Entity

Time filter

Source Type

Saint Helena, CA, United States

Bikle D.D.,University of California at San Francisco | Bikle D.D.,San Francisco Medical Center
Current Osteoporosis Reports | Year: 2012

All cells comprising the skeleton - chondrocytes, osteoblasts, and osteoclasts - contain both the vitamin D receptor and the enzyme CYP27B1 required for producing the active metabolite of vitamin D, 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D. Direct effects of 25 hydroxyvitamin D and 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D on these bone cells have been demonstrated. However, the major skeletal manifestations of vitamin D deficiency or mutations in the vitamin D receptor and CYP27B1, namely rickets and osteomalacia, can be corrected by increasing the intestinal absorption of calcium and phosphate, indicating the importance of indirect effects. On the other hand, these dietary manipulations do not reverse defects in osteoblast or osteoclast function that lead to osteopenic bone. This review discusses the relative importance of the direct versus indirect actions of vitamin D on bone, and provides guidelines for the clinical use of vitamin D to prevent/treat bone loss and fractures. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012. Source


Sudore R.L.,San Francisco Medical Center
Journal of general internal medicine | Year: 2012

Reducing symptom burden is paramount at the end-of-life, but typically considered secondary to risk factor control in chronic disease, such as diabetes. Little is known about the symptom burden experienced by adults with type 2 diabetes and the need for symptom palliation. To examine pain and non-pain symptoms of adults with type 2 diabetes over the disease course - at varying time points before death and by age. Survey follow-up study. 13,171 adults with type 2 diabetes, aged 30-75 years, from Kaiser Permanente, Northern California, who answered a baseline symptom survey in 2005-2006. Pain and non-pain symptoms were identified by self-report and medical record data. Survival status from baseline was categorized into ≤ 6, >6-24, or alive >24 months. Mean age was 60 years; 48 % were women, and 43 % were non-white. Acute pain was prevalent (41.8 %) and 39.7 % reported chronic pain, 24.6 % fatigue, 23.7 % neuropathy, 23.5 % depression, 24.2 % insomnia, and 15.6 % physical/emotional disability. Symptom burden was prevalent in all survival status categories, but was more prevalent among those with shorter survival, p< .001. Adults ≥ 60 years who were alive >24 months reported more physical symptoms such as acute pain and dyspnea, whereas participants <60 years reported more psychosocial symptoms, such as depressed mood and insomnia. Adjustment for duration of diabetes and comorbidity reduced the association between age and pain, but did not otherwise change our results. In a diverse cohort of adults with type 2 diabetes, pain and non-pain symptoms were common among all patients, not only among those near the end of life. However, symptoms were more prevalent among patients with shorter survival. Older adults reported more physical symptoms, whereas younger adults reported more psychosocial symptoms. Diabetes care management should include not only good cardiometabolic control, but also symptom palliation across the disease course. Source


Edmondson D.,Columbia University | Cohen B.E.,University of California at San Francisco | Cohen B.E.,San Francisco Medical Center
Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases | Year: 2013

Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is an anxiety disorder initiated by exposure to a traumatic event and characterized by intrusive thoughts about the event, attempts to avoid reminders of the event, and physiological hyperarousal. In a number of large prospective observational studies, PTSD has been associated with incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality. Also, in recent years, a number of studies have shown that cardiovascular events can themselves cause PTSD in more than 1 in 8 patients with acute coronary syndrome. Further, a few small studies suggest that PTSD secondary to an acute CVD event then places patients at increased risk for subsequent CVD events and mortality. In this article, we review the evidence for a link between PTSD and CVD, and discuss potential mechanisms for that association as well as future directions for research. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. Source


Steinman M.A.,University of California at San Francisco | Steinman M.A.,San Francisco Medical Center | Hanlon J.T.,University of Pittsburgh | Hanlon J.T.,Geriatric Research Education and Clinical Center
JAMA - Journal of the American Medical Association | Year: 2010

Multiple medication use is common in older adults and may ameliorate symptoms, improve and extend quality of life, and occasionally cure disease. Unfortunately, multiple medication use is also a major risk factor for prescribing and adherence problems, adverse drug events, and other adverse health outcomes. Using the case of an older patient taking multiple medications, this article summarizes the evidence-based literature about improving medication use and withdrawing specific drugs and drug classes. It also describes a systematic approach for how health professionals can assess and improve medication regimens to benefit patients and their caregivers and families. ©2010 American Medical Association. All rights reserved. Source


Johansen K.L.,University of California at San Francisco | Johansen K.L.,San Francisco Medical Center | Painter P.,University of Minnesota
American Journal of Kidney Diseases | Year: 2012

There are few studies evaluating exercise in the nondialysis chronic kidney disease (CKD) population. This review covers the rationale for exercise in patients with CKD not requiring dialysis and the effects of exercise training on physical functioning, progression of kidney disease, and cardiovascular risk factors. In addition, we address the issue of the risk of exercise and make recommendations for implementation of exercise in this population. Evidence from uncontrolled studies and small randomized controlled trials shows that exercise training results in improved physical performance and functioning in patients with CKD. In addition, although there are no studies examining cardiovascular outcomes, several studies suggest that cardiovascular risk factors such as hypertension, inflammation, and oxidative stress may be improved with exercise training in this population. Although the current literature does not allow for definitive conclusions about whether exercise training slows the progression of kidney disease, no study has reported worsening of kidney function as a result of exercise training. In the absence of guidelines specific to the CKD population, recent guidelines developed for older individuals and patients with chronic disease should be applied to the CKD population. In sum, exercise appears to be safe in this patient population if begun at moderate intensity and increased gradually. The evidence suggests that the risk of remaining inactive is higher. Patients should be advised to increase their physical activity when possible and be referred to physical therapy or cardiac rehabilitation programs when appropriate. © 2011 by the National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Source

Discover hidden collaborations