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Felip E.,University of Barcelona | Gridelli C.,San Giuseppe Moscati Hospital | Baas P.,Netherlands Cancer Institute | Rosell R.,Hospital Germans Trias i Pujol | Stahel R.,University of Zürich
Annals of Oncology | Year: 2011

The 1st ESMO Consensus Conference on lung cancer was held in Lugano, Switzerland on 21 and 22 May 2010 with the participation of a multidisciplinary panel of leading professionals in pathology and molecular diagnostics, medical oncology, surgical oncology and radiation oncology. Before the conference, the expert panel prepared clinically relevant questions concerning five areas: early and locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), first-line metastatic NSCLC, second-/third-line NSCLC, NSCLC pathology and molecular testing, and small-cell lung cancer to be addressed through discussion at the Consensus Conference. All relevant scientific literature for each question was reviewed in advance. During the Consensus Conference, the panel developed recommendations for each specific question. The consensus agreement on three of these areas: NSCLC pathology and molecular testing, the treatment of first-line, and second-line/third-line therapy in metastatic NSCLC are reported in this article. The recommendations detailed here are based on an expert consensus after careful review of published data. All participants have approved this final update. © The Author 2011. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved.


Paz-Ares L.,University of Seville | de Marinis F.,San Camillo Forlanini Hospital | Dediu M.,Institute of Oncology Bucharest | Thomas M.,University of Heidelberg | And 13 more authors.
The Lancet Oncology | Year: 2012

Background: Patients with advanced non-squamous non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) benefit from pemetrexed maintenance therapy after induction therapy with a platinum-containing, non-pemetrexed doublet. The PARAMOUNT trial investigated whether continuation maintenance with pemetrexed improved progression-free survival after induction therapy with pemetrexed plus cisplatin. Methods: In this double-blind, multicentre, phase 3, randomised placebo-controlled trial, patients with advanced non-squamous NSCLC aged 18 years or older, with no previous systemic chemotherapy for lung cancer, with at least one measurable lesion, and an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status of 0 or 1 participated. Before randomisation, patients entered an induction phase which consisted of four cycles of induction pemetrexed (500 mg/m 2) plus cisplatin (75 mg/m 2) on day 1 of a 21-day cycle. Patients who did not progress after completion of four cycles of induction and who had an ECOG performance status of 0 or 1 were stratified according to disease stage (IIIB or IV), ECOG performance status (0 or 1), and induction response (complete or partial response, or stable disease), and randomly assigned (2:1 ratio) to receive maintenance therapy with either pemetrexed (500 mg/m 2 every 21 days) plus best supportive care or placebo plus best supportive care until disease progression. Randomisation was done with the Pocock and Simon minimisation method. Patients and investigators were masked to treatment assignment. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival in the intention-to-treat population. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00789373. Findings: Of the 1022 patients enrolled, 939 participated in the induction phase. Of these, 539 patients were randomly assigned to receive continuation maintenance with pemetrexed plus best supportive care (n=359) or with placebo plus best supportive care (n=180). Among the 359 patients randomised to continuation maintenance with pemetrexed, there was a significant reduction in the risk of disease progression over the placebo group (HR 0·62, 95% CI 0·49-0·79; p<0·0001). The median progression-free survival, measured from randomisation, was 4·1 months (95% CI 3·2-4·6) for pemetrexed and 2·8 months (2·6-3·1) for placebo. Possibly treatment-related laboratory grade 3-4 adverse events were more common in the pemetrexed group (33 [9%] of 359 patients) than in the placebo group (one [<1%] of 180 patients; p<0·0001), as were non-laboratory grade 3-5 adverse events (32 [9%] of 359 patients in the pemetrexed group; eight [4%] of 180 patients in the placebo group; p=0·080); one possibly treatment-related death was reported in each group. The most common adverse events of grade 3-4 in the pemetrexed group were anaemia (16 [4%] of 359 patients), neutropenia (13 [4%]), and fatigue (15 [4%]). In the placebo group, these adverse events were less common: anaemia (one [<1%] of 180 patients), neutropenia (none), and fatigue (one <1%]). The most frequent serious adverse events were anaemia (eight [2%] of 359 patients in the pemetrexed group vs none in the placebo group) and febrile neutropenia (five [1%] vs none). Discontinuations due to drug-related adverse events occurred in 19 (5%) patients in the pemetrexed group and six (3%) patients in the placebo group. Interpretation: Continuation maintenance with pemetrexed is an effective and well tolerated treatment option for patients with advanced non-squamous NSCLC with good performance status who have not progressed after induction therapy with pemetrexed plus cisplatin. Funding: Eli Lilly and Company. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Schwartzberg L.S.,The West Clinic | Modiano M.R.,Arizona Clinical Research Center and Arizona Oncology | Chasen M.R.,The Ottawa Hospital Cancer Center | Gridelli C.,San Giuseppe Moscati Hospital | And 5 more authors.
The Lancet Oncology | Year: 2015

Background: Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting is a common side-effect of many antineoplastic regimens and can occur for several days after treatment. We aimed to assess the neurokinin-1 receptor antagonist rolapitant, in combination with a serotonin (5-HT3) receptor antagonist and dexamethasone, for the prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting in patients with cancer after administration of moderately emetogenic chemotherapy or regimens containing an anthracycline and cyclophosphamide. Methods: We conducted a global, randomised, double-blind, active-controlled, phase 3 study at 170 cancer centres in 23 countries. We included patients with cancer aged 18 years or older, who had not received moderately or highly emetogenic chemotherapy before, with a Karnofsky performance score of 60 or higher, and a predicted life expectancy of 4 months or longer. We used an interactive web-based randomisation system to randomly allocate patients to receive either oral rolapitant (one 180 mg dose; rolapitant group) or a placebo that was identical in appearance (active control group) 1-2 h before administration of moderately emetogenic chemotherapy. Patients were stratified by sex. All patients also received granisetron (2 mg orally) and dexamethasone (20 mg orally) on day 1 (except for patients receiving taxanes as part of moderately emetogenic chemotherapy, who received dexamethasone according to the package insert) and granisetron (2 mg orally) on days 2-3. Every cycle was a minimum of 14 days. In up to five subsequent cycles, patients received the same study drug they were assigned in cycle 1, unless they chose to leave the study or were removed at the treating clinician's discretion. Efficacy analysis was done in the modified intention-to-treat population (comprising all patients who received at least one dose of study drug at a study site compliant with Good Clinical Practice [GCP]). The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients achieving a complete response (defined as no emesis or use of rescue medication) in the delayed phase (>24-120 h after initiation of chemotherapy) in cycle 1. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01500226. The study has been completed. Findings: Between March 5, 2012, and Sept 6, 2013, 1369 patients were randomised to receive either rolapitant (n=684) or active control (n=685). 666 patients in each group received at least one dose of study drug at a GCP-compliant site and were included in the modified intention-to-treat population. A significantly greater proportion of patients receiving rolapitant had complete responses in the delayed phase than did those receiving active control (475 [71%] vs 410 [62%]; odds ratio 1·6, 95% CI 1·2-2·0; p=0·0002). The incidence of adverse events was similar in the rolapitant and control groups, with the most frequently reported treatment-related treatment-emergent adverse events being fatigue, constipation, and headache. For cycle 1, the most common grade 3-4 adverse event in the rolapitant versus active control groups was neutropenia (32 [5%] vs 23 [3%] patients). No serious adverse event was treatment-related, and no treatment-related treatment-emergent adverse event resulted in death. Interpretation: Rolapitant in combination with a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist and dexamethasone is well tolerated and shows superiority over active control for the prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting during the 5-day (0-120 h) at-risk period after administration of moderately emetogenic chemotherapy or regimens containing an anthracycline and cyclophosphamide. Funding: TESARO, Inc. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.


Chasen M.R.,The Ottawa Hospital Cancer Center | Gridelli C.,San Giuseppe Moscati Hospital | Urban L.,Matrahaza Healthcare Center and University Teaching Hospital | Modiano M.R.,Arizona Clinical Research Center and Arizona Oncology | And 6 more authors.
The Lancet Oncology | Year: 2015

Background: Highly emetogenic chemotherapy induces emesis in almost all patients in the absence of prophylaxis. Guidelines recommend use of a neurokinin-1 (NK-1) receptor antagonist in conjunction with a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist and corticosteroid in patients receiving highly emetogenic chemotherapy. We aimed to assess rolapitant, an NK-1 receptor antagonist, for prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting in patients with cancer after administration of cisplatin-based highly emetogenic chemotherapy. Methods: We conducted two global, randomised, double-blind, active-controlled, phase 3 trials (HEC-1 and HEC-2) at 155 cancer centres (76 in HEC-1 and 79 in HEC-2) in 26 countries (17 in HEC-1 and 14 in HEC-2). We enrolled patients with cancer aged 18 years or older, who had not previously been treated with cisplatin, with a Karnofsky performance score of 60 or higher, and a predicted life expectancy of 4 months or longer. We used an interactive web-based randomisation system to randomly assign patients to treatment. Patients were stratified by sex and randomly allocated to either oral rolapitant (180 mg dose; rolapitant group) or a placebo that was identical in appearance (active control group) about 1-2 h before administration of highly emetogenic chemotherapy. All patients received granisetron (10 μg/kg intravenously) and dexamethasone (20 mg orally) on day 1, and dexamethasone (8 mg orally) twice daily on days 2-4. Every cycle was a minimum of 14 days. In up to five subsequent cycles, patients were allowed to receive the same study drug they were assigned in cycle 1, unless removed at the clinician's discretion. Patients could also choose to leave the study at any point. Efficacy analysis was done in the modified intention-to-treat population (comprising all patients who received at least one dose of study drug at a cancer centre compliant with Good Clinical Practice [GCP]). The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients achieving a complete response (no emesis or use of rescue medication) in the delayed phase (>24-120 h after initiation of chemotherapy) in cycle 1. These studies are registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, numbers NCT01499849 and NCT01500213. Both studies have been completed. Findings: Between Feb 21, 2012, and March 12, 2014, 532 patients in HEC-1 and 555 patients in HEC-2 were randomly assigned to treatment. 526 patients in HEC-1 (264 rolapitant and 262 active control) and 544 in HEC-2 (271 rolapitant and 273 active control) received at least one dose of study drug at a GCP-compliant site and were included in the modified intention-to-treat population. A significantly greater proportion of patients in the rolapitant group had complete responses in the delayed phase than did patients in the active control group (HEC-1: 192 [73%] vs 153 [58%]; odds ratio 1·9, 95% CI 1·3-2·7; p=0·0006; HEC-2: 190 [70%] vs 169 [62%]; 1·4, 1·0-2·1; p=0·0426; pooled studies: 382 [71%] vs 322 [60%]; 1·6, 1·3-2·1; p=0·0001). The incidence of adverse events was similar across treatment groups. The most commonly reported treatment-related treatment-emergent adverse events in the rolapitant versus active control groups were headache (three [<1%] vs two [<1%]), hiccups (three [<1%] vs four [<1%]), constipation (two [<1%] vs three [<1%]), and dyspepsia (two [<1%] vs three [<1%]). For cycle 1, the most common grade 3-5 adverse events in patients allocated rolapitant versus active control were neutropenia (HEC-1: nine [3%] vs 14 [5%]; HEC-2: 16 [6%] vs 14 [5%]), anaemia (HEC-1: one [<1%] vs one [<1%]; HEC-2: seven [3%] vs two [<1%]), and leucopenia (HEC-1: six [2%] vs two [<1%]; HEC-2: two [<1%] vs two [<1%]). No serious treatment-emergent adverse events were treatment related, and no treatment-related treatment-emergent adverse events resulted in death. Interpretation: Rolapitant in combination with a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist and dexamethasone is well-tolerated and shows superiority over active control for the prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting during the at-risk period (120 h) after administration of highly emetogenic cisplatin-based chemotherapy. Funding: TESARO, Inc. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.


De Bernardo M.,University of Salerno | Zeppa L.,San Giuseppe Moscati Hospital | Cennamo M.,University of Salerno | Iaccarino S.,University of Salerno | Rosa N.,University of Salerno
European Journal of Ophthalmology | Year: 2014

Purpose: To analyze and quantify the pattern of corneal astigmatism in patients awaiting cataract surgery to provide information for cataract surgeons and intraocular lens (IOL) manufacturers and to establish the demand for toric IOLs in a hospital. Methods: This cross-sectional retrospective study evaluated keratometric (K) values measured by partial coherence interferometry (IOLMaster) in cataract surgery candidates, who were then analyzed and correlated by age and axial length (AL) ranges. Results: The study evaluated the K values in 757 eyes of 380 patients with a mean age of 71.9 ± 10.2 years (range 33-96 years). The mean corneal astigmatism was 1.02 ± 0.69 D (range 0.06-4.57 D). It was 1 D or higher in 316 (41.74%) eyes. The mean AL was 23.56 ± 1.35 mm (range 20.53-31.86 mm). Conclusions: Our study shows that roughly 50% of the eyes have more than 1 D of astigmatism. The results can help hospitals plan and analyze the amount and costs of using toric IOLs in patients with corneal astigmatism. © 2013 Wichtig Editore.


Gridelli C.,San Giuseppe Moscati Hospital | Rossi A.,San Giuseppe Moscati Hospital | Venturino P.,Hoffmann-La Roche | De Marinis F.,San Camillo Forlanini Hospitals
Clinical Lung Cancer | Year: 2011

We present the treatment rationale and study design of the TALISMAN (TArceva and docetaxeL In former-Smokers MAle patients with recurrent Non-small-cell lung cancer) study, an open-label, randomized phase II trial of erlotinib (arm A) or intermittent erlotinib and docetaxel (arm B) in male former smokers affected by recurrent squamous non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In arm A, treatment consists of erlotinib 150 mg daily orally until progression or inacceptable toxicity; in arm B, treatment consists of docetaxel 75 mg/m 2 on day 1 and erlotinib 150 mg orally on days 2-16, recycled every 3 weeks up to 4 cycles followed, in patients not progressed, by erlotinib 150 mg daily orally until disease progression or inacceptable toxicity. The primary endpoint of this study is the rate of patients without progression at 6 months, and secondary objectives include median progression-free survival, median overall survival, activity, and toxicity. In addition, translational research evaluating EGFR and KRAS mutational status will be investigated for both arms.


Rotondi F.,San Giuseppe Moscati Hospital | Manganelli F.,San Giuseppe Moscati Hospital
European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences | Year: 2013

BACKGROUND: "Takotsubo" cardiomyopathy (TTC) is a clinical disorder usually triggered by intense emotional and/or physical stress, characterized by reversible severe localized left ventricular wall dyskinesia, transient changes of ST segment, without significant coronary artery stenoses, that can mimic acute myocardial infarction. STATE OF THE ART: Although TTC is well known to have a good mid- and long-term prognosis, arrhythmic risk is increasingly recognized and we could provide, in view of the available literature, a mean for a prognostic stratification and some practical suggestions for management of these "vulnerable" patients. PERSPECTIVES: Further studies with randomized trials will be needed to prove the optimal treatment of TTC CONCLUSIONS: TTC, generally considered a benign syndrome, should be reconsidered as a clinical condition at high risk for lethal arrhythmias in a subpopulation with QTc > 500 msec in acute phase. The studies about arrhythmias and TTC are based on case reports. TTC may present with sudden cardiac death: this results in a probable underestimate of the real arrhythmic risk. TTC is one of the causes of acquired long QT syndrome and could be a trigger able to unmask latent silent or inapparent congenital long QT syndrome. All factors that can exacerbate QT prolongation should be promptly removed. In the case of marked bradycardia and/or TdP should be implant a temporary pacemaker. In most cases, due to the transient nature of the syndrome, it is reasonable to recommend only beta-blocker therapy at discharge, despite the absence of randomized trials. If there are high-risk factor for long QT syndrome (QTc post-TCM > 500 ms, prior syncope, previous cardiac arrests) thought should be given an indication to ICD implant.


Rotondi F.,San Giuseppe Moscati Hospital | Manganelli F.,San Giuseppe Moscati Hospital | Carbone G.,San Giuseppe Moscati Hospital | Stanco G.,San Giuseppe Moscati Hospital
Southern Medical Journal | Year: 2011

We report the case of a 68-year-old woman in whom the use of duloxetine, a potent serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, was associated with "tako-tsubo" cardiomyopathy (TTC). Although several pathophysiological mechanisms for TTC have been proposed, available evidence suggests that an excess of catecholamines may play a major role. Our patient had a history of myocardial infarction with normal coronary arteries, probably the first manifestation of TTC. We speculate that duloxetine may have precipitated TTC by increasing plasma catecholamine concentration in a predisposed patient. Copyright © 2011 by The Southern Medical Association.


Fiore M.,The Second University of Naples | Leone S.,San Giuseppe Moscati Hospital
World Journal of Gastroenterology | Year: 2016

Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis is a complication of ascitic patients with end-stage liver disease (ESLD); spontaneous fungal peritonitis (SFP) is a complication of ESLD less known and described. ESLD is associated to immunodepression and the resulting increased susceptibility to infections. Recent perspectives of the management of the critically ill patient with ESLD do not specify the rate of isolation of fungi in critically ill patients, not even the antifungals used for the prophylaxis, neither optimal treatment. We reviewed, in order to focus the epidemiology, characteristics, and, considering the high mortality rate of SFP, the use of optimal empirical antifungal therapy the current literature. © The Author(s) 2016.


Di Maio M.,Instituto Nazionale Dei Tumori Fondazione G Pascale Irccs | De Marinis F.,Instituto Europeo Of Oncologia | Hirsch F.R.,Aurora University | Gridelli C.,San Giuseppe Moscati Hospital
International Journal of Oncology | Year: 2014

The recent availability of crizotinib in clinical practice, for the treatment of patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) selected by the presence of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) rearrangement, has relevant implications for both the diagnostic phase and the treatment choices. In the United States, crizotinib was approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 2011 for patients with ALK positivity detected by FDA-approved companion diagnostic test. As of January, 2014, the only FDA-approved diagnostic test is Vysis ALK Break-Apart FISH Probe Kit. In Europe, European Medicines Agency (EMA) approved crizotinib for ALK-positive patients in 2012, without specifying the type of test used for determining the positivity. FISH remains the reference technique for ALK determination, but, if fully validated, immunohistochemistry could challenge the current ALK screening practice. Given the robust evidence of activity of crizotinib in ALK-positive patients both pretreated and chemotherapy-naïve, and the favourable tolerability profile of the drug, many oncologists would prefer to administer the drug as early as possible. This is technically feasible in the United States, where crizotinib was approved well before the availability of the results of the randomized phase III trial comparing the drug with standard second-line chemotherapy, and the use of crizotinib in ALK-positive patients is not restricted to a specific line of treatment. On the contrary, in Europe, differently from the FDA decision, crizotinib cannot be used in chemotherapy-naïve patients. In both realities, a deeper knowledge of mechanisms of resistance, the role of repeated biopsies, the treatment strategy for patients experiencing disease progression with crizotinib, the choice of the best chemotherapy regimen are challenging topics for the management of ALK-positive patients in clinical pratice.

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