San Raffaele Research Institute

San Raffaele Cimena, Italy

San Raffaele Research Institute

San Raffaele Cimena, Italy
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Giorgi C.,University of Ferrara | Giorgi C.,Vita-Salute San Raffaele University | Giorgi C.,Harvard University | Giorgi C.,Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center | And 25 more authors.
Science | Year: 2010

The promyelocytic leukemia (PML) tumor suppressor is a pleiotropic modulator of apoptosis. However, the molecular basis for such a diverse proapoptotic role is currently unknown. We show that extranuclear Pml was specifically enriched at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and at the mitochondria-associated membranes, signaling domains involved in ER-to-mitochondria calcium ion (Ca2+) transport and in induction of apoptosis. We found Pml in complexes of large molecular size with the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R), protein kinase Akt, and protein phosphatase 2a (PP2a). Pml was essential for Akt- and PP2a-dependent modulation of IP3R phosphorylation and in turn for IP3R-mediated Ca2+ release from ER. Our findings provide a mechanistic explanation for the pleiotropic role of Pml in apoptosis and identify a pharmacological target for the modulation of Ca2+ signals.


PubMed | Karolinska Institutet, University of Bristol, Oxford Genetics, University of Maryland Baltimore County and 76 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Nature genetics | Year: 2016

The genetic architecture of human reproductive behavior-age at first birth (AFB) and number of children ever born (NEB)-has a strong relationship with fitness, human development, infertility and risk of neuropsychiatric disorders. However, very few genetic loci have been identified, and the underlying mechanisms of AFB and NEB are poorly understood. We report a large genome-wide association study of both sexes including 251,151 individuals for AFB and 343,072 individuals for NEB. We identified 12 independent loci that are significantly associated with AFB and/or NEB in a SNP-based genome-wide association study and 4 additional loci associated in a gene-based effort. These loci harbor genes that are likely to have a role, either directly or by affecting non-local gene expression, in human reproduction and infertility, thereby increasing understanding of these complex traits.


PubMed | University of Turku, Key Laboratory of Metabolism and Molecular Medicine, Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, St George's, University of London and 43 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America | Year: 2016

Excessive alcohol consumption is a major public health problem worldwide. Although drinking habits are known to be inherited, few genes have been identified that are robustly linked to alcohol drinking. We conducted a genome-wide association metaanalysis and replication study among >105,000 individuals of European ancestry and identified -Klotho (KLB) as a locus associated with alcohol consumption (rs11940694; P = 9.2 10


PubMed | London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, University of Western States, McGill University and 16 more.
Type: | Journal: Nature communications | Year: 2015

Normal thyroid function is essential for health, but its genetic architecture remains poorly understood. Here, for the heritable thyroid traits thyrotropin (TSH) and free thyroxine (FT4), we analyse whole-genome sequence data from the UK10K project (N=2,287). Using additional whole-genome sequence and deeply imputed data sets, we report meta-analysis results for common variants (MAF1%) associated with TSH and FT4 (N=16,335). For TSH, we identify a novel variant in SYN2 (MAF=23.5%, P=6.15 10(-9)) and a new independent variant in PDE8B (MAF=10.4%, P=5.94 10(-14)). For FT4, we report a low-frequency variant near B4GALT6/SLC25A52 (MAF=3.2%, P=1.27 10(-9)) tagging a rare TTR variant (MAF=0.4%, P=2.14 10(-11)). All common variants explain 20% of the variance in TSH and FT4. Analysis of rare variants (MAF<1%) using sequence kernel association testing reveals a novel association with FT4 in NRG1. Our results demonstrate that increased coverage in whole-genome sequence association studies identifies novel variants associated with thyroid function.


PubMed | University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Yale University, San Raffaele Research Institute, Michigan State University and Biomedical University of Rome
Type: | Journal: Molecular cancer therapeutics | Year: 2016

Ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynecologic cancer. Claudin-3 and-4, the receptors for Clostridium Perfringens Enterotoxin (CPE), are overexpressed in over 70% of these tumors. Here we synthesized and characterized poly(lactic-co-glycolic-acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles (NP) modified with the carboxi-terminal binding domain of CPE (c-CPE-NP) for the delivery of suicide gene therapy to chemotherapy-resistant ovarian cancer cells. As a therapeutic payload we generated a plasmid encoding for the Diphteria Toxin subunit-A (DT-A) under the transcriptional control of the p16 promoter, a gene highly differentially expressed in ovarian cancer cells. Flow cytometry and immunofluorescence demonstrated that c-CPE-NPs encapsulating the CMV GFP plasmid (CMV GFP c-CPE-NP) were significantly more efficient than control NP modified with a scrambled peptide (CMV GFP scr-NP) in transfecting primary chemotherapy-resistant ovarian tumor cell lines in vitro (p=0.03). Importantly, c-CPE-NPs encapsulating the p16 DT-A vector (p16 DT-A c-CPE-NP) were significantly more effective than control p16 DT-A scr-NP in inducing ovarian cancer cell death in vitro (% cytotoxicity: mean STDV = 32.9 0.15 and 7.45 7.93, respectively, p=0.03). In vivo bio-distribution studies demonstrated efficient transfection of tumor cells within 12 hours after intraperitoneal (IP) injection of CMV GFP c-CPE-NP in mice harboring chemotherapy-resistant ovarian cancer xenografts. Finally, multiple IP injections of p16 DT-A c-CPE-NP resulted in a significant inhibition of tumor growth compared to control NP in chemotherapy-resistant tumor-bearing mice (p=0.041). p16 DT-A c-CPE-NP may represent a novel dual-targeting therapeutic approach for the selective delivery of gene therapy to chemotherapy-resistant ovarian cancer cells.

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