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Kim H.Y.,Gyeongnam National University of Science and Technology | Kim J.Y.,Busan Regional Korea Food and Drug Administration | Cho E.J.,Pusan National University | Choi J.M.,Pusan National University | And 9 more authors.
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition | Year: 2015

In this study, we confirmed biological compounds from methanol (MeOH) extract of processed Polygoni Multiflori Radix (PPMR), and the radical scavenging effect and oxidative stress protective activity of MeOH extract of PPMR were investigated under in vitro conditions using LLC-PK1 renal epithelial cells. In HPLC analysis, MeOH extract of PPMR contained four species of biological compounds named 2,3,5,4'-tetrahydroxystilbene 2-O-β-D-glucoside, emodin, chrysophanol, and rhein. 2,3,5,4'-Tetrahydroxystilbene 2-O-β-D-glucoside was detected as the main compound in PPMR as 115.02 mg/kg. MeOH extract of PPMR showed 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS), and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities in a concentration- dependent manner. In particular, upon 50 μg/mL of PPMR extract treatment, DPPH, ABTS, and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities were approximately 48.4%, 57.9%, and 81.2%, respectively. LLC-PK1 cell viability declined in response to oxidative stress induced by pyrogallol, sodium nitroprusside (SNP), and morpholinosydnonimine (SIN-1) generators of NO, O2-, and ONOO-, respectively. However, MeOH extract of PPMR significantly and dose-dependently inhibited oxidative-stressed LLC-PK1 cell cytotoxicity. In fact, upon 50 μg/mL of PPMR extract treatment, LLC-PK1 cell viabilities were approximately 82.1%, 89.1%, and 77.6% compared to stress levels induced by pyrogallol, SNP, and SIN-1, respectively. © 2015, Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition. All rights reserved.


Han E.-H.,Gyeongnam National University of Science and Technology | Goo Y.-M.,Sancheong Oriental Medicinal Herb Institute | Lee M.-K.,Gyeongnam National University of Science and Technology | Lee S.-W.,Gyeongnam National University of Science and Technology
Journal of Plant Biotechnology | Year: 2015

We found that a long period of in vitro culture is a critical factor on the low transformation rate for a specific potato genotype, Solanum tuberosum L. var. Atlantic when phosphinothricin (PPT) was added to select putative transformants in a solid media. The fresh explants of the newly produced plants from a micro-tuber was able to increase the transformation rate significantly while the old explants prepared from a plant maintained for longer than 6 months in vitro by sub-culturing every 3 ∼ 4 weeks resulted in a very low transformation frequency. However, Jowon cultivar was not so much influenced by the period of in vitro culture with high transformation rate (higher than 10.0%). Further research need to be explored for the reason why a particular potato genotype, Atlantic is more vulnerable than the Jowon cultivar during the regeneration stage resulting in the low transformation frequency. © Korean Society for Plant Biotechnology.


Cho K.M.,Gyeongnam National University of Science and Technology | Ha T.J.,South Korean National Institute of Crop Science | Lee Y.B.,Gyeongsang National University | Seo W.D.,South Korean National Institute of Crop Science | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Functional Foods | Year: 2013

This research was the first to investigate nutritional components, including soluble phenolics (isoflavones and anthocyanins), protein, oil, and fatty acid as well as antioxidant activities in different coloured seed coat soybeans (yellow, black, brown, and green) for two crop years. The soluble phenolics differed significantly with cultivars, crop years, and seed coat colours, while protein, oil, and fatty acid exhibited only slight variations. Especially, malonylgenistin and cyanidin-3-O-glucoside compositions had the most remarkable variations. Green soybeans had the highest average isoflavone content (3079.42μg/g), followed by yellow (2393.41μg/g), and black soybeans (2373.97μg/g), with brown soybeans showing the lowest value (1821.82μg/g). Anthocyanins showed only in black soybeans, with the average contents of the primary anthocyanins, cyanidin-3-O-glucoside, delphinidine-3-O-glucoside, and petunidin-3-O-glucoside, quantified at 11.046, 1.971, and 0.557. mg/g, respectively. Additionally, Nogchae of green soybean and Geomjeongkong 2 of black soybean may be recommended as potential cultivars owing to the highest average isoflavone (4411.10μg/g) and anthocyanin (21.537. mg/g) contents. The scavenging activities of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radicals also differed remarkably, depending upon isoflavone and anthocyanin contents, with black soybeans exhibiting the highest antioxidant effects. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Kang Y.M.,Cornell University | Park D.J.,Gyeongsang National University | Min J.Y.,Sancheong Oriental Medicinal Herb Institute | Song H.J.,Gyeongsang National University | And 5 more authors.
In Vitro Cellular and Developmental Biology - Plant | Year: 2011

Scopolia parviflora adventitious roots were metabolically engineered by co-expression of the two gene putrescine N-methyl transferase (PMT) and hyoscyamine-6β-hydroxylase (H6H) cDNAs with the aid of Agrobacterium rhizogenes. The transformed roots developed into morphologically distinct S. parviflora PMT1 (SpPMT1), S. parviflora PMT1 (SpPMT2), and S. parviflora H6H (SpH6H) transgenic hairy root lines. Consequent to the introduction of these key enzyme genes, the production of the alkaloids hyoscyamine and scopolamine was enhanced. Among the transgenic hairy root lines, SpPMT2 line possessed the highest growth index. The treatment of transgenic hairy roots with growth regulators further enhanced the production of scopolamine. Thus, the results suggest that PMT1, PMT2, and H6H genes may not only be involved in the metabolic regulation of alkaloid production but also that these genes may play a role in the root development. © 2011 The Society for In Vitro Biology.


Goo Y.-M.,Sancheong Oriental Medicinal Herb Institute | Han E.-H.,Gyeongnam National University of Science and Technology | Jeong J.C.,Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology | Kwak S.-S.,Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology | And 4 more authors.
Comptes Rendus - Biologies | Year: 2015

In a previous study, we have evidenced that the overexpression of the IbOr gene isolated from sweet potato conferred a tolerance activity against salinity and methyl viologen (MV) treatment in transgenic sweet potato calli along with an enhanced carotenoid content. In this study, to further examine the function of the IbOr gene in heterologous organism, we transformed the IbOr gene into potato under the direction of SWPA2 promoter, a strong inducible promoter upon treatment with various environmental stresses. Consistently with ourprevious study of sweet potato calli, the level of total carotenoid was elevated up to 2.7-fold (38.1 μgg 1DW) compared to the non-transgenic control, Atlantic cultivar. However, the composition of carotenoid was not influenced by the overexpression of the IbOr gene since only pre-existing carotenoids in the non-transgenic control including violaxanthin, lutien and β-carotene were elevated at a similar level of total carotenoids. In general, the transcript levels for most of carotenogenesis-related genes were elevated in transgenic tuber, whereas they remained at similar levels in transgenic leaf tissues compared to those of non-transgenic controls. The increased levels of carotenoid content in the leaf or tuber tissue of transgenic lines were correlated with the enhanced tolerance activity against salt-or MV-mediated oxidative stresses and DPPH radical-scavenging activity. Our preliminary results suggest that further investigation is required for the development of a crop tolerant to salinity and other environmental stresses through the overexpression of the IbOr gene. © 2014 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.


Son H.,Gyeongsang National University | Jung S.,Gyeongsang National University | Kim J.Y.,Sancheong Oriental Medicinal Herb Institute | Goo Y.M.,Sancheong Oriental Medicinal Herb Institute | And 7 more authors.
Brain Research | Year: 2015

Glutamine synthetase (GS), an astrocytic protein in the brain, mediates the process by which glutamate (Glu) is transformed into glutamine (Gln) during Glu and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) de novo synthesis. There are many types of neural complications related with those neurotransmitters in type 1 diabetes (T1D) patients, but there is little information about the change GS. Therefore, we examined changes in GS activity and expression, as well as the amount of Glu, Gln, and GABA in the brain of a T1D animal model. Using primary culture we found that glucose fluctuation caused glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and GS changes but constant high glucose level didn't. In T1D mouse, GS expression increased in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampus (HI), but decreased GS activity was only observed in the HI whereas GFAP expression decreased in both regions. Gln increased in both regions, but Glu and GABA were only increased in the HI of T1D animals where GS activity decreased with higher reactive oxygen/nitrogen species. Collectively, low GS activity may be closely related with high levels of Glu and GABA in the HI of T1D brain, and this would result in abnormal neurotransmissions. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Goo Y.-M.,Sancheong Oriental Medicinal Herb Institute | Kim T.-W.,Gyeongnam National University of Science and Technology | Lee M.-K.,Gyeongnam National University of Science and Technology | Lee S.-W.,Gyeongnam National University of Science and Technology
Comptes Rendus - Biologies | Year: 2013

Potato is the fourth staple food in the world, following rice, wheat, and maize, whereas tubers contain high quality of starch, relatively high amounts of vitamin C and many other important substances. It also contains relatively good quality of protein (about 3 to 6% of the dried weight) and patatin, and 11S globulin is a major storage protein with high level of lysine. However, tuber protein contains relatively low amounts of sulphur-containing amino acids, which may result in low nutritional value. Recently, we cloned a gene encoding PrLeg polypeptide, a seed storage protein from perilla, which contains relatively higher levels of sulphur-containing amino acids. We transformed PrLeg cDNA into a potato plant to over-express under the direction of the tuber-specific promoter, patatin. Most of the transgenic lines identified through PCR and RT-PCR analyses were able to accumulate high amount of prLeg transcript in their tuber tissue, while very little or no transcript that were detected in their leaf tissues. The level of methionine content was elevated up to three-fold compared to non-transgenic parental line, without any significant changes in other amino acids, suggesting that further research is required to get a deeper insight into their nutritional value. © 2013 Académie des sciences.


Kim E.T.,Gyeongsang National University | Moon Y.H.,Gyeongsang National University | Moon Y.H.,Gyeongnam National University of Science and Technology | Min K.-S.,Gyeongsang National University | And 7 more authors.
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences | Year: 2013

This study evaluated the in vitro effect of medicinal plant extracts on ruminal methanogenesis, four different groups of methanogens and ruminal fermentation characteristics. A fistulated Holstein cow was used as a donor of rumen fluid. Licorice and mugwort extracts (Glycyrrhiza uralensis and Artemisia capillaris, 0.5% and 1% of total substrate DM, respectively), previously used as folk remedies, were added to an in vitro fermentation incubated with buffered-rumen fluid. Total gas production in Glycyrrhiza uralensis extract treatment was not significantly different between treatments (p<0.05) while total gas production in the Artemisia capillaris extract treatment was lower than that of the control. Artemisia capillaris extract and Glycyrrhiza uralensis extract reduced CH4 emission by 14% (p<0.05) and 8% (p<0.05), respectively. Ciliate-associated methanogens population decreased by 18% in the medicinal plant extracts treatments. Medicinal plant extracts also affected the order Methanobacteriales community. Methanobacteriales diversity decreased by 35% in the Glycyrrhiza uralensis extract treatment and 30% in the Artemisia capillaris extract treatment. The order Methanomicrobiales population decreased by 50% in the 0.5% of Glycyrrhiza uralensis extract treatment. These findings demonstrate that medicinal plant extracts have the potential to inhibit in vitro ruminal methanogenesis. © 2013 by Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences.


Seo W.D.,South Korean National Institute of Crop Science | Kim J.Y.,Sancheong Oriental Medicinal Herb Institute | Ryu H.W.,Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology | Kim J.H.,South Korean National Institute of Animal Science | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Functional Foods | Year: 2013

The current research was the first to investigate coumarins and their cholinesterase inhibitory activities from Angelica dahurica roots. The ethanol extract of this species (100μg/ml) possessed inhibitory effects against human acetylcholinesterase (hAChE) and butylcholinesterase (BChE) with IC50 values of 26.40 and 14.71μg/ml, respectively. To evaluate the compounds responsible for these activities, the ethanol extract was chromatographed, which yielded ten coumarins, including isoimperatorin (1), imperatorin (2), senbyakangelicol (3), oxypeucedanin (4), byakangelicol (5), t-OMe-oxypeucedanin hydrate (6), t-OMe-byakangelicin (7), angelol H (8), byakangelicin (9), and oxypeucedanin hydrate (10). Among them, coumarin 5, 7, and 9 showed potent inhibition with IC50s of 46.3, 39.0, and 55.4μM (hAChE) as well as 45.2, 25.6, and 42.4μM (BChE), respectively. Moreover, their inhibition modes against two cholinesterases exhibited noncompetitive. The individual coumarin contents were remarkable differences, especially, oxypeucedanin (4) was the most predominant compound (8710.9μg/g), representing approximately 55.0% of the total content. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Goo Y.-M.,Sancheong Oriental Medicinal Herb Institute | Kim T.-W.,Korean University of Science and Technology | Lee M.-K.,Korean University of Science and Technology | Lee S.-W.,Korean University of Science and Technology
Journal of Plant Biotechnology | Year: 2013

Potato is the 4th important crop along with rice, wheat and maize. It contains high quality of starch with relatively high content of vitamin C and protein. However, there is a nutritionally limiting factor due to a low level of sulphur-containing essential amino acid including methionine and cysteine. Recently, recombinant DNA technology and metabolic engineering with genes involved in the bio-synthetic pathway have been applied to enhance the level of these essential amino acids. In this report, it has been discussed about the current status and bottleneck on the development of transgenic potato containing high level of sulphur-containing essential amino acids. © Korean Society for Plant Biotechnology.

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