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Cochabamba, Bolivia

Maldonado E.M.,Lund University | Maldonado E.M.,San Simon University | Svensson D.,Lund University | Oredsson S.M.,Lund University | Sterner O.,Lund University
Phytochemistry Letters | Year: 2014

A phytochemical study of the flowers of Kaunia lasiophthalma G. (Asteraceae) yielded a novel triterpene (1) together with several known sesquiterpenoids. The structure of the new compound was elucidated by analysis of the spectroscopic data. The biosynthetic origin of 1 is proposed to be a dimerization of an oxidized derivative (3) of the germacrane sesquiterpene costunolide (2), also present in the flowers. The anticancer activity of 1 in the five breast cancer cell lines HCC1937, JIMT-1, L56Br-C1, MCF-7 and SK-BR-3 was compared with the cytotoxicity in the normal-like breast epithelial cell line MCF-10A. 1 exhibited high cytotoxicity in all investigated cancer cell lines with IC50 values ranging from 0.67 to 7.0 μM, although it is lacking selectivity as the MCF-10A cells were almost as sensitive. © 2014 Phytochemical Society of Europe.


Bustamante R.,San Simon University | Medieu A.,Agro ParisTech
Environmental Justice | Year: 2012

In the periphery of the city of Cochabamba, many communities are struggling to retain a diversity of options for their livelihoods and are resisting the illegal urbanization of agricultural land as well as the pollution generated by the dumping of most of the city's waste in the area. The struggle is aimed not only at maintaining the agrarian characteristics of the area and reversing environmental harm but also at drafting municipal plans of an alternative vision of the city that goes beyond an urban metropolis built only of cement and bricks. An important element for the realization of that vision is access to sufficient and clean water needed to carry out domestic and productive activities in better conditions. © 2012, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.


Fernandez C.,Lund University | Rojas C.C.,Lund University | Rojas C.C.,San Simon University | Nilsson L.,Lund University
International Journal of Biological Macromolecules | Year: 2011

In this paper we investigate the size, structure and scaling relationships in glycogen isolated from five different animal sources. For this purpose a versatile fractionation technique, asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation (AsFlFFF), coupled to multi-angle light scattering, is utilized. For determination of the average degree of branching 1H NMR is utilized. The results give a detailed insight into the physico-chemical properties of glycogen over the whole size distribution. The results show that glycogen is a hyper branched macromolecule with wide size distributions, and in some samples two major populations are clearly observed which most likely correspond to β- and α-particles of glycogen. The results also illustrates that glycogen is a polysaccharide showing rather diverse conformational properties, over the size distribution, depending on its origin and the extraction procedure. The ratio between root-mean-square radius and hydrodynamic radius varies depending of both sample origin the molar mass of the macromolecules, reflecting differences in conformation and scaling within the size distribution. Thus, a priori assumptions regarding the r rms/r h are difficult to make and r rms/r h based on average properties give an incomplete description of the properties. Furthermore, the results display the strength of the apparent density (as obtained from AsFlFFF-MALS-RI) as a characterization parameter for scaling in disperse macromolecules. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.


Lopez R.R.,San Simon University | Vincent L.,Wageningen University | Rap E.,International Water Management Institute
International Journal of Water Resources Development | Year: 2015

The expansion of the Totora Khocha dam-based irrigation system in the Pucara watershed is a case of planned re-engineering of a closing watershed. This article shows how, when irrigation systems expand in space and across boundaries to capture new water, they also involve new claims by existing and emergent users. This results in complex processes of design, contestation and negotiated redesign, where irrigation projects are being produced by the negotiated construction of water networks. Therefore, the design process in a closing watershed is better approached as a dynamic and negotiated process of engineering than as a prescriptive mode of network building. © 2014, © 2014 Taylor & Francis.


Lazarte C.E.,Lund University | Lazarte C.E.,San Simon University | Carlsson N.-G.,Chalmers University of Technology | Almgren A.,Chalmers University of Technology | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Food Composition and Analysis | Year: 2015

The content of zinc, iron, calcium and phytate in the 16 most consumed foods from 5 villages in a tropical rural area of Bolivia was analyzed. The food items were selected according to a completed food frequency questionnaire. Minerals were analyzed by atomic absorption and phytates by HPIC chromatography. The molar ratios of phytate:mineral are presented as indication of the mineral bioavailability. Within the analyzed food, quinoa is a potential source of minerals: zinc 3.65, iron 5.40 and calcium 176. mg/100. g; however, it also has the highest content of phytate 2060. mg/100. g. Cereals and legumes showed high concentration of phytates (from 142 to 2070. mg/100. g), roots and tubers have lower concentrations (from 77 to 427. mg/100. g). In general, both phytate contents and molar ratios Phy:Zn (phytate:zinc), Phy:Fe (phytate:iron) and Phy:Ca (phytate:calcium) in most of the analyzed foods were at levels likely to inhibit the absorption of these minerals. Significant positive associations (. p<. 0.01) were found between the level of phytate and minerals in food, for zinc (. r=. 0.714), iron (. r=. 0.650) and calcium (. r=. 0.415). The results compared to data from USA or from Bolivia showed some discrepancies, confirming the need for more reliable data for dietary evaluations and interventions. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.

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