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Panulirus gracilis is a high valuable lobster species with considerable captures along the tropical Pacific coast. In this study, I present some biological and fishery parameters described after a sample of 843 lobsters, landed in Playa Lagarto from November 2007 to October 2008. From landing records, a total of 74.9% of lobsters were below the minimum legal catch size (80mm CL). Carapace lengths were in the range of 42.8 and 143.6mm for males and 115 and 35.8mm for females. The size structure showed a wide overlapping of population segments, and a trend to increase with depth, where lung diving and "hooka" diving operations take place. Sex ratio was 1.36 M:H. The relationship between weight and LC revealed that females are heavier than males of the same size, and this difference was significant (p<0.05). The von Bertalanffy growth parameters for males and females respectively (K=0.45-0.38, LC∞=166.9-121.7) showed accelerated growth compared to other species. Males observed a higher growth rate than females. Furthermore, natural mortality (M), total mortality (Z) and fishing mortality (F) was higher in males (0.49-2.34-1.92) than in females (0.47-1.82-1.42). Recruitment was continuous for both sexes during the year, with an elevated intensity of 18.5% in July. Under the current fishing regime the population could be at risk of collapse, as indicated by the high exploitation rate (E) 0.80.


Rico J.I.A.,University of Malaga | Pitarch J.V.L.,San Vicente Martir Catholic University of Valencia | Rocha E.,University of Navarra
Drugs | Year: 2010

Thrombosis occurs at sites of injury to the vessel wall, by inflammatory processes leading to activation of platelets, platelet adherence to the vessel wall and the formation of a fibrin network. A thrombus that goes on to occlude a blood vessel is known as a thromboembolism. Venous thromboembolism begins with deep vein thrombosis (DVT), which forms in the deep veins of the leg (calf) or pelvis. In some cases, the DVT becomes detached from the vein and is transported to the right-hand side of the heart, and from there to the pulmonary arteries, giving rise to a pulmonary embolism (PE). Certain factors predispose patients toward the development of venous thromboembolism (VTE), including surgery, trauma, hospitalization, immobilization, cancer, long-haul travel, increased age, obesity, major medicalillness and previous VTE; in addition, there may also be a genetic component to VTE. VTE is responsible for a substantial number of deaths per annum in Europe. Anticoagulants are the mainstay of both VTE treatmentand VTE prevention, and many professional organizations have published guidelines on the appropriate use of anticoagulant therapies for VTE. Treatment of VTE aims to prevent morbidity and mortality associated with the disease, and any long-term complications such as VTE recurrence or postthrombotic syndrome. Generally, guidelines recommend the use of low molecular weight heparins (LMWH), unfractionated heparin (UFH) or fondaparinux for the pharmacological prevention and treatment of VTE, with the duration of therapy varying according to the baseline characteristics and risk profile of the individual. Despite evidence showing that the use of anticoagulation prevents VTE, the availability of several convenient, effective anticoagulant therapies and the existence of clear guideline recommendations, thromboprophylaxis is underused, particularly in patients not undergoing surgery. Greater adherence to guideline-recommended therapies, such as LMWH, which can be administered on an outpatient basis, should reduce the mortality associated with this preventable disease. © 2010 Adis Data Information BV.


De Mora J.F.,San Vicente Martir Catholic University of Valencia | Juan A.D.,Microvascular Laboratory
Rejuvenation Research | Year: 2013

One of the main features of human aging is the loss of adult stem cell homeostasis. Organs that are very dependent on adult stem cells show increased susceptibility to aging, particularly organs that present a vascular stem cell niche. Reduced regenerative capacity in tissues correlates with reduced stem cell function, which parallels a loss of microvascular density (rarefraction) and plasticity. Moreover, the age-related loss of microvascular plasticity and rarefaction has significance beyond metabolic support for tissues because stem cell niches are regulated co-ordinately with the vascular cells. In addition, microvascular rarefaction is related to increased inflammatory signals that may negatively regulate the stem cell population. Thus, the processes of microvascular rarefaction, adult stem cell dysfunction, and inflammation underlie the cycle of physiological decline that we call aging. Observations from new mouse models and humans are discussed here to support the vascular aging theory. We develop a novel theory to explain the complexity of aging in mammals and perhaps in other organisms. The connection between vascular endothelial tissue and organismal aging provides a potential evolutionary conserved mechanism that is an ideal target for the development of therapies to prevent or delay age-related processes in humans. © 2013, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. 2013.


The lobster P. gracilis is important as a fishery resource and also contributes to food security of fishers in coastal communities in the North Pacific of Costa Rica. Due to the importance of updating knowledge related to the reproductive pattern of this species, we analyzed 357 specimens of female lobsters caught by the fishing methods of "hookah" and lung diving, from November 2007 to October 2008 in Playa Lagarto. Furthermore, we examined the size composition by depth; monthly pattern of reproductive activity (RAI) associated with the relative increase in sea surface temperature, and also the mean size at maturity using Generalized Linear Models. Four physiological states of sexual maturity showed that females with no signs of mating or sexual maturity have a minimum mean size of 62.3mm of cephalothorax length (CL). There are characteristics of functional maturity from very small sizes ranging from 30 to 50mm CL, being the smallest berried female reported for this specie of 35.8mm CL and the highest percentage of mature females between 70 and 80mm CL. Percentages of RAI remained above 50% during the year except October and January. In addition, it observed an increase in the RAI that started from April and continued until August associated with a relative increase in temperature on March, although the correlation was not significant (r2=0.49, p>0.05). It is possible that the low mean size at maturity (70.2mm LC) for P. gracilis in this region is related to the fishing activity. It recommends the establishment of a ban in the region of at least five months (April-August) in order to protect the reproductive seasonality of the species and to promote a recruitment increase in the fishing areas.


Wert K.J.,Columbia University | Sancho-Pelluz J.,Columbia University | Sancho-Pelluz J.,San Vicente Martir Catholic University of Valencia | Tsang S.H.,Columbia University
Human Molecular Genetics | Year: 2014

Deficiencies in rod-specific cyclic guanosinemonophosphate (cGMP)phosphodiesterase-6 (PDE6) are the third most common cause of autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa (RP). Previously, viral gene therapy approaches on pre-clinical models with mutations in PDE6 have demonstrated that the photoreceptor cell survivalandvisual functioncanberescuedwhenthegenetherapy virus is delivered into the subretinalspace before the onset of disease. However, no studies have currently been published that analyze rescue effects after disease onset, a time when human RP patients are diagnosed by a clinician and would receive the treatment. We utilized the AAV2/8(Y733F)-Rho-Pde6α gene therapy virus and injected it into a pre-clinical model of RP with a mutation within the alpha subunit of PDE6: Pde6αD670G. These mice were previously shown to have long-term photoreceptor cell rescue when this gene therapy virus was delivered before the onset of disease. Now, we have determined that subretinal transduction of this rod-specific transgene at post-natal day (P) 21, when approximately half of the photoreceptor cells have undergone degeneration, is more efficient in rescuing cone than rod photoreceptor function long term. Therefore, AAV2/8(Y733F)-Rho-Pde6α is an effective gene therapy treatment that can be utilized in the clinical setting, in human patients who have lost portions of their peripheral visual field and are in the mid-stage of disease when they first present to an eye-care professional. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

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