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Sanaa, Yemen

Introduction: Current laser treatments for acquired melanocytic nevi are unpredictable in terms of efficiency and cause considerable scarring. This study aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of the long-pulsed 532-nm Nd:YAG laser for removing small acquired melanocytic nevi in Yemeni patients. Methods and materials: From January 2004 to 2012, 350 patients (M:F; 41:309) with Fitzpatrick skin type IV and 1 or more small acquired melanocytic nevi were included in the study. The patients were exposed to the following laser parameters: wavelength, 532 nm; pulse duration, 20 ms; spot size, 2 mm; fluence, 30-50 j/cm2. Photographs were taken on 0, 1, 4, and 12 weeks posttreatment. The follow-up period ranged from 12 weeks to 5 years. Results: All nevi were completely removed with good to excellent cosmetic results in only one session. Side effects were seen in 30%of patients; the majority was temporary and, very mild in intensity, such as postinflammatory hyperpigmentation. Atrophic and hypertrophic scars were observed in 9.4%and 0.6%of cases, respectively. Recurrence was seen within 2-6 months after laser treatment in 25 patients. Conclusion: The long-pulsed, 532-nm Nd:YAG laser is safe and effective in the removal of small acquired melanocytic nevi in Yemeni patients. © 2014 Informa UK, Ltd. Source

Hodgson J.A.,Imperial College London | Mulligan C.J.,University of Florida | Al-Meeri A.,Sanaa University | Raaum R.L.,City University of New York
PLoS Genetics | Year: 2014

Genetic studies have identified substantial non-African admixture in the Horn of Africa (HOA). In the most recent genomic studies, this non-African ancestry has been attributed to admixture with Middle Eastern populations during the last few thousand years. However, mitochondrial and Y chromosome data are suggestive of earlier episodes of admixture. To investigate this further, we generated new genome-wide SNP data for a Yemeni population sample and merged these new data with published genome-wide genetic data from the HOA and a broad selection of surrounding populations. We used multidimensional scaling and ADMIXTURE methods in an exploratory data analysis to develop hypotheses on admixture and population structure in HOA populations. These analyses suggested that there might be distinct, differentiated African and non-African ancestries in the HOA. After partitioning the SNP data into African and non-African origin chromosome segments, we found support for a distinct African (Ethiopic) ancestry and a distinct non-African (Ethio-Somali) ancestry in HOA populations. The African Ethiopic ancestry is tightly restricted to HOA populations and likely represents an autochthonous HOA population. The non-African ancestry in the HOA, which is primarily attributed to a novel Ethio-Somali inferred ancestry component, is significantly differentiated from all neighboring non-African ancestries in North Africa, the Levant, and Arabia. The Ethio-Somali ancestry is found in all admixed HOA ethnic groups, shows little inter-individual variance within these ethnic groups, is estimated to have diverged from all other non-African ancestries by at least 23 ka, and does not carry the unique Arabian lactase persistence allele that arose about 4 ka. Taking into account published mitochondrial, Y chromosome, paleoclimate, and archaeological data, we find that the time of the Ethio-Somali back-to-Africa migration is most likely pre-agricultural. © 2014 Hodgson et al. Source

Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is an innovative molecular technique that has been validated for point-of-care testing to diagnose malaria. Molecular detection and tracking of anti-malarial drug resistance is mainly based on highly sophisticated, costly and time-consuming techniques. With the validation of resistance-associated gene mutations in malaria parasites, there is a need to develop rapid, easy-to-use molecular tests for anti-malarial drug resistance genotyping. LAMP could be further developed as a point-of-care test to rapidly detect anti-malarial drug resistance-associated molecular markers, thereby help detecting and monitoring drug resistance in surveillance studies. © 2014 Abdul-Ghani; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Bin Mohanna M.A.,Sanaa University
Saudi Medical Journal | Year: 2015

An overlap in the distribution of the 2 diseases (leishmaniasis and malaria) was reported in endemic areas, and it can cause significant delay in the diagnosis of leishmaniasis. Here, an 8-year-old Yemeni boy who was initially diagnosed as malaria and schistosomiasis, and later on as leishmaniasis is reported. He presented with prolonged fever, hepatosplenomegaly, and diarrhea. His blood film was positive for Plasmodium falciparum malaria, and his stool was positive for Schistosoma mansoni. Although a full therapeutic course of antimalarial and schistosoma was administered, his fever, weight loss, and increased hepatosplenomegaly continued. Bone marrow aspiration was carried out revealing Leishman-Donovan bodies (amastigote form). He was successfully treated with a full course of sodium stibogluconate. This case stresses the importance of alertness among the treating physicians to this disease occurring in a patient from an endemic area, presenting with prolonged fever, and hepatosplenomegaly. © 2015, Saudi Arabian Armed Forces Hospital. All rights reserved. Source

In the present study, the two endemic Soqotraen plants Boswellia elongata and Jatropha unicostata were investigated for their anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive and antioxidant potential. To assess the anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities, two concentrations of each extract (200 and 400. mg/kg, p.o.) were tested in carrageenan-induced rat paw edema, cotton pellet granuloma in rats, acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing and hot-plate test model in mice. Moreover, the antioxidant activity was determined in vitro, using scavenging activity of DPPH radical and β-carotene-linoleic acid assays. Both plants produced significant (P< 0.05-0.01) anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects; however the results suggest that B. elongata possesses the highest activities. B. elongata and J. unicostata at (400. mg/kg) reduced the paw edema considerably (82% and 53%) and the weight of cotton pellet granuloma (51% and 32%), respectively. Furthermore, they diminished the abdominal constriction induced by acetic acid with a 67% and 41% inhibition respectively, and prolonged significantly the reaction time of animal with relatively extended duration of stimulation. In addition, both plants showed considerable antioxidant activity in both assays. These results clearly confirmed the traditional anti-inflammatory indication of B. elongata and suggest that B. elongata could be a potential source for anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive and antioxidant agents. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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