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Giustetto C.,University of Turin | Cerrato N.,University of Turin | Gribaudo E.,University of Turin | Scrocco C.,University of Turin | And 10 more authors.
Heart Rhythm

Background A high prevalence of atrial fibrillation/atrial flutter (AF/AFl) has been reported in small series of Brugada patients, with discordant data. Objective The purpose of this study was to analyze, in a large population of Brugada patients, the prevalence of AF/AFl, its correlation with prognosis, and the efficacy of hydroquinidine (HQ) treatment. Methods Among 560 patients with Brugada type 1 ECG (BrECG), 48 (9%) had AF/AFl. Three groups were considered: 23 patients with BrECG pattern recognized before AF/AFl (group 1); 25 patients first diagnosed with AF/AFl in whom Class IC antiarrhythmic drugs administered for cardioversion/prophylaxis unmasked BrECG (group 2); and 512 patients without AF/AFl (group 3). Recurrence of AF/AFl and occurrence of ventricular arrhythmias were evaluated at follow-up. Results Mean age was 47 ± 15 years, 59 ± 11 years, and 44 ± 14 years in groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Seven subjects (32%) in group 1 had syncope/aborted sudden death, 1 (4%) in group 2, and 122 (24%) in group 3. Ventricular arrhythmia occurred in three patients in group 1, none in group 2, and 10 in group 3 at median follow-up of 51, 68, and 41 months, respectively. Nine patients in group 1 and nine in group 2 received HQ for AF/AFl prophylaxis; on therapy, none had AF/AFl recurrence. Conclusion Prevalence of AF/AFl in Brugada patients is higher than in the general population of the same age. Patients in group 1 are younger than those in group 2 and have a worse prognosis compared to both groups 2 and 3. HQ therapy has proved useful and safe in patients with AF/AFl and BrECG. © 2014 Heart Rhythm Society. Source

Pagliarini R.,Telethon Institute of Genetics and Medicine | Castello R.,Telethon Institute of Genetics and Medicine | Napolitano F.,Telethon Institute of Genetics and Medicine | Borzone R.,Telethon Institute of Genetics and Medicine | And 9 more authors.
Cell Reports

Primary hyperoxaluria type I (PH1) is an autosomal-recessive inborn error of liver metabolism caused by alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase (AGT) deficiency. In silico modeling of liver metabolism in PH1 recapitulated accumulation of known biomarkers as well as alteration of histidine and histamine levels, which we confirmed in vitro, in vivo, and in PH1 patients. AGT-deficient mice showed decreased vascular permeability, a readout of in vivo histamine activity. Histamine reduction is most likely caused by increased catabolism of the histamine precursor histidine, triggered by rerouting of alanine flux from AGT to the glutamic-pyruvate transaminase (GPT, also known as the alanine-transaminase ALT). Alanine administration reduces histamine levels in wild-type mice, while overexpression of GPT in PH1 mice increases plasma histidine, normalizes histamine levels, restores vascular permeability, and decreases urinary oxalate levels. Our work demonstrates that genome-scale metabolic models are clinically relevant and can link genotype to phenotype in metabolic disorders. © 2016 The Author(s). Source

Fallerini C.,University of Siena | Dosa L.,University of Siena | Tita R.,University of Siena | Del Prete D.,University of Padua | And 24 more authors.
Clinical Genetics

The mode of inheritance of Alport syndrome (ATS) has long been controversial. In 1927, the disease was hypothesized as a dominant condition in which males were more severely affected than females. In 1990, it was considered an X-linked (XL) semidominant condition, due to COL4A5 mutations. Later on, a rare autosomal recessive (AR) form due to COL4A3/COL4A4 mutations was identified. An autosomal dominant (AD) form was testified more recently by the description of some large pedigrees but the real existence of this form is still questioned by many and its exact prevalence is unknown. The introduction of next generation sequencing (NGS) allowed us to perform an unbiased simultaneous COL4A3-COL4A4-COL4A5 analysis in 87 Italian families (273 individuals) with clinical suspicion of ATS. In 48 of them (55%), a mutation in one of the three genes was identified: the inheritance was XL semidominant in 65%, recessive in 4% and most interestingly AD in 31% (15 families). The AD form must therefore be seriously taken into account in all pedigrees with affected individuals in each generation. Furthermore, a high frequency of mutations (>50%) was shown in patients with only 1 or 2 clinical criteria, suggesting NGS as first-level analysis in cases with a clinical suspicion of ATS. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Source

Perga S.,San Luigi University Hospital | Perga S.,C o San Luigi University Hospital | Albo A.G.,Bioindustry Park Silvano Fumero SpA | Albo A.G.,Bioindustry Park Silvano Fumero SpA | And 17 more authors.

Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a multifactorial autoimmune disease of the central nervous system with a heterogeneous and unpredictable course. To date there are no prognostic biomarkers even if they would be extremely useful for early patient intervention with personalized therapies. In this context, the analysis of inter-individual differences in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) proteome may lead to the discovery of biological markers that are able to distinguish the various clinical forms at diagnosis. Methods: To this aim, a two dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) study was carried out on individual CSF samples from 24 untreated women who underwent lumbar puncture (LP) for suspected MS. The patients were clinically monitored for 5 years and then classified according to the degree of disease aggressiveness and the disease-modifying therapies prescribed during follow up. Results: The hierarchical cluster analysis of 2-DE dataset revealed three protein spots which were identified by means of mass spectrometry as Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) and two isoforms of vitamin D binding protein (DBP). These three protein spots enabled us to subdivide the patients into subgroups correlated with clinical classification (MS aggressive forms identification: 80%). In particular, we observed an opposite trend of values for the two protein spots corresponding to different DBP isoforms suggesting a role of a post-translational modification rather than the total protein content in patient categorization. Conclusions: These findings proved to be very interesting and innovative and may be developed as new candidate prognostic biomarkers of MS aggressiveness, if confirmed. © 2015 Perga et al. Source

Borelli I.,University of Turin | Borelli I.,Medical Genetics Unit Aou Citta Della Salute E Della Science Of Turin | Casalis Cavalchini G.C.,Medical Genetics Unit Aou Citta Della Salute E Della Science Of Turin | Del Peschio S.,University of Turin | And 14 more authors.
Familial Cancer

The MLH1 c.2252-2253delAA mutation was found in 11 unrelated families from a restricted area south-west of Turin among 140 families with mutations in the mismatch repair genes. The mutation is located in the highly conserved C-terminal region, responsible for dimerization with the PMS2 protein. Twenty-five tumour tissues from 61 individuals with the c.2252-2253delAA mutation were tested for microsatellite instability (MSI) and protein expression. We compared the clinical features of these families versus the rest of our cohort and screened for a founder effect. All but one tumours showed the MSI-high mutator phenotype. Normal, focal and lack of MLH1 staining were observed in 16, 36 and 48 % of tumours, respectively. PMS2 expression was always lost. The mutation co-segregated with Lynch syndrome-related cancers in all informative families. All families but one fulfilled Amsterdam criteria, a frequency higher than in other MLH1 mutants. This was even more evident for AC II (72.7 vs. 57.5 %). Moreover, all families had at least one colon cancer diagnosed before 50 years and one case with multiple Lynch syndrome-related tumours. Interestingly, a statistically significant (p = 0.0057) higher frequency of pancreatic tumours was observed compared to families with other MLH1 mutations: 8.2 % of affected individuals versus 1.6 %. Haplotype analysis demonstrated a common ancestral origin of the mutation, which originated about 1,550 years ago. The mutation is currently classified as having an uncertain clinical significance. Clinical features, tissue analysis and co-segregation with disease strongly support the hypothesis that the MLH1 c.2252-2253delAA mutation has a pathogenic effect. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht. Source

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