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Lee J.,Tufts University | Houser R.F.,Tufts University | Must A.,Tufts University | De Fulladolsa P.P.,SAN security | Bermudez O.I.,Tufts University
Economics and Human Biology | Year: 2010

The aim of this study was to identify nutritional factors and households characteristics associated with child stunting, maternal overweight and the familial coexistence of both types of malnutrition. In Guatemala, 2000, with nationally representative data, we selected 2261 households with at least one child aged 12-60 months and his/her mother. Nutritional status was assessed in children (e.g., stunting as height-for-age Z-score < -2) and mothers (e.g., overweight as body mass index ≤ 25 kg/m2) and identified the presence of both, child stunting and maternal overweight in the same household (SCOM). With logistic regression models we assessed the association of the malnutrition indicators with individual and household socio-economic and health characteristics. SCOM was identified in 18% of households. Socio-economic status (SES) of SCOM households was significantly lower than SES of households with non-stunted children. SCOM households, compared tothose with normal-stature children and normal weight mothers, were more likely to have mothers of short stature (adjusted odds ratio-OR ± 95% CI = 3.1 (2.1-4.7)), higher parity (1.2 (1.1-1.3)), currently working (1.7 (1.1-2.6), and self-identified as indigenous (2.0 (1.3-3.1)). Factors associated with stunting in children such as poverty, maternal short stature and indigenousness, were predictors of SCOM. These findings support the notion that SCOM is an extension of the malnutrition spectrum in the most disadvantaged population groups in countries that are in the middle of their nutrition transitions such as Guatemala. At the same time it revealed that these populations are already in the stage of chronic, nutrition related diseases associated with less physical activity and more access to highly processed foods of low cost, high dietary energy and low nutrient density in important population groups. The challenge for the decision makers and service deliverers is to guide SCOM households to deal equally with both extremes of the malnutrition continuum. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source


Colantonio A.,Bay31 GmbH | Di Pietro R.,Third University of Rome | Ocello A.,SAN security | Verde N.V.,Third University of Rome
IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering | Year: 2012

This paper offers a new role engineering approach to Role-Based Access Control (RBAC), referred to as visual role mining. The key idea is to graphically represent user-permission assignments to enable quick analysis and elicitation of meaningful roles. First, we formally define the problem by introducing a metric for the quality of the visualization. Then, we prove that finding the best representation according to the defined metric is a NP-hard problem. In turn, we propose two algorithms: ADVISER and EXTRACT. The former is a heuristic used to best represent the user-permission assignments of a given set of roles. The latter is a fast probabilistic algorithm that, when used in conjunction with ADVISER, allows for a visual elicitation of roles even in absence of predefined roles. Besides being rooted in sound theory, our proposal is supported by extensive simulations run over real data. Results confirm the quality of the proposal and demonstrate its viability in supporting role engineering decisions. © 1989-2012 IEEE. Source


Rios-Yuil J.M.,SAN security | Rios-Yuil J.M.,Latina University of Panama | Rios-Yuil J.M.,The National Research System SNI of the SENACYT of Panama
Current Fungal Infection Reports | Year: 2016

Pityriasis versicolor (PV) is caused by the fungus Malassezia, especially by Malassezia globosa. The predisposing factors for PV are heat, humidity, hyperhidrosis, oral contraceptives, stress, application of oily preparations, and treatment with corticosteroids. PV is found mainly on the seborrheic areas of the trunk, shoulders, upper aspects of the arms, and neck, but it may spread to the face, scalp, submammary areas, axillae, groin, skin folds, and buttocks. It is characterized by hyperpigmented, hypopigmented, or erythematous (versicolor), round-to-oval, finely scaling, thin plaques. Other less frequent clinical variants are papular, atrophic, imbricata, and pityriasis rubra pilaris-like presentations. The diagnosis of PV is usually made clinically with the aid of Wood’s light or dermoscopy. Direct microscopic examination, culture, biopsy, and molecular studies are among the laboratory diagnostic methods. Topical therapy is the treatment of choice for most patients. Systemic imidazole therapy is usually reserved for widespread or resistant cases. © 2016 Springer Science+Business Media New York Source


Apvrille A.,Fortinet | Strazzere T.,SAN security
Journal in Computer Virology | Year: 2012

Spotting malicious samples in the wild has always been difficult, and Android malware is no exception. Actually, the fact Android applications are (usually) not directly accessible from market places hardens the task even more. For instance, Google enforces its own communication protocol to browse and download applications from its market. Thus, an efficient market crawler must reverse and implement this protocol, issue appropriate search requests and take necessary steps so as not to be banned. From end-users' side, having difficulties spotting malicious mobile applications results in most Android malware remaining unnoticed up to 3 months before a security researcher finally stumbles on it. To reduce this window of opportunity, this paper presents a heuristics engine that statically pre-processes and prioritizes samples. The engine uses 39 different flags of different nature such as Java API calls, presence of embedded executables, code size, URLs... Each flag is assigned a different weight, based on statistics we computed from the techniques mobile malware authors most commonly use in their code. The engine outputs a risk score which highlights samples which are the most likely to be malicious. The engine has been tested over a set of clean applications and malicious ones. The results show a strong difference in the average risk score for both sets and in its distribution, proving its use to spot malware. © 2012 Springer-Verlag France. Source


Murad M.H.,Mayo Medical School | Murad M.H.,Knowledge and Encounter Research Unit | Coto-Yglesias F.,SAN security | Varkey P.,Mayo Medical School | And 2 more authors.
Medical Education | Year: 2010

Objectives Given the continuous advances in the biomedical sciences, health care professionals need to develop the skills necessary for life-long learning. Self-directed learning (SDL) is suggested as the methodology of choice in this context. The purpose of this systematic review is to determine the effectiveness of SDL in improving learning outcomes in health professionals. Methods We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, ERIC and PsycINFO through to August 2009. Eligible studies were comparative and evaluated the effect of SDL interventions on learning outcomes in the domains of knowledge, skills and attitudes. Two reviewers working independently selected studies and extracted data. Standardised mean difference (SMD) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were estimated from each study and pooled using random-effects meta-analysis. Results The final analysis included 59 studies that enrolled 8011 learners. Twenty-five studies (42%) were randomised. The overall methodological quality of the studies was moderate. Compared with traditional teaching methods, SDL was associated with a moderate increase in the knowledge domain (SMD 0.45, 95% CI 0.23-0.67), a trivial and non-statistically significant increase in the skills domain (SMD 0.05, 95% CI 0.05 to 0.22), and a non-significant increase in the attitudes domain (SMD 0.39, 95% CI -0.03 to 0.81). Heterogeneity was significant in all analyses. When learners were involved in choosing learning resources, SDL was more effective. Advanced learners seemed to benefit more from SDL. Conclusions Moderate quality evidence suggests that SDL in health professions education is associated with moderate improvement in the knowledge domain compared with traditional teaching methods and may be as effective in the skills and attitudes domains. © Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2010. Source

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