Deeks S.G.,San Francisco General Hospital
Annual Review of Medicine | Year: 2011
Although antiretroviral therapy for HIV infection prevents AIDS-related complications and prolongs life, it does not fully restore health. Long-term treated patients remain at higher than expected risk for a number of complications typically associated with aging, including cardiovascular disease, cancer, osteoporosis, and other end-organ diseases. The potential effect of HIV on health is perhaps most clearly exhibited by a number of immunologic abnormalities that persist despite effective suppression of HIV replication. These changes are consistent with some of the changes to the adaptive immune system that are seen in the very old ("immunosenescence") and that are likely related in part to persistent inflammation. HIV-associated inflammation and immunosenescence have been implicated as causally related to the premature onset of other end-organ diseases. Novel therapeutic strategies aimed at preventing or reversing these immunologic defects may be necessary if HIV-infected patients are to achieve normal life span. © 2011 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.
Graf J.,San Francisco General Hospital
Current Opinion in Rheumatology | Year: 2013
Purpose of Review: Cocaine use is associated with several rheumatic syndromes. This review summarizes these clinical manifestations and highlights recent developments linked to levamisole-adulterated cocaine. Recent Findings: Cocaine use has been linked to several distinctive syndromes that can be difficult to distinguish from idiopathic rheumatic diseases. These disorders can range in severity from purely cosmetic damage to organ and/or life-threatening disease that includes sinonasal destruction and vasculitis. Many of these illnesses are associated with antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (cytoplasmic, perinuclear and atypical perinuclear patterns). With the recent introduction of levamisole as a cocaine adulterant, a newly reported syndrome has emerged that is associated with neutropenia, retiform purpura with cutaneous necrosis and autoantibodies consisting of high-titre perinuclear antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (p-ANCAs) with specificities for â€̃ atypical' antigens. Summary: Cocaine use is associated with clinical syndromes that closely mimic other primary rheumatic diseases. Given the high prevalence of cocaine use and its adulteration with levamisole, clinicians should be familiar with these rheumatic manifestations in order to avoid misdiagnosis and unnecessary treatment with potentially toxic therapies. Copyright © 2012 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Luce J.M.,San Francisco General Hospital
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine | Year: 2010
Increasingly in the United States and other countries, medical decisions, including those at the end of life, are made using a shared decision-making model. Under this model, physicians and other clinicians help patients clarify their values and reach consensus about treatment courses consistent with them. Because most critically ill patients are decisionally impaired, family members and other surrogates must make end-of-life decisions for them, ideally in accord with a substituted judgment standard. Physicians generally make decisions for patients who lack families or other surrogates and have no advance directives, based on a best interests standard and occasionally in consultation with other physicians or with review by a hospital ethics committee. End-of-life decisions for patients with surrogates usually are made at family conferences, the functioning of which can be improved by several methods that have been demonstrated to improve communications. Facilitative ethics consultations can be helpful in resolving conflicts when physicians and families disagree in end-of-life decisions. Ethics committees actually are allowed to make such decisions in one state when disagreements cannot be resolved otherwise.
Luce J.M.,San Francisco General Hospital
Critical Care Medicine | Year: 2010
Objectives: To present a case of conflict over end-of-life care in the intensive care unit (ICU) and to describe how such conflicts have been resolved in the United States since the inception of ICUs. Data Sources: A nonsystematically derived sample of published studies and professional and lay commentaries on end-of-life care, ethical principles, medical decision-making, medical futility, and especially conflict resolution in the ICU. Study Selection: Some of those studies and commentaries dealing specifically with conflicts over end-of-life care in the ICU and their resolution. Data Synthesis: An historical review of conflict resolution over end-of-life issues in U.S. ICUs. Results and Conclusions: Conflict at the end of life in ICUs in the United States is relatively rare because most families and physicians agree about how patients should be treated. Nevertheless, conflict still exists over some patients whose families insist on care that physicians consider inappropriate and hence inadvisable, and over other patients whose families object to care that physicians prefer to provide. When such conflict occurs, mediation between families and physicians is usually successful in resolving it. Consultation from ethics committees also may be helpful in achieving resolution, and one state actually allows such committees to adjudicate disputes. Physicians who act unilaterally against family wishes run the risk of malpractice suits, although such suits usually are unsuccessful because the physicians are not shown to have violated standards of care. © 2010 by the Society of Critical Care Medicine and Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Benowitz N.L.,San Francisco General Hospital |
Benowitz N.L.,University of California at San Francisco
New England Journal of Medicine | Year: 2010
This review gives an account of the cigarette as a highly efficient nicotine delivery system. It explains how nicotine induces pleasure, reduces stress and anxiety, and causes addiction to tobacco smoking. The basis of nicotine addiction rests on its effects on the brain, but addiction is also influenced by learned or conditioned factors, genetics, and social and environmental conditions. Copyright © 2010 Massachusetts Medical Society. All rights reserved.