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Rosenthal V.D.,International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium | Bijie H.,Zhongshan Hospital | Maki D.G.,University of Wisconsin - Medical School | Mehta Y.,Medanta the Medcity | And 33 more authors.
American Journal of Infection Control | Year: 2012

The results of a surveillance study conducted by the International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium (INICC) from January 2004 through December 2009 in 422 intensive care units (ICUs) of 36 countries in Latin America, Asia, Africa, and Europe are reported. During the 6-year study period, using Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN; formerly the National Nosocomial Infection Surveillance system [NNIS]) definitions for device-associated health care-associated infections, we gathered prospective data from 313,008 patients hospitalized in the consortium's ICUs for an aggregate of 2,194,897 ICU bed-days. Despite the fact that the use of devices in the developing countries' ICUs was remarkably similar to that reported in US ICUs in the CDC's NHSN, rates of device-associated nosocomial infection were significantly higher in the ICUs of the INICC hospitals; the pooled rate of central line-associated bloodstream infection in the INICC ICUs of 6.8 per 1,000 central line-days was more than 3-fold higher than the 2.0 per 1,000 central line-days reported in comparable US ICUs. The overall rate of ventilator-associated pneumonia also was far higher (15.8 vs 3.3 per 1,000 ventilator-days), as was the rate of catheter-associated urinary tract infection (6.3 vs. 3.3 per 1,000 catheter-days). Notably, the frequencies of resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates to imipenem (47.2% vs 23.0%), Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates to ceftazidime (76.3% vs 27.1%), Escherichia coli isolates to ceftazidime (66.7% vs 8.1%), Staphylococcus aureus isolates to methicillin (84.4% vs 56.8%), were also higher in the consortium's ICUs, and the crude unadjusted excess mortalities of device-related infections ranged from 7.3% (for catheter-associated urinary tract infection) to 15.2% (for ventilator-associated pneumonia). Copyright © 2012 by the Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Vrooman L.M.,Dana-Farber Cancer Institute | Stevenson K.E.,Dana-Farber Cancer Institute | Supko J.G.,Massachusetts General Hospital | O'Brien J.,Dana-Farber Cancer Institute | And 15 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Oncology | Year: 2013

Purpose: We assessed the toxicity and efficacy of dexamethasone and a novel dosing method of Escherichia coli L-asparaginase (EC-Asnase) in children and adolescents with newly diagnosed acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) Patients and Methods: Patients achieving complete remission (CR) on Dana-Farber Cancer Institute ALL Consortium Protocol 00-01 were eligible for random assignment to 1) dexamethasone or prednisone, administered as 5-day pulses, every 3 weeks, and 2) weekly EC-Asnase, administered as a 25,000 U/m2 fixed dose (FD) or individualized dose (ID) starting at 12,500-IU/m2, adjusted every 3 weeks based on nadir serum asparaginase activity (NSAA) determinations Results: Between 2000 and 2004, 492 evaluable patients (ages 1 to 18 years) enrolled; 473 patients (96%) achieved CR. Four hundred eight patients (86%) participated in the corticosteroid randomization and 384 patients (81%) in the EC-Asnase randomization. With 4.9 years of median follow-up, dexamethasone was associated with superior 5-year event-free survival (EFS; 90% v 81% for prednisone; P = .01) but higher rates of infection (P = .03) and, in older children, higher cumulative ncidence of osteonecrosis (P = .02) and fracture (P = .06). ID EC-Asnase had superior 5-year EFS (90% v 82% for FD; P = .04), but did not reduce the frequency of asparaginase-related toxicity. Multivariable analysis identified both dexamethasone and ID EC-Asnase as independent predictors of favorable EFS. Conclusion: There was no overall difference in skeletal toxicity by corticosteroid type; dexamethasone was associated with more infections and, in older children, increased incidence of osteonecrosis and fracture. There was no difference in asparaginase-related toxicity by EC-Asnase dosing method Dexamethasone and ID EC-Asnase were each associated with superior EFS. Monitoring NSAA during treatment with EC-Asnase may be an effective strategy to improve outcome in pediatric ALL. © 2013 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

Lipshultz S.E.,University of Miami | Lipsitz S.R.,Brigham and Womens Hospital | Kutok J.L.,Brigham and Womens Hospital | Miller T.L.,University of Miami | And 14 more authors.
Cancer | Year: 2013

BACKGROUND Doxorubicin is associated with progressive cardiac dysfunction, possibly through the formation of doxorubicin-iron complexes leading to free-radical injury. The authors determined the frequency of hemochromatosis (HFE) gene mutations associated with hereditary hemochromatosis and their relationship with doxorubicin-associated cardiotoxicity in survivors of childhood high-risk acute lymphoblastic leukemia. METHODS Peripheral blood was tested for 2 common HFE allelic variants: C282Y and H63D. Serum cardiac troponin-T (cTnT) and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), which are biomarkers of cardiac injury and cardiomyopathy, respectively, were assayed during therapy. Left ventricular (LV) structure and function were assessed with echocardiography. RESULTS A total of 184 patients had DNA results for at least 1 variant, and 167 had DNA results for both: 24% carried H63D and 10% carried C282Y. Heterozygous C282Y genotype was associated with multiple elevations in cTnT concentrations (P =.039), but not NT-proBNP. At a median of 2.2 years (range, 1.0 years-3.6 years) after diagnosis, the mean Z-scores for LV fractional shortening (-0.71 [standard error (SE), 0.25]; P =.008), mass (-0.84 [SE, 0.17]; P <.001), and end-systolic (-4.36 [SE, 0.26], P <.001) and end-diastolic (-0.68 [SE, 0.25]; P =.01) posterior wall thickness were found to be abnormal in children with either allele (n = 32). Noncarriers (n = 63) also were found to have below-normal LV mass (-0.45 [SE, 0.15]; P =.006) and end-systolic posterior wall thickness (-4.06 [SE, 0.17]; P <.001). Later follow-up demonstrated similar results. CONCLUSIONS Doxorubicin-associated myocardial injury was associated with C282Y HFE carriers. Although LV mass and wall thickness were found to be abnormally low overall, they were even lower in HFE carriers, who also had reduced LV function. Screening newly diagnosed cancer patients for HFE mutations may identify those at risk for doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity. Cancer 2013;119:3555-3562. © 2013 American Cancer Society. Doxorubicin is associated with progressive cardiac dysfunction, possibly by forming doxorubicin-iron complexes leading to free-radical injury. In the current study, doxorubicin-associated myocardial injury was associated with carriers of the C282Y allele, a common allelic variant of hemochromatosis, among long-term survivors of childhood high-risk acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Copyright © 2013 American Cancer Society.

Silverman L.B.,Dana-Farber Cancer Institute | Stevenson K.E.,Dana-Farber Cancer Institute | O'Brien J.E.,Dana-Farber Cancer Institute | Asselin B.L.,University of Rochester | And 12 more authors.
Leukemia | Year: 2010

The Dana-Farber Cancer Institute (DFCI) acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) Consortium has been conducting multi-institutional clinical trials in childhood ALL since 1981. The treatment backbone has included 20-30 consecutive weeks of asparaginase during intensification and frequent vincristine/corticosteroid pulses during the continuation phase. Between 1985 and 2000, 1457 children aged 0-18 years were treated on four consecutive protocols: 85-01 (1985-1987), 87-01 (1987-1991), 91-01 (1991-1955) and 95-01 (1996-2000). The 10-year event-free survival (EFS)s.e. by protocol was 77.92.8% (85-01), 74.22.3% (87-01), 80.82.1% (91-01) and 80.51.8% (95-01). Approximately 82% of patients treated in the 1980s and 88% treated in the 1990s were long-term survivors. Both EFS and overall survival (OS) rates were significantly higher for patients treated in the 1990s compared with the 1980s (P0.05 and 0.01, respectively). On the two protocols conducted in the 1990s, EFS was 79-85% for T-cell ALL patients and 75-78% for adolescents (age 10-18 years). Results of randomized studies revealed that dexrazoxane prevented acute cardiac injury without adversely affecting EFS or OS in high-risk (HR) patients, and frequently dosed intrathecal chemotherapy was an effective substitute for cranial radiation in standard-risk (SR) patients. Current studies continue to focus on improving efficacy while minimizing acute and late toxicities. © 2010 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved.

Lipshultz S.E.,University of Miami | Miller T.L.,University of Miami | Scully R.E.,University of Miami | Lipsitz S.R.,Brigham and Womens Hospital | And 13 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Oncology | Year: 2012

Purpose: Doxorubicin causes cardiac injury and cardiomyopathy in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Measuring biomarkers during therapy might help individualize treatment by immediately identifying cardiac injury and cardiomyopathy. Patients and Methods: Children with high-risk ALL were randomly assigned to receive doxorubicin alone (n = 100; 75 analyzed) or doxorubicin with dexrazoxane (n = 105; 81 analyzed). Echocardiograms and serial serum measurements of cardiac troponin T (cTnT; cardiac injury biomarker), N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP; cardiomyopathy biomarker), and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP; inflammatory biomarker) were obtained before, during, and after treatment. Results: cTnT levels were increased in 12% of children in the doxorubicin group and in 13% of the doxorubicin-dexrazoxane group before treatment but in 47% and 13%, respectively, after treatment (P = .005). NT-proBNP levels were increased in 89% of children in the doxorubicin group and in 92% of children in the doxorubicin-dexrazoxane group before treatment but in only 48% and 20%, respectively, after treatment (P = .07). The percentage of children with increased hsCRP levels did not differ between groups at any time. In the first 90 days of treatment, detectable increases in cTnT were associated with abnormally reduced left ventricular (LV) mass and LV end-diastolic posterior wall thickness 4 years later (P < .01); increases in NT-proBNP were related to an abnormal LV thickness-to-dimension ratio, suggesting LV remodeling, 4 years later (P = .01). Increases in hsCRP were not associated with any echocardiographic variables. Conclusion: cTnT and NT-proBNP may hold promise as biomarkers of cardiotoxicity in children with high-risk ALL. Definitive validation studies are required to fully establish their range of clinical utility. © 2012 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

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