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Cristaudo A.,Dermatological Institute San Gallicano | D'Ilio S.,National Center for Chemical Substances | Gallinella B.,Istituto Superiore di Sanita | Mosca A.,Istituto Superiore di Sanita | And 5 more authors.

Background: Skin-lightening products are increasingly common in European cities. These products may contain substances that are banned under EU regulations as they can induce adverse effects, including cutaneous and systemic reactions (e.g., mercury, hydroquinone and topical corticosteroids). Objectives: To assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices of women regarding skin-lightening products and to quantify the potentially harmful substances in the products used. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study among 82 non-Italian women visiting an outpatient facility in Rome, Italy. The women completed a questionnaire on product use, side effects and risk awareness. We performed patch tests among a subgroup of 48 women who presented with contact dermatitis. We also quantified the allergenic and toxic substances in the 14 products reported, using dynamic reaction cell inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for metals and high-performance liquid chromatography for hydroquinone and topical corticosteroids. Results: Out of the 82 women, 33 used skin-lightening products; about one fourth of these women were aware of potential risks. Three cosmetic creams and two soaps contained high concentrations of metals (Cr, Ni and Pb); hydroquinone was found in three creams and one oil. The only topical corticosteroid detected was dexamethasone, in one product. More than half of the women in the clinical evaluation had irritant contact dermatitis (i.e., negative response to patch test). Conclusions: Among immigrant women in Rome, the use of skin-lightening products seems to be fairly common, and some of these products contain potentially hazardous substances. Consumers must be informed of the potential risks, and EU regulations must be more strictly enforced. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel. Source

Colombo G.L.,University of Pavia | Chimentp S.,University of Rome Tor Vergata | Matteo S.D.I.,S.A.V.E. StudiAnalisi Valutazioni Economiche | Fargnoli M.C.,University of LAquila | And 3 more authors.
Giornale Italiano di Dermatologia e Venereologia

Actinie keratosis (AK) is the most common cutaneous malignant neoplasm and its prevalence continues to increase. According to the most recent findings, AK is currently considered the initial stage, in situ, of squamous cell carcinoma. Field-directed therapies for AKs are the preferred treatment since they have the advantage to clear the clinically visible lesions and also subclinical lesions within the cancerous field. We assessed the cost-effectiveness of topical treatments for AKs including 3% diclofenac in 2.5% hyaluronic acid (HA) gel, imiquimod 5% cream and photodynamic therapy with methyl aminolevulinate (MAL-PDT) in the perspective of the Italian Health Care System (SSN). We used a decision tree analytical approach and efficacy data were drawn from published clinical trials. Cost was evaluated from the SSN perspective during a time horizon of 3 months. A responder was defined as a patient with all lesions clinically cleared and showing an excellent cosmetic result. Based on the applied model, the cost per complete responder was calculated. Diclofenac 3% in HA was less expensive (€ 256) than MAL-PDT (€ 320) and imiquimod (€ 342). Effectiveness was similar and better for diclofenac 3% in HA and MAL-PDT (0.813%) in comparison to 0.734% of imiquimod, respectively. The one-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses confirmed the results of base case scenario. Based on this cost-effectiveness model, diclofenac 3% in HA can be considered the treatment of choice for AK lesions and surrounding field under a pharmacoeconomic point of view. Source

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