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Bujedo B.M.,San Sebastian University
Pain Practice | Year: 2014

Opioids have been used for spinal analgesia for more than a century, and their injection epidurally and intrathecally has a key role in the control of postoperative pain. Since the discovery of the endogenous opioid system, 3 decades ago, their use has become more generalized in obstetric analgesia, the management of chronic pain, and acute postoperative pain. To use opioids effectively for this type of analgesia, it is important to understand the pharmacokinetics and clinical pharmacology of these drugs, specifically those that produce analgesia by an intrinsic spinal mechanism. Evidence from animal and human experiments indicates that hydrophilic opioids (such as hydromorphone and morphine) bind more strongly to specific receptors within the dorsal horn of the spinal cord than lipophilic opioids (such as alfentanil, fentanyl, and sufentanil). This can be understood by considering the spinal cord selectivity and bioavailability of these opioids. This difference is attributable to differences in the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of the 2 groups. It is more difficult for lipophilic opioids to reach and remain at sufficiently high concentrations at the site of action due to their sequestration in epidural fat and rapid plasma clearance from both epidural and intrathecal spaces, resulting in analgesia with a limited spread and duration, as well as the appearance of early supraspinal side effects. In contrast, morphine has very different properties, including greater spinal bioavailability and therefore administered neuraxially, it is suitable choice for the treatment of acute postoperative pain. However, when using morphine, a greater incidence of adverse effects can be expected, and it requires careful patient selection. © 2013 World Institute of Pain. Source


Gonzalez H.,Laboratorio Of Neuroinmunologia | Elgueta D.,Laboratorio Of Neuroinmunologia | Elgueta D.,Andres Bello University | Montoya A.,Laboratorio Of Neuroinmunologia | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Neuroimmunology | Year: 2014

Neuroinflammation constitutes a fundamental process involved in the progression of several neurodegenerative disorders, such as Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and multiple sclerosis. Microglial cells play a central role in neuroinflammation, promoting neuroprotective or neurotoxic microenvironments, thus controlling neuronal fate. Acquisition of different microglial functions is regulated by intercellular interactions with neurons, astrocytes, the blood-brain barrier, and T-cells infiltrating the central nervous system. In this study, an overview of the regulation of microglial function mediated by different intercellular communications is summarised and discussed. Afterward, we focus in T-cell-mediated regulation of neuroinflammation involved in neurodegenerative disorders. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. Source


The purpose of this paper is to analyze the current epistemological positivism, logical positivism, quantitative and qualitative research related to the concept of science as a system and how are you confused currents specific methods of particular sciences with “quantitative research” and discusses the false tradeoff between the type of research mentioned above. © 2014, Universidad del Norte. All rights reserved. Source


Cantero R.,San Sebastian University | Salgado G.,Santa Elena Hospital
Techniques in Coloproctology | Year: 2014

The authors report that TEM with a single-incision laparoscopic surgery (SILS) port can be facilitated by the use of a colonoscope instead of a conventional laparoscopic camera. The colonoscope can be inserted through one of the SILS channels and has the added benefit of flexibility, insufflation, irrigation, suction, and an operative port. © 2012 Springer-Verlag Italia. Source


Mugabure Bujedo B.,San Sebastian University
Pain Research and Treatment | Year: 2012

Opioids are considered a "gold standard" in clinical practice for the treatment of postoperative pain. The spinal administration of an opioid drug does not guarantee selective action and segmental analgesia in the spine. Evidence from experimental studies in animals indicates that bioavailability in the spinal cord biophase is negatively correlated with liposolubility, and is higher for hydrophilic opioids, such as morphine, than lipophilic opioids, such as fentanyl, sufentanil and alfentanil. Epidural morphine sulphate has proven analgesic efficacy and superiority over systemically administered morphine for improving postoperative pain. However, pain relief after a single epidural injection of morphine could last less than 24 hours. Techniques used to administered and prolong opioid epidural analgesia, can be costly and inconvenient. Moreover, complications can arise from indwelling epidural catheterization, particularly in patients receiving anticoagulants. Clinical trials have shown that epidural morphine in the form of extended-release liposome injections (EREM) gives good analgesia for a period of 48 hours, with no need for epidural catheterisation. Intrathecal morphine produces intense analgesia for up to 24 hours with a single shot, and clinical recommendation is to choose the minimum effective dose and do not exceed 300 g to prevent the delay respiratory depression. © 2012 Borja Mugabure Bujedo. Source

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