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Chinchilla A.L.,National University Teaching Hospital | De Gil M.P.,SAN security
International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics | Year: 2014

Honduras is one of the 17 priority countries included in the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) Initiative for the Prevention of Unsafe Abortion and its Consequences. The priority category enables the country to request emergency funding to acquire services or commodities that could contribute toward achieving the objectives laid out in its plan of action. These objectives include improving postabortion care by increasing the use of manual vacuum aspiration (MVA) as an outpatient procedure with minimal human and material resources. Since the Ministry of Health lacked funding, use of the emergency fund was approved for the purchase and distribution of MVA kits nationwide to ensure continuity and the hope of increasing MVA use. Eleven hospitals participating in this initiative provided data for analysis of the outcome. These data show no increase in MVA use; however, as discussed in the article, further investigation provided valuable information on the reasons behind these results. © 2014 Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.


Ferrucci F.,University of Calabria | Ferrucci F.,Open University Milton Keynes | Hirn B.,SAN security
Geological Society Special Publication | Year: 2016

Developments in spaceborne Earth Observation (EO) sensor technology over the last decade, combined with well-tested physical models and multispectral data-processing techniques developed from the early 1980s, have paved the way to the global monitoring of volcanoes by sensors of metric, decametric, kilometric and multi-kilometric spatial resolution. Such variable geometries provide for revisit intervals ranging from about monthly - at high-spatial resolution in Low-Earth Orbit - to less than 5 min - at low-spatial resolution, from geostationary platforms. There are currently about 20 spacecrafts available for carrying out 24/7 quantitative observations of volcanic unrest, at all resolutions and as close as possible to real-time. We show some successful examples of synergetic EO on volcanoes on three continents from 10 different payloads, automatically processed with three, end-to-end unsupervised procedures, on eight major eruptions and a lava lake between 2006 and 2014. © 2016 The Author(s).


Heckman M.R.,SAN security | Schell R.R.,Aesec Corporation | Reed E.E.,Aesec Corporation
Proceedings - IEEE Military Communications Conference MILCOM | Year: 2015

Contemporary cloud environments are built on low-assurance components, so they cannot provide a high level of assurance about the isolation and protection of information. A multi-level secure cloud environment thus typically consists of multiple, isolated clouds, each of which handles data of only one security level. Not only are such environments duplicative and costly, data sharing must be implemented by massive, wasteful copying of data from low-level domains to high-level domains. The requirements for certifiable, scalable, multi-level cloud security are threefold: 1) To have trusted, high-assurance components available for use in creating a multi-level secure cloud environment; 2) To design a cloud architecture that efficiently uses the high-assurance components in a scalable way, and 3) To compose the secure components within the scalable architecture while still verifiably maintaining the system security properties. This paper introduces a trusted, high-assurance file server and architecture that satisfies all three requirements. The file server is built on mature technology that was previously certified and deployed across domains from TS/SCI to Unclassified and that supports high-performance, low-to-high and high-to-low file sharing with verifiable security. © 2015 IEEE.


Apvrille A.,Fortinet | Strazzere T.,SAN security
Journal in Computer Virology | Year: 2012

Spotting malicious samples in the wild has always been difficult, and Android malware is no exception. Actually, the fact Android applications are (usually) not directly accessible from market places hardens the task even more. For instance, Google enforces its own communication protocol to browse and download applications from its market. Thus, an efficient market crawler must reverse and implement this protocol, issue appropriate search requests and take necessary steps so as not to be banned. From end-users' side, having difficulties spotting malicious mobile applications results in most Android malware remaining unnoticed up to 3 months before a security researcher finally stumbles on it. To reduce this window of opportunity, this paper presents a heuristics engine that statically pre-processes and prioritizes samples. The engine uses 39 different flags of different nature such as Java API calls, presence of embedded executables, code size, URLs... Each flag is assigned a different weight, based on statistics we computed from the techniques mobile malware authors most commonly use in their code. The engine outputs a risk score which highlights samples which are the most likely to be malicious. The engine has been tested over a set of clean applications and malicious ones. The results show a strong difference in the average risk score for both sets and in its distribution, proving its use to spot malware. © 2012 Springer-Verlag France.


Murad M.H.,Mayo Medical School | Murad M.H.,Knowledge and Encounter Research Unit | Coto-Yglesias F.,SAN security | Varkey P.,Mayo Medical School | And 2 more authors.
Medical Education | Year: 2010

Objectives Given the continuous advances in the biomedical sciences, health care professionals need to develop the skills necessary for life-long learning. Self-directed learning (SDL) is suggested as the methodology of choice in this context. The purpose of this systematic review is to determine the effectiveness of SDL in improving learning outcomes in health professionals. Methods We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, ERIC and PsycINFO through to August 2009. Eligible studies were comparative and evaluated the effect of SDL interventions on learning outcomes in the domains of knowledge, skills and attitudes. Two reviewers working independently selected studies and extracted data. Standardised mean difference (SMD) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were estimated from each study and pooled using random-effects meta-analysis. Results The final analysis included 59 studies that enrolled 8011 learners. Twenty-five studies (42%) were randomised. The overall methodological quality of the studies was moderate. Compared with traditional teaching methods, SDL was associated with a moderate increase in the knowledge domain (SMD 0.45, 95% CI 0.23-0.67), a trivial and non-statistically significant increase in the skills domain (SMD 0.05, 95% CI 0.05 to 0.22), and a non-significant increase in the attitudes domain (SMD 0.39, 95% CI -0.03 to 0.81). Heterogeneity was significant in all analyses. When learners were involved in choosing learning resources, SDL was more effective. Advanced learners seemed to benefit more from SDL. Conclusions Moderate quality evidence suggests that SDL in health professions education is associated with moderate improvement in the knowledge domain compared with traditional teaching methods and may be as effective in the skills and attitudes domains. © Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2010.


Colantonio A.,Bay31 GmbH | Di Pietro R.,Third University of Rome | Ocello A.,SAN security | Verde N.V.,Third University of Rome
IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering | Year: 2012

This paper offers a new role engineering approach to Role-Based Access Control (RBAC), referred to as visual role mining. The key idea is to graphically represent user-permission assignments to enable quick analysis and elicitation of meaningful roles. First, we formally define the problem by introducing a metric for the quality of the visualization. Then, we prove that finding the best representation according to the defined metric is a NP-hard problem. In turn, we propose two algorithms: ADVISER and EXTRACT. The former is a heuristic used to best represent the user-permission assignments of a given set of roles. The latter is a fast probabilistic algorithm that, when used in conjunction with ADVISER, allows for a visual elicitation of roles even in absence of predefined roles. Besides being rooted in sound theory, our proposal is supported by extensive simulations run over real data. Results confirm the quality of the proposal and demonstrate its viability in supporting role engineering decisions. © 1989-2012 IEEE.


Lee J.,Tufts University | Houser R.F.,Tufts University | Must A.,Tufts University | De Fulladolsa P.P.,SAN security | Bermudez O.I.,Tufts University
Economics and Human Biology | Year: 2010

The aim of this study was to identify nutritional factors and households characteristics associated with child stunting, maternal overweight and the familial coexistence of both types of malnutrition. In Guatemala, 2000, with nationally representative data, we selected 2261 households with at least one child aged 12-60 months and his/her mother. Nutritional status was assessed in children (e.g., stunting as height-for-age Z-score < -2) and mothers (e.g., overweight as body mass index ≤ 25 kg/m2) and identified the presence of both, child stunting and maternal overweight in the same household (SCOM). With logistic regression models we assessed the association of the malnutrition indicators with individual and household socio-economic and health characteristics. SCOM was identified in 18% of households. Socio-economic status (SES) of SCOM households was significantly lower than SES of households with non-stunted children. SCOM households, compared tothose with normal-stature children and normal weight mothers, were more likely to have mothers of short stature (adjusted odds ratio-OR ± 95% CI = 3.1 (2.1-4.7)), higher parity (1.2 (1.1-1.3)), currently working (1.7 (1.1-2.6), and self-identified as indigenous (2.0 (1.3-3.1)). Factors associated with stunting in children such as poverty, maternal short stature and indigenousness, were predictors of SCOM. These findings support the notion that SCOM is an extension of the malnutrition spectrum in the most disadvantaged population groups in countries that are in the middle of their nutrition transitions such as Guatemala. At the same time it revealed that these populations are already in the stage of chronic, nutrition related diseases associated with less physical activity and more access to highly processed foods of low cost, high dietary energy and low nutrient density in important population groups. The challenge for the decision makers and service deliverers is to guide SCOM households to deal equally with both extremes of the malnutrition continuum. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Monge-Rojas R.,Costa Rican Institute for Research | Smith-Castro V.,University of Costa Rica | Colon-Ramos U.,Costa Rican Institute for Research | Garita-Arce C.,SAN security | And 2 more authors.
Appetite | Year: 2010

This study designed and validated a questionnaire aimed at examining parental feeding styles to encourage healthy eating habits among Costa Rican adolescents. Adolescents (n=133; mean age 15.4 years), and their parents, participated in the study. The parents completed a parental feeding style questionnaire, and the adolescents completed 3-day food records. Confirmatory factor analyses suggest four distinct parental feeding styles, (a) verbal encouragement of healthy eating behaviors; (b) use of verbal sanctions to indirectly control the intake of healthy food; (c) direct control of access to and intake of food; and (d) use of food to regulate emotions and behavior. There were no correlations between dietary intake and the verbal encouragement of healthy eating behaviors, but there were significant negative correlations between (1) " the use of verbal sanctions to indirectly control the intake of healthy food" , and the consumption of fruit and vegetable, of calcium, iron, vitamin B6 and folic acid intake, and (2) between the " direct control of access to and intake of food" and fast food consumption and total carbohydrates intake. The use of food to regulate emotions and behavior was positively correlated with high energy-dense food consumption. Stratification of the data shows significant differences by gender in the correlations between parental feeding style and dietary intake. Understanding parental feeding styles in a Latin American context is a first step in helping researchers develops culturally-appropriate parenting intervention/prevention strategies to encourage healthy eating behaviors during adolescence. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.


Wadlow T.,SAN security
Queue | Year: 2014

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