer. Tabuchi Electric just opened a 40,000+ sq. ft. headquarters for its solar-plus-storage technology in San Jose, Calif. The company claims that it will triple its headcount in the next three months. Andrew Nichols joined APsystems as senior VP of sales for the U.S. Nichols most recently served as VP of worldwide sales for SolarBridge through its acquisition by SunPower. James Bickford, formerly of Sunverge and Tigo, is now the Powerwall program manager at Tesla Motors. Nate Beckett, the former VP of R&D at Cogenra Solar, is now a director of engineering at SunPower, following Cogenra's acquisition. Ellen Struck was promoted to director of residential channels at SunPower. 9to5Mac covers Tesla's rampant poaching of Apple's elite engineers, including a duo of chip designers, feeding the rumor that Tesla intends to design its own silicon. According to a number of sources close to the company, Sungevity laid off 250 people earlier this month. A spokesperson for the solar sales company responded, "Our recent headcount reduction consisted mostly of field sales personnel and related support functions. This was a strategic business decision to reduce field headcount in our least profitable geographies and to focus on growing our most profitable geographies and channels," adding, "We recently closed significant growth equity and project financing that provided us with further stability and the opportunity to grow our business. We continue to hire staff and fill positions that allow us to build out our platform business model." The company is "focused on profitable growth this year." The solar sales company closed a $600 million financing round in December of last year and signed a deal with Viridian in September. We'll keep digging for more news on this. As reported in Forbes, SunEdison's long-time CFO Brian Wuebbels is departing that role to join YieldCos TerraForm Power and TerraForm Global as CEO.

Bertolino A.,National Research Council Italy | Blake M.B.,University of Miami | Mehra P.,SanDisk | Mei H.,Peking University | Xie T.,University of Illinois at Urbana - Champaign
IEEE Software | Year: 2015

Software engineering for Internet computing involves the architecting, development, deployment, management, and quality assurance of software supporting Internet-based systems. It also addresses global-development issues such as communication complexity, distributed control, governance policies, and cultural differences. This issue presents a selection of exciting and representative research on this topic. The Web extra at http://youtu.be/UA7rLAwFbwY is an audio recording in which author IEEE Software Multimedia Editor Davide Falessi interviews Antonia Bertolino, Hong Mei, and Tao Xie, guest editors of the magazine's January/February 2015 issue on Software Engineering for Internet Computing: Internetware and Beyond. © 1984-2012 IEEE.

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