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Whittier, CA, United States

Greenstein D.,Southern California Coastal Water Research Project | Bay S.,Southern California Coastal Water Research Project | Jacobe M.,City of Los Angeles | Barton C.,San Jose Creek Water Quality Laboratory | And 4 more authors.
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment | Year: 2013

Sediment toxicity was investigated at 222 stations in the Southern California Bight (SCB) during 2008. This represented the first time that assessment methods established by California's new Sediment Quality Objectives program were employed in a survey of this scale. The goal was to determine the extent and magnitude of sediment toxicity in the SCB, how toxicity compared among specific environments, and whether toxicity has changed over the last decade. Two toxicity tests were used: the 10-day amphipod whole sediment survival test with Eohaustorius estuarius and a 48-h embryo development test with the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis exposed at the sediment-water interface. Less than 1 % of the area of the SCB was found to be toxic to the amphipod test. No toxicity was found in offshore stations, but 14 % of embayment areas were toxic to the amphipods. The mussel test identified 13 % of the embayment areas to be toxic. Estuary and marina locations had the greatest areal extent of toxicity for both tests. The two toxicity methods agreed that sediments were not toxic at over half of the stations tested. The mussel test showed a greater magnitude of response than the amphipod. Sediment toxicity was shown to have declined in both extent and magnitude from levels measured in 1998 and 2003. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Bulloch D.N.,University of California at Riverside | Nelson E.D.,San Jose Creek Water Quality Laboratory | Carr S.A.,San Jose Creek Water Quality Laboratory | Wissman C.R.,San Jose Creek Water Quality Laboratory | And 3 more authors.
Environmental Science and Technology | Year: 2015

Final effluent samples from 10 southern California (United States) wastewater treatment facilities, employing four distinct treatment schemes, were surveyed for selected pharmaceuticals, personal care products (PPCPs), alkylphenols, and 21 of their halogenated disinfection byproducts. Chlorinated and brominated standards and isotopically labeled internal standards were synthesized and purified to confirm and more accurately quantify selected disinfection byproducts of salicylic acid, bisphenol A, gemfibrozil, naproxen, diclofenac, technical 4-nonylphenol, and 4-tert-octylphenol using high-performance liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry. Concentrations of parent compounds ranged from <10 to 3830 ng/L (gemfibrozil), and those of chloro/bromo byproducts ranged from <4 to 370 ng/L (dibromo nonylphenol). The highest concentrations of parent compounds were measured in effluent that was not subjected to tertiary treatment. The chlorinated and brominated byproduct concentration may be affected by the influent concentration of parent compounds, hydraulic retention times, and chlorine contact times. Salicylic acid was readily halogenated, which is evident from the ratio of halogenated to nonhalogenated species. There were no measured chlorinated byproducts of bisphenol A despite occasionally high concentrations of the parent compound. Not surprisingly, higher concentrations of most brominated species were measured in the treatment plant with the highest bromide concentrations. These results demonstrate the occurrence of novel halogenated byproducts of PPCPs that have limited toxicological data and significant uncertainty with regard to their risk to ecological systems. © 2015 American Chemical Society.

Nelson E.D.,San Jose Creek Water Quality Laboratory | Do H.,San Jose Creek Water Quality Laboratory | Lewis R.S.,San Jose Creek Water Quality Laboratory | Carr S.A.,San Jose Creek Water Quality Laboratory
Environmental Science and Technology | Year: 2011

Hourly samples of tertiary wastewater effluent were analyzed for 30 pharmaceuticals, personal care products, estrogenic steroids, and alkylphenols in order to better understand the rate at which these compounds enter the environment. Several distinct patterns of daily cycling were observed, and were characterized as three separate categories. The concentrations of compounds such as trimethoprim, sulfamethoxazole, naproxen, estrone, and triclosan varied greatly during a daily cycle, with relative standard deviations exceeding 100% of their daily mean. Less extreme daily cycles were seen for other compounds such as azithromycin, atenolol, tert-octylphenol, iopromide and gemfibrozil. Peak concentrations for most compounds occurred in the early evening (5-8 pm). However, some compounds including carbamazepine, primidone, fluoxetine, and triclocarban exhibited little or no variability. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

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