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San Miguel University

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Ballaz S.,San Miguel University
Reviews in the Neurosciences | Year: 2017

The CCK(1) receptor is a G-protein-coupled receptor activated by the sulfated forms of cholecystokinin (CCK), a gastrin-like peptide released in the gastrointestinal tract and mammal brain. A substantial body of research supports the hypothesis that CCK(1)r stimulates gallbladder contraction and pancreatic secretion in the gut, as well as satiety in brain. However, this receptor may also fulfill relevant roles in behavior, thanks to its widespread distribution in the brain. The strategic location of CCK(1)r in mesolimbic structures and specific hypothalamic and brainstem nuclei lead to complex interactions with neurotransmitters like dopamine, serotonin, and glutamate, as well as hypothalamic hormones and neuropeptides. The activity of CCK(1)r maintains adequate levels of dopamine and regulates the activity of serotonin neurons of raphe nuclei, which makes CCK(1)r an interesting therapeutic target for the development of adjuvant treatments for schizophrenia, drug addiction, and mood disorders. Unexplored functions of CCK(1)r, like the transmission of interoceptive sensitivity in addition to the regulation of hypothalamic hormones and neurotransmitters affecting emotional states, well-being, and attachment behaviors, may open exciting roads of research. The absence of specific ligands for the CCK(1) receptor has complicated the study of its distribution in brain so that research about its impact on behavior has been published sporadically over the last 30 years. The present review reunites all this body of evidence in a comprehensive way to summarize our knowledge about the actual role of CCK in the neurobiology of mental illness. © 2017 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston.


Denton P.B.,Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory | Denton P.B.,Vanderbilt University | Minakata H.,University of Sao Paulo | Minakata H.,San Miguel University | Parke S.J.,Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory
Journal of High Energy Physics | Year: 2016

Abstract: We further develop and extend a recent perturbative framework for neutrino oscillations in uniform matter density so that the resulting oscillation probabilities are accurate for the complete matter potential versus baseline divided by neutrino energy plane. This extension also gives the exact oscillation probabilities in vacuum for all values of baseline divided by neutrino energy. The expansion parameter used is related to the ratio of the solar to the atmospheric ∆m2 scales but with a unique choice of the atmospheric ∆m2 such that certain first-order effects are taken into account in the zeroth-order Hamiltonian. Using a mixing matrix formulation, this framework has the exceptional feature that the neutrino oscillation probability in matter has the same structure as in vacuum, to all orders in the expansion parameter. It also contains all orders in the matter potential and sin θ13. It facilitates immediate physical interpretation of the analytic results, and makes the expressions for the neutrino oscillation probabilities extremely compact and very accurate even at zeroth order in our perturbative expansion. The first and second order results are also given which improve the precision by approximately two or more orders of magnitude per perturbative order. © 2016, The Author(s).


Coila A.L.,San Miguel University | Lavarello R.J.,San Miguel University
IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control | Year: 2017

The attenuation coefficient slope (ACS) has the potential to be used for tissue characterization and as a diagnostic ultrasound tool, hence complementing B-mode images. The ACS can be valuable for estimation of other ultrasound parameters such as the backscatter coefficient. There is a well-known trade-off between the precision of the estimated ACS values and the data block size used in spectral-based techniques such as the spectral log difference (SLD). This trade-off limits the practical usefulness of spectral-based attenuation imaging techniques. In this work, the regularized spectral log difference (RSLD) technique is presented in detail and evaluated with simulations and experiments with physical phantoms, ex vivo and in vivo. The RSLD technique allowed decreasing estimation variance when using small data block sizes, i.e., fivefold reduction in the standard deviation of percentage error when using data block sizes larger than 20λ×20λ and more than a tenfold reduction when using 10λ×10λ data blocks. The precision improvement was obtained without sacrificing estimation accuracy (i.e., estimation bias improved in 70% of the cases by 10% of the ground truth value on average while degraded in 30% of the cases by 3% of the ground truth value on average). The improvements in precision allowed for better differentiation of inclusions especially when using small data blocks (i.e., smaller than 20λ×20λ) where the contrast-to-noise ratio improved by an order of magnitude on average. The results suggest the RSLD allows for the reconstruction of attenuation coefficient images with an improved trade-off between spatial resolution and estimation precision. IEEE


Acin P.,University Hospital of San Juan | Acin P.,San Miguel University | Bataller A.,University Hospital of San Juan | Fernndez F.,University Hospital of San Juan | And 4 more authors.
Human Reproduction | Year: 2012

Background To raise awareness about the accessory and cavitated uterine masses (ACUM) with functional endometrium as a different entity from adult adenomyosis and to highlight the importance of a correct diagnosis, we studied four new cases of ACUM and 15 cases reported as juvenile cystic adenomyoma (JCA) by reviewing the literature from the last year. This entity is problematic because of a broad differential diagnosis, including rudimentary and cavitated uterine horns; and is generally underdiagnosed, being more frequent than previously thought.Methods We report four cases of young women who underwent surgery in our hospital from January to July 2011 after presenting with an ACUM. We also reviewed and tabulated the cases from literature beginning in 2010. Main outcome measures were diagnostic tools, surgical and histopathological findings and improvement of symptoms. Results The addition of the four cases reported here to the 15 published as JCA raises the total number of cases of ACUMs to 19, which is more than all of the cases reported prior to 2010. In our cases, it is interesting to highlight that one of them also had an adjacent accessory rudimentary tube and another had two ACUMs at the same location. All patients suffered from severe dysmenorrhea and pelvic pain and were young women. Suspicion, transvaginal ultrasound and magnetic resonance image were found to be the best diagnostic tools. Most of the cases were treated by laparoscopic tumorectomy. Conclusions ACUMs are generally underdiagnosed and often reported as JCAs but they are not adenomyosis. Early surgical treatment involving the laparoscopic or laparotomic removal of the mass could prevent the usual prolonged suffering of these young women. In our opinion, this entity is a new variety of Mllerian anomaly. © 2012 The Author.


Adams C.J.,Institute of Geological & Nuclear Sciences | Miller H.,Sektion Geologie | Acenolaza F.G.,San Miguel University | Toselli A.J.,San Miguel University | Griffin W.L.,Macquarie University
Gondwana Research | Year: 2011

U-Pb detrital zircon ages are reported from Puncoviscana Formation (late Neoproterozoic-Early Cambrian) and Mesón Group (Late Cambrian) greywackes of northwest Argentina, to constrain provenance and depositional environment. The new data are combined with previously-published detrital zircon ages, to show that Puncoviscana Formation age patterns contain two broad groups: late Mesoproterozoic-early Neoproterozoic (1150-850. Ma) and late Neoproterozoic-Early Cambrian (650-520. Ma); with their relative proportions varying inversely with youngest component age. The 1150-850. Ma age components are dominant in greywackes with oldest late Neoproterozoic components > 600. Ma. The former diminish considerably when late Neoproteozoic components become dominant and younger, to 520. Ma. A northernmost greywacke sample from Purmamarca, Jujuy, is distinctive: whilst its zircon age pattern partly resembles other Puncoviscana Formation samples, it contains no Cambrian-late Neoproterozoic ages, the youngest ages being early Neoproterozoic. This may reflect an early, Neoproterozoic, passive-margin depocentre for the Formation, or an older (early Neoproterozoic) succession within it, which may predate the Brasiliano orogeny in Brazil. The youngest age components, c. 520. Ma, in a greywacke from Rancagua (Cachi, Salta province), dominate an almost unimodal pattern suggestive of contemporary volcanic sources at a late Early Cambrian depocentre. Detrital zircon age patterns of the Mesón Group (Lizoite Formation) have major Cambrian-latest Neoproterozoic components resembling those of the Puncoviscana Formation, but its Mesoproterozoic component is diminished, and there are no significant age components of this age. Small youngest components at c. 500. Ma suggest a maximum Late Cambrian stratigraphic age. The Puncoviscana Formation detrital zircon patterns suggest a provenance in a continental hinterland having a stabilised, extensive late Mesoproterozoic orogen (with minor Paleoproterozoic and Archean precursors), and a more variable late Neoproterozoic orogen containing an evolving sequence of less extensive subcomponents. A direct relationship with the Brazilian Shield is suggested; with sediment supplies originating within active-margin orogens of the interior and collisional orogens at the suture between African and South American cratons, but ultimate deposition in passive-margin environments of western Gondwanaland. © 2010 International Association for Gondwana Research.


Baker P.A.,Duke University | Baker P.A.,San Miguel University | Fritz S.C.,University of Nebraska - Lincoln
Quaternary Science Reviews | Year: 2015

This selective review of the Quaternary paleoclimate of the South American summer monsoon (SASM) domain presents viewpoints regarding a range of key issues in the field, many of which are unresolved and some of which are controversial. (1) El Niño-Southern Oscillation variability, while the most important global-scale mode of interannual climate variation, is insufficient to explain most of the variation of tropical South American climate observed in both the instrumental and the paleoclimate records. (2) Significant climate variation in tropical South America occurs on seasonal to orbital (i.e. multi-millennial) time scales as a result of sea-surface temperature (SST) variation and ocean-atmosphere interactions of the tropical Atlantic. (3) Decadal-scale climate variability, linked with this tropical Atlantic variability, has been a persistent characteristic of climate in tropical South America for at least the past half millennium, and likely, far beyond. (4) Centennial-to-millennial climate events in tropical South America were of longer duration and, perhaps, larger amplitude than any observed in the instrumental period, which is little more than a century long in tropical South America. These were superimposed upon both precession-paced insolation changes that caused significant variation in SASM precipitation and eccentricity-paced global glacial boundary conditions that caused significant changes in the tropical South American moisture balance. As a result, river sediment and water discharge increased and decreased across tropical South America, lake levels rose and fell, paleolakes arose and disappeared on the Altiplano, glaciers waxed and waned in the tropical Andes, and the tropical rainforest underwent significant changes in composition and extent.To further evaluate climate forcing over the last glacial cycle (~125ka), we developed a climate forcing model that combines summer insolation forcing and a proxy for North Atlantic SST forcing to reconstruct long-term precipitation variation in the SASM domain. The success of this model reinforces our confidence in assigning causation to observed reconstructions of precipitation. In addition, we propose a critical correction for speleothem stable oxygen isotopic ratios, which are among the most significant of paleoclimate proxies in tropical South America for reconstruction of variation of paleo-precipitation (or SASM intensity). However, it is already well known that any particular δ18O value observed in speleothem carbonate is affected by two processes that have nothing to do with changes in precipitation amount-the influence of temperature on carbonate-water isotopic fractionation in the cave and the influence of changing δ18O of seawater. Quantitatively accounting for both "artifacts" can significantly alter the interpretations of speleothem records. In tropical South America, both adjustments act in the same direction and have the tendency to increase the true amplitude of the paleo-hydrologic signal (but by different amounts in glacial and inter-glacial stages). These corrections have even graver implications for the interpretation of tropical Northern Hemisphere speleothem records (e.g. Chinese speleothems) where the combined adjustments tend to decrease or even eliminate the "true" signal amplitude. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.


Acien P.,University of Alicante | Acien P.,San Miguel University | Acien M.,University of Alicante | Acien M.,San Miguel University
Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica | Year: 2010

Objectives. To analyze the gynecological pathologies and extragenital anomalies associated with unilateral renal agenesis (URA) and the possible origin of these congenital anomalies. Design. Retrospective casecontrol study. Setting. University Hospital. Population. This study included 276 women with genitourinary malformations who had undergone hysterosalpingography (and/or laparoscopy) and pyelography with images available for review. Methods. There were 60 cases of women diagnosed with genital malformations and congenital URA and 216 control cases of women with genital tract malformations and both kidneys present. All cases were categorized according to an embryologicalclinical classification and the type of Mllerian malformation (American Society for Reproductive Medicine (ASRM) classification) and then compared by type for the presence of gynecological and extragenital pathologies. Main outcome measures. Genital malformations, endometriosis, leiomyomas and skeletal anomalies. Results. URA was generally associated with either agenesis of all of the derivatives of the urogenital ridge on the same side of the body, which were usually found on the left, or distal mesonephric anomalies such as a double uterus with a blind hemivagina or unilateral cervico-vaginal atresia, which were most frequently on the right. The uterine malformations that were most commonly seen in women with renal agenesis were bicornis-bicollis, didelphys and unicornuate uteri. Women with bicornuate or didelphys uteri and renal agenesis had more gynecological pathologies, such as endometriosis, than those with both kidneys present. Conclusions. URA and major uterine malformations are frequently related, and individuals with bicornuate or didelphys uteri have endometriosis more often than those without renal agenesis. Those malformations that seem to be caused by the absence or anomaly of a mesonephric duct lead to renal agenesis, ipsilateral vaginal anomalies (blind or atretic hemivagina) and failure of the induction function of the Wolffian ducts on the Mllerian ducts, causing uterine malformations. © 2010 Informa Healthcare.


Izrailev F.M.,Autonomous University of Puebla | Makarov N.M.,San Miguel University | Torres-Herrera E.J.,Autonomous University of Puebla
Physica B: Condensed Matter | Year: 2010

The localization length has been derived for one-dimensional bi-layered structures with random perturbations in the refractive indices for each type of layers. Main attention is paid to the comparison between conventional materials and those consisting of mixed right-hand and left-hand materials. It is shown that the localization length is described by the universal expression for both cases. The analytical results are confirmed by numerical simulations. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Nieto M.A.,San Miguel University
Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology | Year: 2011

The epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) converts epithelial cells into migratory and invasive cells and is a fundamental event in morphogenesis. Although its relevance in the progression of cancer and organ fibrosis had been debated until recently, the EMT is now established as an important step in the metastatic cascade of epithelial tumors. The similarities between pathological and developmental EMTs validate the embryo as the best model to understand the molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in this process, identifying those that are hijacked during the progression of cancer and organ degeneration. Our ever-increasing understanding of how transcription factors regulate the EMT has revealed complex regulatory loops coupled to posttranscriptional and epigenetic regulatory programs. The EMT is now integrated into the systemic activities of whole organisms, establishing links with cell survival, stemness, inflammation, and immunity. In addition, the EMT now constitutes a promising target for the treatment of cancer and organ-degenerative diseases. © 2011 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.


Juarez M.D.,San Miguel University | Osawa C.C.,National Institute of Industrial Property INPI | Acuna M.E.,San Miguel University | Samman N.,San Miguel University | Goncalves L.A.G.,University of Campinas
Food Control | Year: 2011

This paper aims to study discontinuous deep frying of potatoes, milanesas (breaded bovine Semimembranosus muscle) and churros (flour, water, milk, lemon and salt) in soybean oil, sunflower oil and partially hydrogenated fats, monitored by conventional and unconventional methods. With the exception of partially hydrogenated fat after 80.5 h of deep-frying churros, all the oils exceeded 25% of total polar compounds (TPC) and the content of polymeric and dimerized triacylglycerols were higher than 10%, prevailing thermal alterations. For none of the samples the percentage of free fatty acids exceeded 2% of oleic acid. The losses of tocopherols during frying reached 76.0%. Little significant alterations occurred in the fatty acids composition, iodine index calculated, saponification index and formation of trans isomers after frying. The rapid tests used to determine TPC, malondialdehyde and alkenals have proved to be viable alternatives to monitor the quality of frying oils. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

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