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San Pablo de la Moraleja, Spain

Estruch R.,Institute Salud Carlos III | Estruch R.,A+ Network | Estruch R.,University of Barcelona | Ros E.,Institute Salud Carlos III | And 35 more authors.
New England Journal of Medicine | Year: 2013

BACKGROUND: Observational cohort studies and a secondary prevention trial have shown an inverse association between adherence to the Mediterranean diet and cardiovascular risk. We conducted a randomized trial of this diet pattern for the primary prevention of cardiovascular events. METHODS: In a multicenter trial in Spain, we randomly assigned participants who were at high cardiovascular risk, but with no cardiovascular disease at enrollment, to one of three diets: a Mediterranean diet supplemented with extra-virgin olive oil, a Mediterranean diet supplemented with mixed nuts, or a control diet (advice to reduce dietary fat). Participants received quarterly individual and group educational sessions and, depending on group assignment, free provision of extra-virgin olive oil, mixed nuts, or small nonfood gifts. The primary end point was the rate of major cardiovascular events (myocardial infarction, stroke, or death from cardiovascular causes). On the basis of the results of an interim analysis, the trial was stopped after a median follow-up of 4.8 years. RESULTS: A total of 7447 persons were enrolled (age range, 55 to 80 years); 57% were women. The two Mediterranean-diet groups had good adherence to the intervention, according to self-reported intake and biomarker analyses. A primary end-point event occurred in 288 participants. The multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios were 0.70 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.54 to 0.92) and 0.72 (95% CI, 0.54 to 0.96) for the group assigned to a Mediterranean diet with extra-virgin olive oil (96 events) and the group assigned to a Mediterranean diet with nuts (83 events), respectively, versus the control group (109 events). No diet-related adverse effects were reported. CONCLUSIONS: Among persons at high cardiovascular risk, a Mediterranean diet supplemented with extra-virgin olive oil or nuts reduced the incidence of major cardiovascular events. (Funded by the Spanish government's Instituto de Salud Carlos III and others; Controlled-Trials.com number, ISRCTN35739639.) Copyright © 2013 Massachusetts Medical Society.

Diaz E.,University of Bergen | Diaz E.,Minority | Gimeno-Feliu L.-A.,University Institute of Health Sciences | Gimeno-Feliu L.-A.,San Pablo Health Center | And 7 more authors.
Scandinavian Journal of Primary Health Care | Year: 2014

To compare the likelihood of being a frequent attender (FA) to general practice among native Norwegians and immigrants, and to study socioeconomic and morbidity factors associated with being a FA for natives and immigrants. Design, setting and subjects. Linked register data for all inhabitants in Norway with at least one visit to the general practitioner (GP) in 2008 (2 967 933 persons). Immigrants were grouped according to their country of origin into low- (LIC), middle- (MIC), and high-income countries (HIC). FAs were defined as patients whose attendance rate ranked in the top 10% (cut-off point > 7 visits). Main outcome measures. FAs were compared with other GP users by means of multivariate binary logistic analyses adjusting for socioeconomic and morbidity factors. Results. Among GP users during the daytime, immigrants had a higher likelihood of being a FA compared with natives (OR (95% CI): 1.13 (1.09-1.17) and 1.15 (1.12-1.18) for HIC, 1.84 (1.78-1.89) and 1.66 (1.63-1.70) for MIC, and 1.77 (1.67-1.89) and 1.65 (1.57-1.74) for LIC for men and women respectively). Pregnancy, middle income earned in Norway, and having cardiologic and psychiatric problems were the main factors associated with being a FA. Among immigrants, labour immigrants and the elderly used GPs less often, while refugees were overrepresented among FAs. Psychiatric, gastroenterological, endocrine, and non-specific drug morbidity were relatively more prevalent among immigrant FA compared with natives. Conclusion. Although immigrants account for a small percentage of all FAs, GPs and policy-makers should be aware of differences in socioeconomic and morbidity profiles to provide equality of health care. © 2014 The Author(s).

Guasch-Ferre M.,Rovira i Virgili University | Guasch-Ferre M.,CIBER ISCIII | Bullo M.,Rovira i Virgili University | Bullo M.,CIBER ISCIII | And 23 more authors.
BMC Medicine | Year: 2013

Background: Prospective studies in non-Mediterranean populations have consistently related increasing nut consumption to lower coronary heart disease mortality. A small protective effect on all-cause and cancer mortality has also been suggested. To examine the association between frequency of nut consumption and mortality in individuals at high cardiovascular risk from Spain, a Mediterranean country with a relatively high average nut intake per person.Methods: We evaluated 7,216 men and women aged 55 to 80 years randomized to 1 of 3 interventions (Mediterranean diets supplemented with nuts or olive oil and control diet) in the PREDIMED ('PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea') study. Nut consumption was assessed at baseline and mortality was ascertained by medical records and linkage to the National Death Index. Multivariable-adjusted Cox regression and multivariable analyses with generalized estimating equation models were used to assess the association between yearly repeated measurements of nut consumption and mortality.Results: During a median follow-up of 4.8 years, 323 total deaths, 81 cardiovascular deaths and 130 cancer deaths occurred. Nut consumption was associated with a significantly reduced risk of all-cause mortality (P for trend <0.05, all). Compared to non-consumers, subjects consuming nuts >3 servings/week (32% of the cohort) had a 39% lower mortality risk (hazard ratio (HR) 0.61; 95% CI 0.45 to 0.83). A similar protective effect against cardiovascular and cancer mortality was observed. Participants allocated to the Mediterranean diet with nuts group who consumed nuts >3 servings/week at baseline had the lowest total mortality risk (HR 0.37; 95% CI 0.22 to 0.66). Conclusions: Increased frequency of nut consumption was associated with a significantly reduced risk of mortality in a Mediterranean population at high cardiovascular risk.Trial registration: Clinicaltrials.gov. International Standard Randomized Controlled Trial Number (ISRCTN): 35739639. Registration date: 5 October 2005. © 2013 Guasch-Ferré et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Salas-Salvado J.,Rovira i Virgili University | Bullo M.,Rovira i Virgili University | Estruch R.,Institute dInvestigacions Biomediques August Pi i Sunyer | Ros E.,Institute dInvestigacions Biomediques August Pi i Sunyer | And 15 more authors.
Annals of Internal Medicine | Year: 2014

Background: Interventions promoting weight loss can reduce the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Whether dietary changes without calorie restriction also protect from diabetes has not been evaluated. Objective: To assess the efficacy of Mediterranean diets for the primary prevention of diabetes in the Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea trial, from October 2003 to December 2010 (median follow-up, 4.1 years). Design: Subgroup analysis of a multicenter, randomized trial. (Current Controlled Trials: ISRCTN35739639) Setting: Primary care centers in Spain. Participants: Men and women without diabetes (3541 patients aged 55 to 80 years) at high cardiovascular risk. Intervention: Participants were randomly assigned and stratified by site, sex, and age but not diabetes status to receive 1 of 3 diets: Mediterranean diet supplemented with extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO), Mediterranean diet supplemented with nuts, or a control diet (advice on a low-fat diet). No intervention to increase physical activity or lose weight was included. Measurements: Incidence of new-onset type 2 diabetes mellitus (prespecified secondary outcome). Results: During follow-up, 80, 92, and 101 new-onset cases of diabetes occurred in the Mediterranean diet supplemented with EVOO, Mediterranean diet supplemented with mixed nuts, and control diet groups, respectively, corresponding to rates of 16.0, 18.7, and 23.6 cases per 1000 person-years. Multivariate-adjusted hazard ratios were 0.60 (95% CI, 0.43 to 0.85) for the Mediterranean diet supplemented with EVOO and 0.82 (CI, 0.61 to 1.10) for the Mediterranean diet supplemented with nuts compared with the control diet. Limitations: Randomization was not stratified by diabetes status. Withdrawals were greater in the control group. Conclusion: A Mediterranean diet enriched with EVOO but without energy restrictions reduced diabetes risk among persons with high cardiovascular risk. © 2014 American College of Physicians.

Diaz E.,University of Bergen | Diaz E.,Minority | Calderon-Larranaga A.,University Institute of Health Sciences | Calderon-Larranaga A.,University of Zaragoza | And 9 more authors.
European Journal of Public Health | Year: 2015

Background: Immigrant's use of primary health care (PHC) services differs from that of native's, but studies are non-consistent, and the importance of individual explaining variables like socio-economic status, morbidity burden and length of stay in the host country is uncertain. Methods: Registry-based study using merged data from the National Population Register and the Norwegian Health Economics Administration Database for all immigrants and natives ≥15 years registered in Norway in 2008 (3 739 244 persons), applying the Johns Hopkins ACG® Case-Mix System. Using multivariate binary logistic and negative binomial regression analyses, respectively, we compared overall use of PHC and number of visits to PHC between immigrants and natives, and investigated the significance of socio-economic, immigration and morbidity variables. Results: A significantly lower percentage of immigrants used the general practitioner (GP) compared with natives. Among GP users, however, most immigrants used the GP at a 2-15% significantly higher rate compared with natives. Older immigrants used their GP less and at lower rates than younger immigrants. A significantly lower percentage of immigrants from high-income countries, but a higher percentage of all other immigrants used emergency services compared with natives, with no differences in use rates. Morbidity burden and length of stay were essential explaining variables. Conclusion: Lower use of PHC among immigrants could be due to better health or to access barriers, and should be further studied, especially for the oldest immigrants. Adjusted high frequency of use may be appropriate, but it might also be a signal of non-effective contacts. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

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