San Jose, CA, United States

San Jose State University
San Jose, CA, United States

San José State University is a comprehensive public university located in San Jose, California, United States. It is the founding school of the 23 campus California State University system, and holds the distinction of being the oldest public institution of higher education on the West Coast of the United States.Located in downtown San Jose, the SJSU main campus is situated on 154 acres , or roughly 19 square blocks. SJSU offers 134 bachelor's and master's degrees with 110 concentrations and five credential programs with 19 concentrations. The university also offers three joint doctoral degree programs and one independent doctoral program as of 2014. SJSU is accredited by the Western Association of Schools and Colleges .SJSU's total enrollment was 32,697 in fall 2014, including over 6,000 graduate students and other post-baccalaureate students. As of fall 2013, graduate student enrollment at SJSU was the highest of any campus in the CSU system. SJSU's student population is one of the most ethnically diverse in the nation, with large Asian and Hispanic enrollments, as well as the highest foreign student enrollment of all master's institutions in the United States. As of fall 2014, the top five most popular undergraduate majors at SJSU were : psychology, accounting, marketing, business management and biological science. As of fall 2014, the top five most popular graduate programs were : software engineering, electrical engineering, library and information science, social work and educational counseling.San José State University claims to provide Silicon Valley firms with more engineering, computer science and business graduates than any other college or university, and philanthropic support of SJSU is among the highest in the CSU system. SJSU sports teams are known as the Spartans, and compete in the Mountain West Conference in NCAA Division I. Wikipedia.

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Agency: NSF | Branch: Continuing grant | Program: | Phase: SPECIAL PROJECTS - CISE | Award Amount: 217.31K | Year: 2016

The cyber security threat to organizations and governments has continued to grow with increasing dependence on information technology; meanwhile, the entities behind cyber attacks increase in sophistication. Cyber security professionals, the individuals responsible for keeping organizations secure, investigate network activity to find, identify, and respond to threats. These individuals are among the last lines of defense for an organization. Cyber security professionals depend on automated tools to perform their jobs but must make critical decisions that impact security. Therefore, successful defense against cyber attacks depends on human decision making. This research identifies cognitive outcomes that predict successful threat response. The researchers are investigating the content and structure of cyber security professionals knowledge, creating assessments of cyber security professional cognition, and developing training techniques for cyber security decision making. This projects broader impacts address the large need for cyber security workforce development. The training developed through this research will make cyber security careers more accessible to individuals beyond traditional computer science career paths. Threat response training for network defense provides a strategic advantage against cyber adversaries and increasingly sophisticated threats.

Effective human decision making is a determinant of effective cyber security. Situation awareness and mental models are cognitive outcomes that predict human performance. Situation awareness, defined as goal-relevant knowledge held during task performance, predicts good decision making. Security professionals also utilize internal representations of the task environment, such as how computers are interconnected, in the form of mental models. Because multiple mental models support situation awareness and vary as a function of task and expertise, understanding decision making in computer network defense requires identifying critical mental models. This research is identifying cognitive outcomes, including mental models and situation awareness, that predict successful threat response in computer network defense and leveraging them to improve training for cyber security professionals. Informed by knowledge of mental models, the research will lead to new training techniques that transfer broadly to cyber security decision making. This training will increase access to cyber security careers, especially to members of underrepresented groups. Threat response training provides a strategic advantage, not only against known threats, but against novel and increasingly sophisticated threats.

Agency: NSF | Branch: Standard Grant | Program: | Phase: ITEST | Award Amount: 1.10M | Year: 2015

The project will develop a student-directed intervention that leverages research on motivation to encourage student interest and engagement in the Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM)-related field of climate science. The intervention is designed to give students the opportunity to use video storytelling to tell their own stories in a meaningful way for their communities. Through this experience, students will develop competencies in climate science, engineering design, media technology, and communications including storytelling. The program will focus on middle school students, a critical age for the development of STEM interest, who are from geographical areas traditionally underrepresented in the STEM workforce. Students will produce videos supported by teachers and students from San Jose State University (SJSU) from the sciences and visual arts. Middle school teachers will attend a one-week summer workshop focused on developing the science and filmmaking skills to implement the intervention. During the proposed project, 60 teachers and at least 2,000 students will directly participate in the project, with additional participation from parents, friends, and teachers who attend the project film festival. Students will submit their final films together with a digital portfolio that includes the supporting science and career connections to the project film festival. Selected films will be screened at The Tech Museum and featured on YouTube.

The project will use an iterative design-based research approach to study how digital technology, storytelling and the STEM-related field of climate science can be used to help traditionally underserved students identify with STEM fields and careers. Students will participate in the program in their middle school science class, guided by their trained teachers, university student mentors. A set of online instructional videos will be designed to support teacher and student learning. A collection of data sources including pre/post student surveys, classroom observations, student interviews and external evaluations of the films and digital portfolios will be used to inform and revise the project design, and to understand to what extent and nature of intended project impacts. The materials produced through this project, including videos and instructional materials, will be available online and thus support replication of this educational model in other classrooms. This project is funded by the Innovative Technology Experiences for Students and Teachers (ITEST) program that supports projects that build understandings of best practices, program elements, contexts and processes contributing to engaging students in learning and developing interest in STEM, information and communications technology (ICT), computer science, and related STEM content and careers.

Agency: NSF | Branch: Standard Grant | Program: | Phase: S&CC: Smart & Connected Commun | Award Amount: 199.92K | Year: 2016

Many areas of the United States are subject to seasonal and cyclical natural disasters like floods, earthquakes and hurricanes, while all areas may experience technological or human-caused events leading to communications disruptions. Following a disaster, it is essential for professional emergency responders to have a comprehensive understanding of the damage in the community in order to prioritize resources to save lives and protect the environment. Failure to develop an accurate picture of community conditions may lead to ineffective allocation of scarce response and rescue resources. Current technologies used for day-to-day emergency response information gathering from the public, such as 9-1-1 calls and social media, are often disrupted by the disaster?s impact, which may persist for days after an event. One of the key factors enabling a coordinated emergency response and community resilience to disaster is rapid communication from community members such as residents, businesses, schools and hospitals to public safety services about community conditions, such as the location of trapped people, collapsed buildings, fires and hazardous materials accidents, highway damage, and traffic congestion. Robust and resilient communication systems incorporating and enhancing existing technologies are the solution.

The City of San Jose has recognized the likelihood of post-disaster information deficits which can be resolved through increased connectivity of diverse community elements to public safety communications. Recognizing the presence of privately-owned Smart phones throughout the community, the City is seeking an information gathering and dissemination solution that would enable Smart phone users to maintain communication with public safety services even in disaster conditions. San Jose State University, partnered with the San Jose Office of Emergency Services (OES), proposes to develop a novel method for maintaining connectivity for residents to public safety services. The proposed connectivity and networking technologies will keep citizens connected to vital services and information, and allow them to provide disaster assessment information to public safety agencies. This project will also create a cloud dashboard for emergency responders, and create a comprehensive view of community conditions which leads to an effective emergency response. The prototype system will enable the citys public safety agencies to prioritize emergency response demands and respond quickly, and minimize the catastrophic impact on the City of San Jose and its community and economy.

The prevalence of disruptive events across the United States makes the development of a resilient communication solution imperative. The available collaboration with the City of San Jose provides a real-world partner and testbed for new technology applications with nation-wide application potential. As climates change, storms become stronger, sea levels rise, the electricity grid ages and social disruptions increase, time is of the essence for creating a resilient and accessible solution to reliable communication connectivity. This Early Concept Grant for Exploratory Research (EAGER) will solve the key challenges that must be tackled to achieve this timeliness and provide strategies and system solutions to spur emergency awareness, management, and preparedness. Finally, all code and data in this project will be released openly, supporting future research, development, and training.

First responders to disasters need a complete picture of the communitys status in order to accurately assess the condition of the inhabitants and organize available resources to save lives, protect the environment and prevent further damage in the community. In normal circumstances public safety services rely on 9-1-1 calls and social media to gather information from residents about community conditions. However, under disaster conditions, these normal communication methods will be interrupted, including landline and cell phones, internet connectivity and power. In these circumstances, novel systems must be available to substitute for the lost connectivity, to allow residents to connect to the public safety answering point, and to allow the Emergency Operations Center to collect and aggregate critical information across sectors to ensure that lifesaving operations are conducted expeditiously.

The solution to managing risks to disaster-prone communities includes integrating existing technologies, applications, data and e-services in sustainable networks that will support emergency communications even in catastrophic events. This research proposes to develop a community infrastructure for interoperable emergency connectivity that can operate in austere conditions, provide its own power, and create linkages throughout the community and across jurisdictional boundaries. This project will deploy the edge devices in local communities with multi-modal communication modules as well as an external long range radio. The proposed resilient and participatory networking framework on top of the remote edge devices will enable collaborative communication as well as participatory sensing. To solve current deficiencies in the ability of allowing city emergency responders to control and automate the remote edge devices, this project extends existing cloud orchestration frameworks to edge devices that are agnostic to the network media. For this demonstration project, the central cloud deployed in the City of San Jose?s Emergency Operations Center will control the remote edge devices, and be responsible for resilient quality testing, automatic validation, disaster assessment, resource allocation, and the automation of remote edge devices.

Agency: NSF | Branch: Standard Grant | Program: | Phase: MODULATION | Award Amount: 428.79K | Year: 2016

One of the goals of neuroscience is to understand how genes direct the development of the nervous system, and how sensory input from the environment interacts with the nervous system to result in behavior. Male fruit flies of the genus Drosophila carry out a complex and stereotyped courtship ritual that provides an excellent model in which to study these processes. The correct performance of this ritual is critical for success in mating and reproduction. Mutations affecting the courtship ritual typically result in slow courtship, or failure to court entirely. However, we have identified a gene (Tre1) that, when mutated, causes unusually rapid performance of the ritual. This result is unique, and suggests a previously unknown function in mating behavior: delay of courtship. This research project aims to answer two questions: first, why would a gene exist whose function appears to be to reduce the speed of mating, which would seem to put males at a disadvantage relative to males that mate more quickly? Second, in what cells does the Tre1 gene function, and what are these cells doing during courtship behavior? In addition, to increase the exposure of women and underrepresented minority students to basic scientific research, an integral component of this project is to establish a summer mentorship program that brings high school biology teachers from local minority-serving high schools, together with their students, to the lab to design and implement behavioral genetics experiments for their classrooms.

Drosophila males engage in a stereotyped courtship ritual in order to gain the favor of females. Previous research has shown that the typical result of failure to perform any of the steps correctly and in the correct order results in greatly reduced opportunities to mate. In addition, the behavioral sex determination gene fruitless (fru) has been shown to be necessary and sufficient to direct all steps of courtship behavior. Loss of the male-specific fru transcripts (fruM) typically leads to increased latency to court, inappropriate mate choice, or failure to court at all. We identified a GAL4-transgene that is inserted into the coding sequence of the Tre1 GPCR gene (Tre1-GAL4). When this GAL4 line is used to drive expression of either an RNAi targeting fruM or the feminizing transgene UAS-traF, it results in male flies that initiate courtship and achieve copulation much more quickly than control animals. This phenotype is recapitulated in males mutant for Tre1, which indicates that the Tre1 GPCR is required for normal courtship behavior. The expression pattern of Tre1-GAL4 is limited, with expression in regions consistent with olfactory reception and processing in both the peripheral and central nervous system. The activities described in this proposal identify positively the Tre1-GAL4 cells, investigate the function of those cells in courtship initiation, test the hypothesis that the Tre1-GAL4 cells are involved in mate choice, and further investigate the role of Tre1 itself in courtship initiation.

Agency: NSF | Branch: Standard Grant | Program: | Phase: MAJOR RESEARCH INSTRUMENTATION | Award Amount: 900.80K | Year: 2016

This award is to acquire a state-of-the-art high-performance computing (HPC) facility at San Jose State University (SJSU). The HPC system will provide faculty and students regular access to a modern, on-campus computing facility for computational science and engineering research. As a key hub for STEM fields in the San Francisco Bay Area, this facility will promote the progress of science and engineering, as well as offer a wide diversity of experiences for our students through required laboratory courses and research opportunities. This multidisciplinary and collaborative project involves faculty and students from biological science, chemistry, computer science, aerospace engineering, computer engineering, meteorology and climate science, physics, astronomy, mathematics, and statistics. The HPC will further enhance SJSU?s capability as a focal point in training members of the biotechnology/ pharmaceutical and information technology workforce in the Bay Area. This facility will also contribute to attracting students from underrepresented groups as well as local community colleges into STEM fields at SJSU. It is anticipated that more than 200 students from SJSU each year in STEM related courses and activities will benefit from such an instrument.

Comprising a hybrid central processing unit (CPU)/graphics processing unit (GPU) HPC built using 1696 compute cores and a 1.0-petabyte High Performance Storage System (HPSS). This system will be used for computational analysis, data-intensive research, rich media, three-dimensional computer modeling, data mining, and large-scale simulation. The projects that are poised to commence include: on-demand numerical weather prediction, assimilation, and analysis (Atmospheric Science); dynamical modeling of orbits and dark matter in gas-poor galaxies (Physics and Astronomy); computational modeling of Tat peptide mutants binding to BIV TAR RNA and protein-protein interfaces (Biochemistry); quantum mechanical properties of materials in the atomic scale (Physics and Astronomy); guidance and trajectory optimization strategies in presence of wind, and spacecraft and orbital trajectory optimization (Aerospace Engineering); genomic assessment of adaptation, and pharmacological and evolutionary perspective on bioactive compounds in marine invertebrates (Biological Science); high-resolution simulations of weather phenomena, dust transport, and climate on Mars (Planetary Science); and efficient algorithms for modeling large amount of data in high dimensions (Mathematics and Statistics). The HPC infrastructure and associated user group will enable many further follow-up projects, including cross-disciplinary collaborations as well as participation from the wider SJSU community.

Agency: NSF | Branch: Standard Grant | Program: | Phase: CONDENSED MATTER & MAT THEORY | Award Amount: 171.00K | Year: 2016


This award supports theoretical research and education in the physics of disorder and its effect on how electrons organize in real materials. Theoretical study and understanding of fundamental properties of solids that exhibit unexpected and often technologically useful properties at low temperatures commonly rely on the assumption that atoms form perfectly periodic lattices. However, disorder (crystal defects or impurities) that exists in real materials cannot always be ignored when studying electronic properties. Together with all the other important players in the system (crystal lattice geometry, interaction between electrons, etc.), their presence can drive the system as a whole to phases that do not appear if one considers disorder alone, or only electronic interactions. The accurate description of such an inclusive system using current numerical techniques can be a daunting task.

In this project, the PI will implement a novel idea for efficiently taking random disorder into account in certain numerical simulations of interacting electrons. The PI will use the method to study the collective rearrangements of electrons and the different transformations they can undergo. The results will help interpret experimental observations, and will ultimately help understand the mechanism behind the creation of exotic phases, such as insulating and superconducting phases, with possible applications in the technology and energy sectors.

The activities will provide several undergraduate students from the diverse population of San Jose State University with hands-on research experience in the field of computational condensed matter physics, and with opportunities to improve their scientific communication skills through writing papers and presenting their findings at national scientific meetings. The award also supports the PI in his efforts to integrate research and undergraduate education through the incorporation of computational methods into physics courses.


This award supports theoretical research and education in the physics of disorder and its effect on electronic phase transitions. The interplay of disorder, caused by impurities or crystal defects in real materials, and electronic correlations in condensed matter physics is only poorly understood. Important questions about the effect of disorder on the appearance and nature of phase transitions, as well as on the fate of the Anderson localization upon introduction of electronic interactions in different dimensions, remain largely unsettled. This is especially true for fermionic systems and the corresponding quantum lattice models that emulate disorder effects through random-site or bond energies. Recent experiments with ultracold Fermi gasses on optical lattices have begun to shed light on some of these questions. However, much like in experimental simulations with clean lattices, these experiments rely on approximation-free and highly precise numerical simulations for thermometry and characterization.

In this project the PI will implement a new idea for the treatment of continuous random disorder in the numerical linked-cluster expansion, an emerging and powerful method that yields exact finite-temperature results for strongly correlated electronic systems in the thermodynamic limit. Using this method, the PI will study the thermodynamic properties, including various magnetic and/or superconducting correlations of Heisenberg and Hubbard models in two and three dimensions. The results will improve our understanding of the exotic phenomena that can arise in the presence of both disorder and electronic correlations, and will help interpret results of future experiments with disordered optical lattices. The data obtained, especially in the strong-coupling regimes, can also be used to benchmark other numerical methods for disordered fermionic systems.

The activities will provide several undergraduate students from the diverse population of San Jose State University with hands-on research experience in the field of computational condensed matter physics, and with opportunities to improve their scientific communication skills through writing papers and presenting their findings at national scientific meetings. The award also supports the PI in his efforts to integrate research and undergraduate education through the incorporation of computational methods into physics courses.

Agency: NSF | Branch: Standard Grant | Program: | Phase: IUSE | Award Amount: 482.11K | Year: 2016

This project is developing an interdisciplinary technology pathway program (TPP) in data technology and applications for behavioral, social, and health science students at two California State Universities. It consists of four technical courses covering Python programming, data structures and algorithms, data technology, and an interdisciplinary senior project (or database). It will be offered as a minor degree program as part of bachelors degree programs, or as a certificate program. The TPP program will use evidence-based teaching practices that encompass effective pedagogy as well as learning communities and faculty professional development. The program will use contextualized problem-based pedagogy in which students acquire key technical knowledge and skills by solving real-world problems. Each cohort of participating students will be formed into a learning community that will include professors and industry professionals in Silicon Valley for student support and role-modeling. The engineering and computing faculty who will teach the students in this program will engage in professional development in order to learn pedagogical approaches that have been shown effective for the diverse students in the social, behavioral, and health sciences. These faculty have agreed to participate in a Faculty Learning Community throughout the academic year and a summer Technology Pathway Summer Institute.

The project is expected to generate research contributions towards the development of a technical education program for a diverse group of students and the creation of a sustainable interdisciplinary program that crosses internal organizational boundaries and links to external sponsors. If this project succeeds, it will very likely spur other campuses to develop similar programs through faculty development and dissemination plans. The ongoing evaluation of the propagation process and its outcomes will reveal valuable lessons for launching such interdisciplinary initiatives. One of the participating institutions is a minority serving institution.

Agency: NSF | Branch: Standard Grant | Program: | Phase: BIOLOGICAL OCEANOGRAPHY | Award Amount: 162.42K | Year: 2016

Carbon is fixed into organic matter by phytoplankton growing in the surface ocean, and is naturally sequestered in the ocean interior when particles and organisms sink: a process called the biological pump. Because of its recognized influence on the global carbon cycle, ocean scientists have studied the biological pump for decades. However, we still do not have a sufficient understanding of the underlying processes to accurately quantify and predict carbon cycling. Much of this uncertainty stems from an inability to directly link specific plankton in the surface ocean with the types of particles sinking out of the surface ocean. To address this missing link in biological pump research, this work will directly observe how plankton are transported out of the surface ocean using novel, particle-specific observational approaches embedded within an interdisciplinary field program that will finely resolve upper ocean plankton groups and the resulting amount of sinking carbon across space and in time. The genetic identity of organisms within different types of sinking particles will be determined by sequencing the genetic contents of individually collected particles. This new application of a molecular method will definitively link surface plankton with sinking particles at five locations across the Pacific Ocean. This work has the potential to transform our understanding of the biological pump by identifying previously unknown links between surface ecosystems and sinking carbon particles. Because this work is embedded within an interdisciplinary field program, including biogeochemical modelers and remote sensing scientists, these data will feed directly into new models of the biological pump, improving our ability to quantify and predict carbon uptake by the ocean. This project will train 1 graduate student and at least 2 undergraduate researchers. Findings will be communicated to the non-scientific public through blogs, videos, and the public communication channels of participating institutions.

Accurate prediction of the global carbon cycle requires an understanding of the specific processes that link surface plankton communities and sinking particulate carbon flux (export) out of the surface ocean, but current methodological paradigms in biological pump research do not directly observe these processes. This project will comprehensively determine who is exported from the surface ocean and how using new, particle-resolving optical and molecular techniques embedded within a sampling scheme that characterizes export events at high time and space resolution. The investigation suggests that different plankton types in the surface waters are transported out of the surface ocean by distinct export pathways, and that an understanding of these connections is critical knowledge for global carbon cycle modeling. If successful, this work has the potential to transform our conceptual understanding of the biological pump by directly identifying mechanisms that link surface plankton with particle export, without relying on bulk sampling schemes and large-scale correlation analysis. Particle export environments will be studied at five open ocean locations during a cruise from Hawaii to Seattle in January-February 2017. The surface plankton communities will be characterized by a combination of satellite observations, sensors attached to a free-drifting, continuously profiling WireWalker, an in situ holographic camera, microscopy, and by sequencing 18S and 16S rRNA gene fragments. Exported particles will simultaneously be captured by various specialized sediment traps and their characteristics will be directly related to their sources in the surface community by identifying the genetic contents of individual particle types. Individual particles will be isolated from gel layers and the 16S and 18S rRNA gene fragments will be amplified and sequenced. This work would, for the first time, combine molecular approaches with particle-specific observations to enable simultaneous identification of both which organisms are exported and the processes responsible for their export.

Agency: NSF | Branch: Standard Grant | Program: | Phase: MARINE GEOLOGY AND GEOPHYSICS | Award Amount: 198.64K | Year: 2016

The most active volcanic provinces in the world are under the sea. Because there is little interference from the thick crustal rocks that form the continents and because the magmas that erupt on the seafloor are closer to and more representative of their source in the mantle, submarine volcanic studies over the last 50 years have helped to transform our knowledge of magma and magma chamber dynamics and evolution. They have also improved our understanding of how the Earth and its tectonic plates work and the cycling of geochemical elements between crustal and mantle reservoirs and vice versa. This being said, with the exception of a few that peek above the ocean as islands, most seafloor volcanoes lie thousands of meters below the sea surface making it very difficult to know when or how they are erupting. This research will improve our knowledge of these processes by examining volcanically generated sediments deposited in and around the Axial Volcano caldera 1,400 meters below sealevel and about 500 km off the west coast of Oregon. The research is focused on understanding the history of Axial Volcano caldera formation and determining the mechanisms of vitriclastic formation and the applicability of their use in volcanic stratigraphic studies on undersea volcanoes. Axial is the most thoroughly monitored and sampled seamount in the world. Samples consisting of sediment cores, scoop bags, and rocks as well as bathymetric maps of the caldera at 1 meter resolution will be used in the analysis as will sedimentologic, stratigraphic, and geochemical analytical approaches. Broader impacts of the project include support of two early career scientists, graduate student training, and use of the new, major, NSF-funded Ocean Observing Initiative network. Impacts also include collaboration with two scientists whose gender is under-represented in the sciences, both of whom are employed at institutions in the EPSCoR states (i.e., states that do not receive significant amounts of federal funding) of Idaho and Rhode Island. Other impacts include international collaboration with German and French scientists and outreach to K-5 schools by producing materials for instruction on volcanoes and volcanic eruptions.

Goals of the research are to define the physical and chemical evolution of Axial Seamount through the time of caldera formation and increase our understanding of submarine volcano eruption styles, fragmentation processes, and vitriclast dispersal mechanisms. Hypotheses to be tested include (1) the physical and chemical characteristics of vitriclastic deposits can be used to fingerprint their eruption, fragmentation, and dispersal origins and (2) lithofacies record magma reservoir deepening associated with magma withdrawal and caldera collapse.Technical The mineralogy of vitriclasts will be examined using X-ray diffraction and scanning electron energy dispersive spectroscopy to constrain their temperature and chemical conditions of origin. Stable isotopes of Hydrogen and Oxygen as well as Cl/K2O ratios will be used to determine magma-seawater interaction during vitriclast fragmentation and seawter assimilation into the magma. A detailed morphometric, textural, and grain size analysis will be carried out to determine if clasts are of phreatomagmatic origin. Magmatic volatiles will be measured in 80 glass inclusions in olivine by secondary ion mass spectrometry from samples taken from vitriclasts.

Agency: NSF | Branch: Standard Grant | Program: | Phase: Digitization | Award Amount: 164.04K | Year: 2016

Between 65 and 100 million years ago, during the time that dinosaurs walked the earth, a large, tropical seaway covered the central part of what is now North America. This seaway teemed with marine life. Snails and clams lived on the seafloor; ammonites, along with giant mosasaurs, plesiosaurs, sharks, and fish, swam about; at the same time early birds and pterosaurs floated on or flew above the seaway. What remains today is a prolific fossil record that has been collected by paleontologists for over 100 years. Notable fossils from this time period and region are on display at museums around the world. However, the vast bulk of fossils collected from this region are locked away in museum drawers. To provide scientists and the general public access to these fossils and their associated data, this project proposes to digitize invertebrate and vertebrate fossils from this time period and region, making information accessible through searchable electronic databases. Additionally, a variety of online resources illustrating and describing these fossils and mapping their distributions will be developed. A freely accessible online textbook of paleontology will be generated and a website and App will be developed to highlight the appearances, occurrences, and ages of constituent species, to help students and aspiring paleontologists identify and learn about these fossils. The project plans to generate a variety of curricular materials for K-12 education, including 3-D scans of fossils for free download and printed 3-D models for classroom use. Products of this project will also include workshops to engage science teachers and items to augment public programs and exhibits at participating institutions.

This work will greatly increase the scientific value of eight major U.S. museum collections of fossils. The museum collections contain large amounts of data useful for studying what causes marine species to migrate, go extinct, and evolve during a long period of greenhouse climate conditions similar to those our planet may soon experience. These data have relevance for evaluating how global change has and will continue to affect life on earth. An estimated 164,000 specimens collected from thousands of locations, in the region once occupied by the Western Interior Seaway, will be databased and georeferenced. Representatives from each of roughly 1,500 microfossil, invertebrate, and vertebrate species will be imaged. The digitized records will be made available online via individual museum databases, iDigBio, and iDigPaleo. The resultant data will enable scientists to answer questions about how different species interact and ecosystems change in the face of environmental shifts during a key time in the history of life. Moreover, the data will be ideal for use with an assortment of modern quantitative tools -including paleoecological niche modeling (PaleoENM) - and will help improve paleoclimate and paleoceanographic models. Finally, several undergraduate and graduate students will be trained. Results of the project will be published at the following url:

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