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Lenzi A.,University of Rome La Sapienza | Mirone V.,University of Naples Federico II | Gentile V.,University of Rome La Sapienza | Bartoletti R.,Santa Maria Annunziata Hospital | And 8 more authors.
BMC Public Health | Year: 2013

Background: Human Papillomavirus (HPV) is a very resistant, ubiquitous virus that can survive in the environment without a host. The decision to analyse HPV-related diseases in males was due to the broad dissemination of the virus, and, above all, by the need to stress the importance of primary and secondary prevention measures (currently available for women exclusively). The objective of the Consensus Conference was to make evidence-based recommendations that were designed to facilitate the adoption of a standard approach in clinical practice in Italy. Methods. The Sponsoring Panel put a series of questions to the members of the Scientific Committee who prepared a summary of the currently available information, relevant for each question, after the review and grading of the existing scientific literature. The summaries were presented to a Jury, also called multidisciplinary Consensus Panel, who drafted a series of recommendations. Results: The prevalence of HPV in males ranges between 1.3-72.9%;. The prevalence curve in males is much higher than that in females and does not tend to decline with age. Women appear to have a higher probability of acquiring HPV genotypes associated with a high oncogenic risk, whereas in males the probability of acquiring low- or high-risk genotypes is similar. The HPV-related diseases that affect males are anogenital warts and cancers of the penis, anus and oropharynx. The quadrivalent vaccine against HPV has proved to be effective in preventing external genital lesions in males aged 16-26 years in 90.4%; (95%; CI: 69.2-98.1) of cases. It has also proved to be effective in preventing precancerous anal lesions in 77.5%; (95%; CI: 39.6-93.3) of cases in a per-protocol analysis and in 91.7%; (95%; CI: 44.6-99.8) of cases in a post-hoc analysis. Early ecological studies demonstrate reduction of genital warts in vaccinated females and some herd immunity in males when vaccine coverage is high, although males who have sex with males gained no benefit at all. Males with an immunodeficiency disease are at greater risk of developing disease. Infertility seems to be caused by HPV in some cases. Studies demonstrate vaccination to both genders can be more efficacious and social equity matters are to be taken into consideration. Conclusions: The Jury made Recommendations based on the scientific evidence presented by the Scientific Committee. Accordingly, for prevention purposes and social fairness and equality, as both sexes are affected by the disease, the vaccination of 12-year-old males against HPV should be recommended in order to guaranty protection to everyone. Aspects related to healthcare policy and economic sustainability, are to be discussed by respective public system representatives. More campaigns to raise awareness through all institutional channels are needed, not only regarding anogenital warts, but for HPV-related diseases in general in males in accordance to new scientific evidences. © 2013 Lenzi et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Hames S.C.,University of Queensland | Ardigo M.,San Gallicano Dermatological Institute IRCCS | Soyer H.P.,University of Queensland | Bradley A.P.,Queensland University of Technology | Prow T.W.,University of Queensland
PLoS ONE | Year: 2016

Reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) is a powerful tool for in-vivo examination of a variety of skin diseases. However, current use of RCM depends on qualitative examination by a human expert to look for specific features in the different strata of the skin. Developing approaches to quantify features in RCM imagery requires an automated understanding of what anatomical strata is present in a given en-face section. This work presents an automated approach using a bag of features approach to represent en-face sections and a logistic regression classifier to classify sections into one of four classes (stratum corneum, viable epidermis, dermal-epidermal junction and papillary dermis). This approach was developed and tested using a dataset of 308 depth stacks from 54 volunteers in two age groups (20-30 and 50-70 years of age). The classification accuracy on the test set was 85.6%. The mean absolute error in determining the interface depth for each of the stratum corneum/viable epidermis, viable epidermis/dermal-epidermal junction and dermal-epidermal junction/papillary dermis interfaces were 3.1 μm, 6.0 μm and 5.5 μm respectively. The probabilities predicted by the classifier in the test set showed that the classifier learned an effective model of the anatomy of human skin. © 2016 Hames et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Agozzino M.,San Gallicano Dermatological Institute IRCCS | Guichard A.,University of Franche Comte | Ardigo M.,San Gallicano Dermatological Institute IRCCS
Expert Review of Dermatology | Year: 2013

Common inflammatory skin diseases can be correctly diagnosed with clinical examination. However, unusual presentations do exist and may cause difficulties in the differentiation among different entities, and histopathology is required for an accurate diagnosis. In this regard, dermoscopy and reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) can play an important role in increasing the specificity of the diagnosis, offering the possibility of improved management of patients. In this review, the authors have analyzed dermoscopic patterns of lichen planus, discoid lupus erythematosus, psoriasis and alopecias as prototypes of inflammatory skin diseases, and correlated them with RCM microscopical features. RCM, thanks to its correspondence to histology and to the possibility of an immediate correlation to dermoscopy, provides additional information useful for increasing the sensibility and specificity of dermoscopy. © 2013 2013 Expert Reviews Ltd.

Picardo M.,San Gallicano Dermatological Institute IRCCS | Ottaviani M.,San Gallicano Dermatological Institute IRCCS | Camera E.,San Gallicano Dermatological Institute IRCCS
Mediators of Inflammation | Year: 2010

Multiple factors are involved in acne pathogenesis, and sebum secretion is one of the main ones. The role sebum plays in acne development has not been completely elucidated yet; however, increasing amounts of data seem to confirm the presence of alterations in sebum from acne patients. Altered ratio between saturated and unsaturated fatty acids has been indicated as an important feature to be considered in addition to the altered amount of specific fatty acids such as linoleic acid. Furthermore, particular attention has been focused on squalene peroxide that seems to be able to induce an inflammatory response beyond cytotoxicity and comedones formation. Moreover, recent data suggest that lipid mediators are able to interfere with sebocytes differentiation and sebogenesis through the activation of pathways related to peroxisome proliferators-activated receptors. Understanding the factors and mechanisms that regulate sebum production is needed in order to identify novel therapeutic strategies for acne treatment. © 2010 Monica Ottaviani et al.

Favato G.,Kingston University | Baio G.,University College London | Baio G.,University of Milan Bicocca | Capone A.,Kingston University | And 9 more authors.
Medical Care | Year: 2012

BACKGROUND: The development of human papillomavirus (HPV)-related diseases is not understood perfectly and uncertainties associated with commonly utilized probabilistic models must be considered. The study assessed the cost-effectiveness of a quadrivalent-based multicohort HPV vaccination strategy within a Bayesian framework. METHODS: A full Bayesian multicohort Markov model was used, in which all unknown quantities were associated with suitable probability distributions reflecting the state of currently available knowledge. These distributions were informed by observed data or expert opinion. The model cycle lasted 1 year, whereas the follow-up time horizon was 90 years. Precancerous cervical lesions, cervical cancers, and anogenital warts were considered as outcomes. RESULTS: The base case scenario (2 cohorts of girls aged 12 and 15 y) and other multicohort vaccination strategies (additional cohorts aged 18 and 25 y) were cost-effective, with a discounted cost per quality-adjusted life-year gained that corresponded to &OV0556;12,013, &OV0556;13,232, and &OV0556;15,890 for vaccination programs based on 2, 3, and 4 cohorts, respectively. With multicohort vaccination strategies, the reduction in the number of HPV-related events occurred earlier (range, 3.8-6.4 y) when compared with a single cohort. The analysis of the expected value of information showed that the results of the model were subject to limited uncertainty (cost per patient=&OV0556;12.6). CONCLUSIONS: This methodological approach is designed to incorporate the uncertainty associated with HPV vaccination. Modeling the cost-effectiveness of a multicohort vaccination program with Bayesian statistics confirmed the value for money of quadrivalent-based HPV vaccination. The expected value of information gave the most appropriate and feasible representation of the true value of this program. Copyright © 2012 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

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