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Heathcote E.J.,University of Toronto | Marcellin P.,Hopital Beaujon | Buti M.,Hospital General Universitari Vall dHebron and Ciberehd | Gane E.,Middlemore Hospital | And 21 more authors.
Gastroenterology | Year: 2011

Background & Aims: Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF), a nucleotide analogue and potent inhibitor of hepatitis B virus (HBV) polymerase, showed superior efficacy to adefovir dipivoxil in treatment of chronic hepatitis B through 48 weeks. We evaluated long-term efficacy and safety of TDF monotherapy in patients with chronic hepatitis B who were positive or negative for hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg+ or HBeAg-). Methods: After 48 weeks of double-blind comparison of TDF to adefovir dipivoxil, patients who underwent liver biopsy were eligible to continue the study on open-label TDF for 7 additional years; data presented were collected up to 3 years (week 144) from 85% of participants. Primary efficacy end points at week 144 included levels of HBV DNA and alanine aminotransferase, development of resistance mutations, and presence of HBeAg or hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). Results: At week 144, 87% of HBeAg- and 72% of HBeAg+ patients treated with TDF had levels of HBV DNA <400 copies/mL. Among patients who had previously received adefovir dipivoxil and then received TDF, 88% of the HBeAg- and 71% of the HBeAg+ patients had levels of HBV DNA <400 copies/mL; overall, 81% and 74%, respectively, maintained normalized levels of alanine aminotransferase and 34% had lost HBeAg. Amino acid substitutions in HBV DNA polymerase that are associated with resistance to tenofovir were not detected in any patient. Cumulatively, 8% of HBeAg+ patients lost HBsAg. TDF maintained a favorable safety profile for up to 3 years. Conclusions: TDF was safe and effective in the long-term management of HBeAg+ and HBeAg- patients with chronic hepatitis B. © 2011 AGA Institute.


Lam K.D.,Pacific Health Foundation | Lam K.D.,University of California at San Francisco | Trinh H.N.,Pacific Health Foundation | Do S.T.,Digestive Health Associates of Texas | And 9 more authors.
Hepatology | Year: 2010

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype is an important criteria in determining duration of therapy and predictor of sustained virologic response (SVR) to pegylated interferon (PEG IFN) and ribavirin (RBV) therapy. Optimal duration of therapy for patients with HCV genotype 6 is not known. We conducted a multicenter, open-label randomized controlled trial of patients with HCV genotype 6 at five gastroenterology clinics in the western U.S. Patients were stratified by viral load and histologic stage and assigned to receive PEG IFN-α2a 180 μg subcutaneously weekly and weight-based oral RBV 800 to 1,200 mg daily for 24 or 48 weeks. Primary outcome measurement was SVR rate by intention-to-treat analysis. From February 2005 to October 2007 a total of 60 patients (age 51 ± 10 years, 47% male, log HCVRNA 6.3 ± 1.1 IU/mL) were enrolled: 27 patients to 24 weeks and 33 patients to 48 weeks of therapy. In the 24-week and 48-week groups, 96% and 97% achieved early virologic response (P = 0.90); 89% versus 94% achieved end of therapy virologic response (P = 0.48). SVR was achieved in 70% versus 79% of patients assigned to 24 weeks versus 48 weeks (P = 0.45). Rapid virologic response (RVR) was a significant predictor of SVR in the 48-week group and trending towards significance in the 24-week group: 82% and 83% of those with RVR achieved SVR versus 33% and 29% for the 24-week and 48-week groups, respectively (P = 0.07 and P = 0.02). Conclusion: There was no significant difference in SVR rates in patients with HCV genotype 6 treated with PEG IFN-α2a and RBV for 24 versus 48 weeks. © 2010 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.


Ha N.B.,University of California at Davis | Ha N.B.,Stanford University | Ha N.B.,University of California at San Francisco | Chaung K.T.,Pacific Health Foundation | And 4 more authors.
Digestive Diseases and Sciences | Year: 2014

Background and Aims: The dose recommendation for entecavir (ETV) is 0.5 mg daily for treatment-naïve chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients and 1.0 mg daily for lamivudine-refractory patients; however, few data are available for the efficacy of a 1.0-mg daily dose in treatment-naïve CHB patients. Our goal is to examine the treatment outcome of treatment-naïve patients placed on ETV 0.5 mg or ETV 1.0 mg daily through week 48. Methods: Cases were 40 consecutive hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)-positive CHB patients treated with ETV 1.0 mg daily between January 2005 and September 2010, and controls were 40 consecutive CHB patients treated with ETV 0.5 mg daily between January 2005 and September 2010 at three US gastroenterology/liver clinics. Controls were matched for age (±5 years), sex, HBeAg, and baseline hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA (±0.5 log10 IU/ml). Complete viral suppression was defined as undetectable HBV DNA by polymerase chain reaction (<100 IU/ml). Results: Both groups had similar distributions of age (38 ± 11 years), male patients (55 %), and mean HBV DNA (7.7 ± 1.1 log10 IU/ml). The complete viral suppression rate was similar in both cases and controls through week 24 (15 vs. 15 %, p = 1.00) and week 48 (22 vs. 36 %, p = 0.17). Non-adherence was reported in three patients in the ETV 1.0 mg daily cohort at week 48. Conclusions: There were no significant differences in the proportion of patients with complete viral suppression in patients treated with ETV 0.5 mg daily or the higher daily dose of 1.0 mg. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.


Pan C.Q.,New York University | Trinh H.,San Jose Gastroenterology | Yao A.,AE and LY Medical Associates | Bae H.,Asian Pacific Liver Center | And 3 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

Background and aims: Chronic hepatitis B (CHB) disproportionately affects the Asian-American population in the USA. Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) has demonstrated potent antiviral activity in clinical trials, but data in Asian-Americans from community studies are lacking. Methods: Adult Asian-American patients with CHB from private medical and community-based practices were prospectively enrolled and treated with open-label TDF 300 mg once daily in a single-arm study for 48 weeks. After Week 48, patients had the option to transition to commercially available CHB therapy. The primary efficacy endpoint was hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA <400 copies/mL at Week 48. Secondary endpoints were safety and tolerability, serologic and biochemical responses, liver fibrosis by FibroTest, and the development of drug-resistant mutations. Results: Of the 90 patients enrolled, 53 (58%) were hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)-positive at baseline. At Week 48, 74 patients (82% overall; 70% HBeAg-positive and 100% HBeAg-negative) had HBV DNA <400 copies/mL. Six (12%) HBeAg-positive patients achieved HBeAg loss/seroconversion. The percentage of patients with alanine aminotransferase in the normal range increased from 26% at baseline to 66% at Week 48. The percentage of patients with F0 (no or minimal) fibrosis by FibroTest increased from 48% to 51%, and those with F4 (severe) fibrosis decreased from 4% to 1%. No resistance to TDF developed. Treatment was well tolerated. Most adverse events were mild in severity and considered unrelated to study drug. Conclusions: TDF is effective and well tolerated in Asian-American CHB patients in community clinic-based settings, consistent with larger registration trials. Improvement in liver fibrosis was seen in a proportion of patients. No resistance to TDF developed through 48 weeks of treatment. Trial Registraton: Clinicaltrial.gov identifier NCT00736190 © 2014 Pan et al.


Zhang S.,Pacific Health Foundation | Zhang S.,University of California at Los Angeles | Garcia R.T.,Pacific Health Foundation | Ristau J.T.,Pacific Health Foundation | And 3 more authors.
Digestive Diseases and Sciences | Year: 2012

Background and Objectives Previous studies have found that a major proportion of patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) do not receive antiviral therapy. The objective of this study was to characterize treatment eligibility on the basis of current guidelines, determine whether eligible patients actually receive treatment, and examine associated predictors. Methods We conducted a retrospective study of patients who were evaluated for CHB at two community gastroenterology clinics between April 2007 and February 2009. Using criteria published by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases (AASLD) in 2007-2009 and by a panel of US hepatologists (US Panel) in 2006-2008, treatment eligibility was determined for the patients. Results Of 612 consecutive CHB patients included, mean age was 44 ± 13 years, 54 % were male, and 99 % were Asian. Half (51 %) were eligible for treatment on the basis of the US Panel algorithm and 47 % of these patients also met AASLD treatment criteria. Overall, antiviral therapy was initiated for 50 % of eligible patients: 72 % of AASLD-eligible patients and 29 %of patients who were US Panel-eligible only. Independent predictors for actual treatment initiation were higher ALT for AASLD-eligible patients and higher ALT and older age for patients who were US Panel-eligible only. The leading reasons for nontreatment were further observation recommended by the physician, followed by loss of follow-up and patient refusal. Conclusions Approximately half of the CHB patients evaluated at community referral clinics met treatment criteria of at least one guideline; however, only about half received antiviral therapy within 12 months of presentation. Further studies are needed to optimize treatment of eligible CHB patients. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.


Pan C.Q.,City University of New York | Chan S.,Sing Chan Endoscopy | Trinh H.,San Jose Gastroenterology | Yao A.,AE and LY Medical Asociates | And 2 more authors.
World Journal of Gastroenterology | Year: 2015

AIM: To compare the efficacy and safety of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) in Asian and non-Asian chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients. METHODS: The efficacy and safety of the initial 48 wk of treatment with TDF was compared in a posthoc analysis of combined data from 217 Asians and 299 non-Asians included in Studies 102 and 103 and a post-approval, open-label trial (Study 123). Patient groups were compared according to baseline hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) status and viral load. The main outcome measures included the proportion of patients who achieved a hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA level < 400 copies/mL at Week 48 of treatment. Secondary measures included: HBV DNA and alanine aminotransaminase (ALT) levels over time; proportion of patients with normal ALT levels; proportion of patients with HBeAg loss/seroconversion and proportion of patients with hepatitis B surface antigen loss/seroconversion; changes in liver histology. Safety and tolerability were evaluated by the occurrence of adverse events (AEs), serious AEs, laboratory abnormalities, discontinuation of the study drug due to AEs, or death. The primary efficacy and safety analysis set included all patients who were randomly assigned to treatment and received at least one dose of study drug. RESULTS: At week 48, similar proportions of Asians and non-Asians reached HBV DNA < 400 copies/mL (96% of Asian and 97% of non-Asian patients with HBeAg-negative CHB and 83% of Asian and 79% of non-Asian patients with HBeAg-positive CHB had HBV DNA) and normal ALT (78% of Asian and 81% of non-Asian patients with HBeAg-negative CHB and 71% of Asian and 74% of non-Asian patients with HBeAgpositive CHB had normal ALT). On-treatment HBV DNA decline rates were similar between Asians and non-Asians regardless of baseline HBeAg status and viral load. HBV DNA decline during the first four weeks was 2.9 log10 copies/mL in HBeAg-negative Asians and non-Asians, and in HBeAg-positive non-Asians, and 3.1 log10 copies/mL in HBeAg-positive Asians. HBeAg loss and seroconversion was achieved in 14% of Asians vs 26% and 24%, respectively, in non-Asians. Liver histology improved in 77.2% of Asians and 71.5% of non-Asians. No resistance to TDF developed. No renal safety signals were observed. CONCLUSION: TDF demonstrated similar viral suppression, normalization of ALT, improvements in liver fibrosis, and no detectable resistance in Asian and non-Asian patients regardless of baseline HBeAg status. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Baishideng Publishing Group Inc. All rights reserved.


Vutien P.,Case Western Reserve University | Vutien P.,Stanford University | Trinh H.N.,Pacific Health Foundation | Garcia R.T.,Pacific Health Foundation | And 9 more authors.
Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology | Year: 2014

Background Aims: Prior studies have detected hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA polymerase mutations in treatment-naive patients. However, most of these studies used either direct polymerase chain reaction sequencing, which detects these mutations with low levels of sensitivity, or patient cohorts that were not well-characterized. We investigated the prevalence of HBV mutations in DNA polymerase by using a line probe assay. Methods: In a prospective, cross-sectional study, we enrolled 198 treatment-naive patients with chronic hepatitis B (52.5% male; mean age, 41 years) from February 2009 to May 2011 from 3 gastroenterology and liver clinics in Northern California. Exclusion criteria included infection with hepatitis C or D viruses or human immunodeficiency virus. All patients completed a questionnaire (to determine demographics, history of liver disease, prior treatments, family medical history, drug and alcohol use, and environmental risk factors for hepatitis) that was administered by a research coordinator; mutations in HBV DNA polymerase were detected by using the INNO-LiPA HBV DR v.3 assay. Results: Most patients were Vietnamese (48.5%) or Chinese (36.4%) and were infected with HBV genotypes B (67.5%) or C (24.2%). Mutations in HBV DNA polymerase were found in 2 patients (1%), rtI233V (n= 1) and rtM250M/L (n= 1). Conclusions: In a multicenter prospective study of treatment-naive patients with chronic hepatitis B, we detected mutations in HBV DNA polymerase in only 1%. Because of the low prevalence of these mutations and the uncertain clinical significance of such quasispecies, routine HBV DNA polymerase mutation analysis cannot be recommended before initiation of antiviral therapy for treatment-naive patients with chronic hepatitis B. The analysis requires further molecular and clinical studies. © 2014 AGA Institute.


Bhat M.,McGill University | Romagnuolo J.,Medical University of South Carolina | Da Silveira E.,San Jose Gastroenterology | Reinhold C.,McGill University | And 4 more authors.
Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics | Year: 2013

Background The preferred initial investigation with either magnetic resonance (MRCP) or endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) in patients with suspected biliary obstruction remains controversial in many clinical settings. Aim To assess the effectiveness of an initial MRCP vs. ERCP in the work-up of patients at moderate likelihood of a suspected biliary obstruction. Methods Patients with an unconfirmed benign biliary obstruction, based on laboratory and ultrasound findings, were randomised to an ERCP-first or MRCP-first strategy, stratified by level of obstruction. The primary outcome was the occurrence of a disease or procedure-related bilio-pancreatic adverse events within the next 12 months. Secondary outcomes were the number of subsequent bilio-pancreatic procedures, duration of hospitalisation, days away from activities of daily living (ADL), quality of life (SF-36) and mortality. Results We randomised 126 patients to ERCP-first and 131 to MRCP-first (age 54 ± 18 years, 62% female, 39% post-cholecystectomy). In follow-up, 18/126 (14.3%) ERCP-first and 25/131 (19.1%) MRCP-first patients experienced a procedure- or disease-related complication (P = 0.30) (disease-related in 13 and 18 patients, and procedure-related in 5 and 7 patients respectively). A cause of biliary obstruction was found in 39.7% vs. 49.6% of patients (P = 0.11). Sixty-six (50%) patients in the MRCP-first group ended up avoiding an ERCP in follow-up. ERCP-first and MRCP-first patients were away from usual activities for 3.4 ± 7.7 days and 2.0 ± 4.8 days respectively (P < 0.001). Conclusion A strategy of MRCP-first decreased the need for subsequent MRCPs, but not complications. Further study is required to define factors influencing the eventual use of MRCP vs. ERCP in appropriately selected patients (ClinicalTrial.gov: NCT01424657). © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


Gao L.,Stanford University | Trinh H.N.,San Jose Gastroenterology | Li J.,View Medical | Nguyen M.H.,Stanford University
Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics | Year: 2014

Background Entecavir (ETV) and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) are the two first-line anti-viral therapies for chronic hepatitis B (CHB); however, there are limited studies directly comparing their effectiveness. Aim To compare the effectiveness of ETV and TDF in nucleos(t)ide-naïve CHB patients with high hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA levels, defined as serum HBV DNA greater than 6 log10 IU/mL. Methods We performed a retrospective multicentre cohort study of adult CHB patients who were seen between 2009 and 2012 at four Northern California community gastroenterology and hepatology clinics. Results We identified 59 consecutive patients treated with TDF and 216 patients treated with ETV. Pre-treatment characteristics were similar between the two groups. Among HBeAg-negative patients, there was no significant difference in viral suppression rates between ETV and TDF (P = 0.72). In contrast, among HBeAg-positive patients, those treated with TDF achieved viral suppression significantly more rapidly than those treated with ETV (P < 0.0001); the Kaplan-Meier estimated probability of complete suppression was 18% vs. 11% at 6 months, 51% vs. 28% at 12 months and 72% vs. 39% at 18 months respectively. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards analysis indicated that treatment with TDF compared to ETV was a significant predictor of viral suppression, but only for HBeAg-positive patients (HR = 2.59; 95% CI 1.58-4.22; P < 0.001). Conclusion Tenofovir is significantly more effective than entecavir for achieving complete viral suppression in HBeAg-positive, nucleos(t)ide-naïve chronic hepatitis B patients with HBV DNA greater than 6 log10 IU/mL. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


Ha N.B.,Pacific Health Foundation | Ha N.B.,Stanford University | Garcia R.T.,Pacific Health Foundation | Trinh H.N.,Pacific Health Foundation | And 5 more authors.
Digestive Diseases and Sciences | Year: 2011

Background and Aims: Antiviral treatment responses for patients with hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)-negative chronic hepatitis B (CHB) are well-defined by data from registration trials but may differ from patients seen in community settings where medical adherence is usually not as strictly monitored. The goal of this study was to examine the long-term outcomes of HBeAg-negative patients in a community clinical setting. Methods: We performed a cohort study of 189 consecutive treatment-naïve patients with CHB who were treated with either entecavir (ETV) 0.5 mg daily (n = 107) or adefovir dipivoxil (ADV) 10 mg daily (n = 82) from 2002 to 2009 at two community clinics. Results: All patients were Asians. Both ETV and ADV cohorts had similar median baseline ALT and HBV DNA levels. By year 4, a similar proportion of ETV and ADV patients who remained on monotherapy achieved complete viral suppression (91-96%); however, more patients in the ADV cohort required alternative therapy (27 vs. 5%). No patients in the ETV cohort developed resistance while 18% of the ADV cohort did. Cumulative nonadherence rates were 10 and 12% in ADV and ETV cohorts, respectively. Conclusions: Failure to monotherapy in a community clinical setting is due to both antiviral resistance and patient nonadherence. Medication nonadherence is likely to be a more important contributor to treatment failure than antiviral resistance, especially with new anti-HBV agents such as ETV and tenofovir. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

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