San Jorge Childrens Hospital

San Juan, Puerto Rico

San Jorge Childrens Hospital

San Juan, Puerto Rico

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Lipshultz S.E.,University of Miami | Lipsitz S.R.,Brigham and Women's Hospital | Kutok J.L.,Brigham and Women's Hospital | Miller T.L.,University of Miami | And 14 more authors.
Cancer | Year: 2013

BACKGROUND Doxorubicin is associated with progressive cardiac dysfunction, possibly through the formation of doxorubicin-iron complexes leading to free-radical injury. The authors determined the frequency of hemochromatosis (HFE) gene mutations associated with hereditary hemochromatosis and their relationship with doxorubicin-associated cardiotoxicity in survivors of childhood high-risk acute lymphoblastic leukemia. METHODS Peripheral blood was tested for 2 common HFE allelic variants: C282Y and H63D. Serum cardiac troponin-T (cTnT) and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), which are biomarkers of cardiac injury and cardiomyopathy, respectively, were assayed during therapy. Left ventricular (LV) structure and function were assessed with echocardiography. RESULTS A total of 184 patients had DNA results for at least 1 variant, and 167 had DNA results for both: 24% carried H63D and 10% carried C282Y. Heterozygous C282Y genotype was associated with multiple elevations in cTnT concentrations (P =.039), but not NT-proBNP. At a median of 2.2 years (range, 1.0 years-3.6 years) after diagnosis, the mean Z-scores for LV fractional shortening (-0.71 [standard error (SE), 0.25]; P =.008), mass (-0.84 [SE, 0.17]; P <.001), and end-systolic (-4.36 [SE, 0.26], P <.001) and end-diastolic (-0.68 [SE, 0.25]; P =.01) posterior wall thickness were found to be abnormal in children with either allele (n = 32). Noncarriers (n = 63) also were found to have below-normal LV mass (-0.45 [SE, 0.15]; P =.006) and end-systolic posterior wall thickness (-4.06 [SE, 0.17]; P <.001). Later follow-up demonstrated similar results. CONCLUSIONS Doxorubicin-associated myocardial injury was associated with C282Y HFE carriers. Although LV mass and wall thickness were found to be abnormally low overall, they were even lower in HFE carriers, who also had reduced LV function. Screening newly diagnosed cancer patients for HFE mutations may identify those at risk for doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity. Cancer 2013;119:3555-3562. © 2013 American Cancer Society. Doxorubicin is associated with progressive cardiac dysfunction, possibly by forming doxorubicin-iron complexes leading to free-radical injury. In the current study, doxorubicin-associated myocardial injury was associated with carriers of the C282Y allele, a common allelic variant of hemochromatosis, among long-term survivors of childhood high-risk acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Copyright © 2013 American Cancer Society.


PubMed | Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, San Jorge Childrens Hospital, Puerto Rico Childrens Hospital, University of Hamburg and University of Puerto Rico at San Juan
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PLoS neglected tropical diseases | Year: 2016

Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a rare, potentially fatal disorder characterized by fever, pancytopenia, hepatosplenomegaly, and increased serum ferritin. HLH is being increasingly reported as a complication of dengue, a common tropical acute febrile illness.After a cluster of pediatric dengue-associated HLH patients was identified during the 2012-2013 dengue epidemic in Puerto Rico, active surveillance and a case-control investigation was conducted at four referral hospitals to determine the incidence of HLH in children and identify risk factors for HLH following dengue. Patients with dengue-associated HLH (cases) were matched by month of illness onset and admission hospital to dengue patients that did not develop HLH (controls). During 2008-2013, a total of 33 HLH patients were identified, of which 22 (67%) were associated with dengue and 1 died (dengue-associated HLH case-fatality rate: 4.5%). Two patients with dengue-associated HLH had illness onset in 2009, none had illness onset during the 2010 dengue epidemic, and 20 had illness onset during the 2012-2013 epidemic. Frequency of infection with either dengue virus (DENV)-1 or DENV-4 did not differ between cases and controls. Cases were younger than controls (median age: 1 vs. 13 years, p < 0.01), were hospitalized longer (18 vs. 5 days, p < 0.01), and were admitted more frequently to pediatric intensive care units (100% vs. 16%, p < 0.01). Cases had co-infection (18.2% vs. 4.5%, p = 0.04), recent influenza-like illness (54.5% vs. 25.0%, p = 0.01), and longer duration of fever (7 vs. 5 days; p < 0.01). Cases were more likely to have lymphadenopathy, hepatomegaly, splenomegaly, anemia, and elevated liver transaminases (p 0.02).During this cluster of dengue-associated HLH cases that was temporally associated with the 2012-2013 epidemic, most patients with dengue-associated HLH were infants and had higher morbidity than dengue inpatients. Physicians throughout the tropics should be aware of HLH as a potential complication of dengue, particularly in patients with anemia and severe liver injury.


Silverman L.B.,Dana-Farber Cancer Institute | Silverman L.B.,Childrens Hospital | Supko J.G.,Massachusetts General Hospital | Stevenson K.E.,Dana-Farber Cancer Institute | And 17 more authors.
Blood | Year: 2010

Over the past several decades, L-asparaginase, an important component of therapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), has typically been administered intramuscularly rather than intravenously in North America because of concerns regarding anaphylaxis.We evaluated the feasibility of giving polyethylene glycosylated (PEG)-asparaginase, the polyethylene glycol conjugate of Escherichia coli L-asparaginase, by intravenous infusion in children with ALL. Between 2005 and 2007, 197 patients (age, 1-17 years) were enrolled on Dana-Farber Cancer Institute ALL Consortium Protocol 05-01 and received a single dose of intravenous PEG-asparaginase (2500 IU/m2) over 1 hour during emission induction. Serum asparaginase activity more than 0.1 IU/mL was detected in 95%, 88%, and 7% of patients at 11, 18, and 25 days after dosing, respectively. Toxicities included allergy (1.5%), venous thrombosis (2%), and pancreatitis (4.6%). We conclude that intravenous administration of PEG-asparaginase is tolerable in children with ALL, and potentially therapeutic enzyme activity is maintained for at least 2 weeks after a single dose in most patients. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00400946. (Blood. 2010;115:1351-1353) © 2010 by The American Society of Hematology.


Lipshultz S.E.,University of Miami | Scully R.E.,University of Miami | Lipsitz S.R.,Brigham and Women's Hospital | Sallan S.E.,Dana-Farber Cancer Institute | And 17 more authors.
The Lancet Oncology | Year: 2010

Background: Doxorubicin chemotherapy is associated with cardiomyopathy. Dexrazoxane reduces cardiac damage during treatment with doxorubicin in children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). We aimed to establish the long-term effect of dexrazoxane on the subclinical state of cardiac health in survivors of childhood high-risk ALL 5 years after completion of doxorubicin treatment. Methods: Between January, 1996, and September, 2000, children with high-risk ALL were enrolled from nine centres in the USA, Canada, and Puerto Rico. Patients were assigned by block randomisation to receive ten doses of 30 mg/m2 doxorubicin alone or the same dose of doxorubicin preceded by 300 mg/m2 dexrazoxane. Treatment assignment was obtained through a telephone call to a centralised registrar to conceal allocation. Investigators were masked to treatment assignment but treating physicians and patients were not; however, investigators, physicians, and patients were masked to study serum cardiac troponin-T concentrations and echocardiographic measurements. The primary endpoints were late left ventricular structure and function abnormalities as assessed by echocardiography; analyses were done including all patients with data available after treatment completion. This trial has been completed and is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00165087. Findings: 100 children were assigned to doxorubicin (66 analysed) and 105 to doxorubicin plus dexrazoxane (68 analysed). 5 years after the completion of doxorubicin chemotherapy, mean left ventricular fractional shortening and end-systolic dimension Z scores were significantly worse than normal for children who received doxorubicin alone (left ventricular fractional shortening: -0·82, 95% CI -1·31 to -0·33; end-systolic dimension: 0·57, 0·21-0·93) but not for those who also received dexrazoxane (-0·41, -0·88 to 0·06; 0·15, -0·20 to 0·51). The protective effect of dexrazoxane, relative to doxorubicin alone, on left ventricular wall thickness (difference between groups: 0·47, 0·46-0·48) and thickness-to-dimension ratio (0·66, 0·64-0·68) were the only statistically significant characteristics at 5 years. Subgroup analysis showed dexrazoxane protection (p=0·04) for left ventricular fractional shortening at 5 years in girls (1·17, 0·24-2·11), but not in boys (-0·10, -0·87 to 0·68). Similarly, subgroup analysis showed dexrazoxane protection (p=0·046) for the left ventricular thickness-to-dimension ratio at 5 years in girls (1·15, 0·44-1·85), but not in boys (0·19, -0·42 to 0·81). With a median follow-up for recurrence and death of 8·7 years (range 1·3-12·1), event-free survival was 77% (95% CI 67-84) for children in the doxorubicin-alone group, and 76% (67-84) for children in the doxorubicin plus dexrazoxane group (p=0·99). Interpretation: Dexrazoxane provides long-term cardioprotection without compromising oncological efficacy in doxorubicin-treated children with high-risk ALL. Dexrazoxane exerts greater long-term cardioprotective effects in girls than in boys. Funding: US National Institutes of Health, Children's Cardiomyopathy Foundation, University of Miami Women's Cancer Association, Lance Armstrong Foundation, Roche Diagnostics, Pfizer, and Novartis. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.


Silverman L.B.,Dana-Farber Cancer Institute | Silverman L.B.,Childrens Hospital Boston | Stevenson K.E.,Dana-Farber Cancer Institute | O'Brien J.E.,Dana-Farber Cancer Institute | And 14 more authors.
Leukemia | Year: 2010

The Dana-Farber Cancer Institute (DFCI) acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) Consortium has been conducting multi-institutional clinical trials in childhood ALL since 1981. The treatment backbone has included 20-30 consecutive weeks of asparaginase during intensification and frequent vincristine/corticosteroid pulses during the continuation phase. Between 1985 and 2000, 1457 children aged 0-18 years were treated on four consecutive protocols: 85-01 (1985-1987), 87-01 (1987-1991), 91-01 (1991-1955) and 95-01 (1996-2000). The 10-year event-free survival (EFS)s.e. by protocol was 77.92.8% (85-01), 74.22.3% (87-01), 80.82.1% (91-01) and 80.51.8% (95-01). Approximately 82% of patients treated in the 1980s and 88% treated in the 1990s were long-term survivors. Both EFS and overall survival (OS) rates were significantly higher for patients treated in the 1990s compared with the 1980s (P0.05 and 0.01, respectively). On the two protocols conducted in the 1990s, EFS was 79-85% for T-cell ALL patients and 75-78% for adolescents (age 10-18 years). Results of randomized studies revealed that dexrazoxane prevented acute cardiac injury without adversely affecting EFS or OS in high-risk (HR) patients, and frequently dosed intrathecal chemotherapy was an effective substitute for cranial radiation in standard-risk (SR) patients. Current studies continue to focus on improving efficacy while minimizing acute and late toxicities. © 2010 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved.


Lipshultz S.E.,University of Miami | Miller T.L.,University of Miami | Lipsitz S.R.,Brigham and Women's Hospital | Neuberg D.S.,Dana-Farber Cancer Institute | And 17 more authors.
Pediatrics | Year: 2012

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Doxorubicin, effective against manymalignancies, is limited by cardiotoxicity. Continuous-infusion doxorubicin, compared with bolus-infusion, reduces early cardiotoxicity in adults. Its effectiveness in reducing late cardiotoxicity in children remains uncertain. We determined continuous-infusion doxorubicin cardioprotective efficacy in long-term survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). METHODS: The Dana-Farber Cancer Institute ALL Consortium Protocol 91-01 enrolled pediatric patients between 1991 and 1995. Newly diagnosed high-risk patients were randomly assigned to receive a total of 360 mg/m2 of doxorubicin in 30 mg/m 2 doses every 3 weeks, by either continuous (over 48 hours) or bolus-infusion (within 15 minutes). Echocardiograms at baseline, during, and after doxorubicin therapy were blindly remeasured centrally. Primary outcomes were late left ventricular (LV) structure and function. RESULTS: A total of 102 children were randomized to each treatment group. We analyzed 484 serial echocardiograms from 92 patients (n = 49 continuous; n = 43 bolus) with ≥1 echocardiogram ≥3 years after assignment. Both groups had similar demographics and normal baseline LV characteristics. Cardiac follow-up after randomization (median, 8 years) showed changes from baseline within the randomized groups (depressed systolic function, systolic dilation, reduced wall thickness, and reduced mass) at 3, 6, and 8 years; there were no statistically significant differences between randomized groups. Ten-year ALL event-free survival rates did not differ between the 2 groups (continuousinfusion, 83% versus bolus-infusion, 78%; P = .24). CONCLUSIONS: In survivors of childhood high-risk ALL, continuous-infusion doxorubicin, compared with bolus-infusion, provided no long-term cardioprotection or improvement in ALL event-free survival, hence provided no benefit over bolus-infusion. Copyright © 2012 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.


PubMed | Columbia University Medical Center, Brown University, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Inova Childrens Hospital and 7 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Nutrition (Burbank, Los Angeles County, Calif.) | Year: 2016

Children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) are at elevated risk for nutrition-related morbidity both during and after therapy. We present the demographic characteristics and nutrient intake at study entry of a prospective cohort in which evaluating dietary intake in children diagnosed with ALL was investigated.Dietary intake data were collected for participants enrolled on the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute ALL Consortium Protocol. Dietary intake was assessed with a food frequency questionnaire and was compared with the dietary reference intake by ALL risk group (standard and high risk).Dietary intake data were collected from 81% of participants (n=640). We found that 27% of participants were overweight/obese. Intake of total calories and other nutrients exceeded the dietary reference intake in up to 79% of children. This was evident in both risk groups and was pronounced among younger children. For micronutrients, dietary intake of calcium, vitamin D (females only), and zinc differed significantly between patients with standard-risk and those with high-risk ALL.This study was successful in collecting dietary intake data at the time of cancer diagnosis in a multicenter setting in a pediatric population at high-risk for nutrition-related morbidity. We identified at-risk dietary intakes, which vary by sex and ALL risk group; such patients may benefit from future dietary interventions.


PubMed | Morgan Stanley, Brown University, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Infinity Pharmaceuticals Inc. and 9 more.
Type: Clinical Trial, Phase III | Journal: The Lancet. Oncology | Year: 2015

l-asparaginase is a universal component of treatment for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, and is usually administered intramuscularly. Pegylated Escherichia coli asparaginase (PEG-asparaginase) has a longer half-life and is potentially less immunogenic than the native Escherichia coli (E coli) preparation, and can be more feasibly administered intravenously. The aim of the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia Consortium Protocol 05-001 (DFCI 05-001) was to compare the relative toxicity and efficacy of intravenous PEG-asparaginase and intramuscular native E colil-asparaginase in children with newly diagnosed acute lymphoblastic leukaemia.DFCI 05-001 enrolled patients aged 1-18 years with newly diagnosed acute lymphoblastic leukaemia from 11 consortium sites in the USA and Canada. Patients were assigned to an initial risk group on the basis of their baseline characteristics and then underwent 32 days of induction therapy. Those who achieved complete remission after induction therapy were assigned to a final risk group and were eligible to participate in a randomised comparison of intravenous PEG-asparaginase (15 doses of 2500 IU/m(2) every 2 weeks) or intramuscular native E colil-asparaginase (30 doses of 25000 IU/m(2) weekly), beginning at week 7 after study entry. Randomisation (1:1) was unmasked, and was done by a statistician-generated allocation sequence using a permuted blocks algorithm (block size of 4), stratified by final risk group. The primary endpoint of the randomised comparison was the overall frequency of asparaginase-related toxicities (defined as allergy, pancreatitis, and thrombotic or bleeding complications). Predefined secondary endpoints were disease-free survival, serum asparaginase activity, and quality of life during therapy as assessed by PedsQL surveys. All analyses were done by intention to treat. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00400946.Between April 22, 2005, and Feb 12, 2010, 551 eligible patients were enrolled. 526 patients achieved complete remission after induction, of whom 463 were randomly assigned to receive intramuscular native E colil-asparaginase (n=231) or intravenous PEG-asparaginase (n=232). The two treatment groups did not differ significantly in the overall frequency of asparaginase-related toxicities (65 [28%] of 232 patients in the intravenous PEG-asparaginase group vs 59 [26%] of 231 patients in the intramuscular native E colil-asparaginase group, p=060), or in the individual frequency of allergy (p=036), pancreatitis (p=055), or thrombotic or bleeding complications (p=026). Median follow-up was 60 years (IQR 50-71). 5-year disease-free survival was 90% (95% CI 86-94) for patients assigned to intravenous PEG-asparaginase and 89% (85-93) for those assigned to intramuscular native E colil-asparaginase (p=058). The median nadir serum asparaginase activity was significantly higher in patients who received intravenous PEG-asparaginase than in those who received intramuscular native E colil-asparaginase. Significantly more anxiety was reported by both patients and parent-proxy in the intramuscular native E colil-asparaginase group than in the intravenous PEG-asparaginase group. Scores for other domains were similar between the groups. The most common grade 3 or worse adverse events were bacterial or fungal infections (47 [20%] of 232 in the intravenous PEG-asparaginase group vs 51 [22%] of 231 patients in the intramuscular E colil-asparaginase group) and asparaginase-related allergic reactions (14 [6%] vs 6 [3%]).Intravenous PEG-asparaginase was not more toxic than, was similarly efficacious to, and was associated with decreased anxiety compared with intramuscular native E colil-asparaginase, supporting its use as the front-line asparaginase preparation in children with newly diagnosed acute lymphoblastic leukaemia.National Cancer Institute and Enzon Pharmaceuticals.


Polo M.,University of Puerto Rico at San Juan | Polo M.,San Jorge Childrens Hospital
Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery | Year: 2015

An evaluation and commentary of a recently suggested technique for the correction of gummy smiles is presented. A comparison of long-term stability reported with other surgical techniques, is also performed. From the results reported, use of this technique could offer a treatment option for those affected with excessive gingival display on smiling (gummy smile). © 2015 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Camelo M.,Central University of the Caribbean | Aponte L.F.,San Jorge Childrens Hospital | Lugo-Vicente H.,San Jorge Childrens Hospital
Journal of Pediatric Surgery | Year: 2012

Ganglioneuromas are benign tumors originating from the neural crest and are composed of mature ganglion cells. We describe a 15-year-old normotensive adolescent girl with a 2-month history of left flank pain. Imaging revealed a left suprarenal mass with elevated urinary dopamine level. During laparoscopic adrenalectomy, intraoperative rebound hypertension occurred. After resection, dopamine levels normalized. The pathologic diagnosis revealed an adrenal ganglioneuroma. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

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