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Molaei G.,Center for Vector Biology and Zoonotic Diseases | Huang S.,San Joaquin County Mosquito and Vector Control District | Andreadis T.G.,Center for Vector Biology and Zoonotic Diseases
Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association | Year: 2012

Studies on the vector-host interactions of Culex pipiens complex mosquitoes by sequencing portions of mitochondrial cytochrome b gene indicate that Cx. p. pipiens f. pipiens predominantly feed on avian hosts (93.1%), and focus feeding activity on several key bird species, in particular the American robin, the gray catbird, and the house sparrow in Connecticut. However, Cx. p. quinquefasciatus indiscriminately feed on both birds and mammals. Culex p. quinquefasciatus in Harris County - Texas and southern California acquired 39.1% and 88.2% of bloodmeals from birds, respectively. Mammalian-derived bloodmeals constituted 52.5% and 9.6% in the two regions, respectively. The most frequent avian hosts for this mosquito species in the southwestern U.S. were the mourning dove, the white-winged dove, the house sparrow and the house finch. Humans infrequently served as the source of bloodmeals for Cx. p. pipiens and Cx. p. quinquefasciatus. Microsatellite analysis of mosquitoes from Chicago, Illinois showed that Cx. p. pipiens f. pipiens with mammalian- derived bloodmeals had significantly higher ancestry and proportion of hybrids from Cx. p. pipiens f. molestus than did those with avian-derived bloodmeals. © 2012 by The American Mosquito Control Association, Inc. Source


Huang S.,San Joaquin County Mosquito and Vector Control District | Smith D.J.,San Joaquin County Mosquito and Vector Control District | Molaei G.,Center for Vector Biology and Zoonotic Diseases | Andreadis T.G.,Center for Vector Biology and Zoonotic Diseases | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Medical Entomology | Year: 2013

Canine heartworm is one of the most serious infections primarily affecting domestic dogs but will also infect cats and wild canids. To evaluate the potential of mosquitoes as vectors of dog heartworm, Dirofilaria immitis (Leidy) in San Joaquin County, CA, we collected mosquitoes in 2011 and analyzed for infection with heartworm by using polymerase chain reaction. Of 3,000 mosquito pools (total number of specimens = 36,554), D. immitis DNA was detected in 97 pools of seven species, and the overall minimum infection rate (MIR) for all mosquito species was 2.69: Culex pipiens L. (n = 40; MIR = 3.66), Culex tarsalis Coquillett (n = 25; MIR = 1.89), Culiseta incidens (Thomson) (n = 11; MIR = 2.81), Aedes vexans (Meigen) (n = 7; MIR = 2.18), Aedes melanimon Dyar (n = 5; MIR = 4.64), Culex erythrothorax Dyar (n = 5; MIR = 3.96), and Culiseta inornata (Williston) (n = 4; MIR = 2.65). Cx. pipiens and Cx. tarsalis had the highest number of D. immitis infections and collectively accounted for 67% of all positive pools. Ae. melanimon, Ae. vexans, and Cx. erythrothorax were found to be infected with D. immitis only in rural and agriculture areas, whereas infections in other species were identified in rural and agriculture areas, and urban and residential settings. The majority of positive pools were identified from June through November and peaked during August through October. This is the first report of D. immitis infection in Ae. melanimon, Cx. erythrothorax, Cx. tarsalis, Cs. incidens, and Cs. inornata. The frequent detection of D. immitis in field-collected Cx. pipiens and Cx. tarsalis in concert with their seasonal abundance and widespread distribution suggest a central role for these species in dog heartworm transmission. Other species, including Ae. vexans, Ae. melanimon, Cs. incidens, Cs. inornata, and Cx. erythrothorax, may play a secondary role in transmission. © 2013 Entomological Society of America. Source

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