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Gallivan F.,ICF International | Sall E.,San Francisco County Transportation Authority | Hesse E.,Tri County Metropolitan Transportation District of Oregon TriMet | Salon D.,University of California at Davis | Ganson C.,Governors Office of Planning and Research
Transportation Research Record | Year: 2012

Methods to attribute greenhouse gas emissions from transit vehicles across cities in a multijurisdictional region are explored. Four methods and one submethod are proposed, tested, and evaluated with real-world data from the Bay Area Rapid Transit District, serving the San Francisco Bay Area, California, and the Tri-County Metropolitan Transportation District of Oregon, serving the Portland area. Each methodology is evaluated on the basis of the likely availability of necessary data, ease of calculation, policy implications, and accuracy. Method 1 allocates emissions on the basis of each jurisdiction's total population and employment as a share of population and employment from all of the region's jurisdictions that have transit access. Method 2 allocates emissions on the basis of each jurisdiction's share of vehicle revenue miles traveled within the jurisdiction. Method 3 allocates emissions on the basis of each jurisdiction's share of linked transit trip origins and destinations weighted by trip distances. Method 4 allocates emissions on the basis of each jurisdiction's share of boardings and alightings. The methods have clear differences in the amount and type of data and the complexity of calculations required. These differences can be readily compared with the data and analytical resources available to a region to provide a partial ranking of methods. Questions of fairness, accuracy, and policy incentives are complicated by theoretical challenges in assigning responsibility for transit service as well as by the unique urban and transportation contexts of each region. Each region will need to select the method that is most appropriate for its unique circumstances in order to achieve intraregional consistency.


Dannenberg A.L.,University of Washington | Ricklin A.,Planning and Community Health Research Center | Ross C.L.,Georgia Institute of Technology | Schwartz M.,San Francisco County Transportation Authority | And 3 more authors.
Transportation Research Record | Year: 2014

A health impact assessment (HIA) Is a tool that can he used to inform transportation planners of the potential health consequences of their decisions. Although dozens of transportation-related HIAs have heen completed in the United States, the characteristics of these HIAs and the interactions between public health professionals and transportation decision makers in these HIAs have not been documented. A master list of completed HIAs was used to identify transportation-related HIAs. Seventy-three transportation-related HIAs conducted in 22 states between 2004 and 2013 were identified. The IHAs were conducted for projects such as road redevelopments, bridge replacements, and development of trails and public transit. Policies such as road pricing, transit service levels, speed limits, complete streets, and safe routes to schooLs were also assessed. Five HIAs In which substantial interactions between public health and transportation professionals took place during and after the HIA were examined in detail and included HIAs of the road pricing policy in San Francisco, California; a bridge replacement in Seattle, Washington; new transit lines in Baltimore, Maryland, and Portland, Oregon; and the BeltLine transit, trails, and parks project in Atlanta, Georgia. Recommendations from the HIAs led to changes in decisions in some cases and helped to raise awareness of health issues by transportation decision makers in all cases. HIAs arc now used for many topics in transportation. The range of involvement of transportation decision makers in the conduct of HIAs varies. These case studies may serve as models for the conduct of future transportation-related HIAs, becanse the involvement of transportation agencies may increase the likelihood that an HIA will influence subsequent decisions.


News Article | November 7, 2016
Site: www.prweb.com

Today Rocky Mountain Institute (RMI) announced the newest members to join its board of trustees. RMI is pleased to welcome to the organization: Todd Stern was “a leading architect of the Obama administration’s international climate change strategy,” according to Politico. Stern was appointed to the position of U.S. special envoy on climate change on January 26, 2009, by former Secretary of State Hillary Clinton. He was the chief U.S. negotiator of the successful Paris Agreement. Stern previously served in the Clinton administration as assistant to the president, and as staff secretary in the White House from 1993 to 1998, during which time he also acted as the senior White House negotiator for the Kyoto Protocol and Buenos Aires negotiations. “I am delighted to be joining the Board of Trustees of Rocky Mountain Institute. Following the landmark Paris climate agreement last year, the central challenge for countries around the world will be to rapidly accelerate the transition to a clean energy, low-carbon global economy. RMI has been a clean energy leader for years, helping companies and governments take concrete steps to improve their energy profile and paving the way for national energy transition planning with work like Reinventing Fire: China,” Stern said. Mary Powell has served as president and chief executive officer for Green Mountain Power (GMP) Corporation since 2008. Powell launched an ambitious energy vision to provide low-carbon, low-cost and reliable power to Vermonters. She is leading an energy transformation, providing customers the latest innovations and comprehensive energy makeovers to help people save money and use less energy. GMP is the first utility to become a member of B Corp, showing a commitment to use energy as a force for good. In 2014 Powell was recognized by Power-Gen as the Woman of the Year, and in 2016 Fast Company named her one of the 100 Most Creative People in Business. “This is an exciting time to lead an energy revolution and deliver the new energy future customers tell us they want. Joining the Board of Trustees of Rocky Mountain Institute is an honor, and their work will help us drive collaboration and innovation to make this change happen sooner. It is time to move away from the bulk, antiquated grid to an energy system that is generated and used closer to where it is needed,” Powell said. Elizabeth Sall is the founder and president of UrbanLabs LLC, where she manages a portfolio of mission-driven projects spanning travel analysis research to policy. Prior to UrbanLabs, Sall served as the deputy director for data, technology and analysis, and as the interim deputy director for planning at the San Francisco County Transportation Authority. She is an active volunteer for the Transportation Research Board, serving on the Transportation Research Record Advisory Board and as a member of several committees. She serves on the Sall Family Foundation board, where she leads investment in “Entrepreneurial Initiatives.” Sall has a B.S. in Civil Engineering from North Carolina State University and an M.S. from University of Texas. “I’m honored to be asked to serve and excited to be working with Rocky Mountain Institute to solve the most pressing and complex challenge of our time: climate change,” Sall commented. RMI’s current board of trustees is chaired by Jose Maria Figueres, former president of Costa Rica, and includes Thomas Dinwoodie, lead independent trustee, Maria Van Der Hoeven, former executive director of the International Energy Agency, Jean Oelwang, CEO of Virgin Unite as well as other environmental ambassadors and clean energy executives. For a full list of trustees - http://www.rmi.org/Board%20of%20Trustees “We are very grateful to Todd, Mary and Elizabeth for joining us and donating their precious time to our mission of accelerating the energy transition. They truly bring their own unique and significant expertise to RMI and will help make our efforts more impactful,” said Jules Kortenhorst, CEO Rocky Mountain Institute. About Rocky Mountain Institute Rocky Mountain Institute (RMI)—an independent nonprofit founded in 1982—transforms global energy use to create a clean, prosperous, and secure low-carbon future. It engages businesses, communities, institutions, and entrepreneurs to accelerate the adoption of market-based solutions that cost-effectively shift from fossil fuels to efficiency and renewables. In 2014, RMI merged with Carbon War Room (CWR), whose business-led market interventions advance a low-carbon economy. The combined organization has offices in Basalt and Boulder, Colorado; New York City; Washington, D.C.; and Beijing.


Wu D.,Cambridge Systematics | Sall E.,San Francisco County Transportation Authority | Newhouse S.,AC Transit
Transportation Research Record | Year: 2012

Planners have developed an appetite for complex and multifarious models to match the intricacy of the questions being asked. For the most part, these new models, such as the currently popular activity-based modeling framework, are seamlessly backward compatible with all the previous questions that planners still ask from time to time. However, a seemingly simple question was recently raised in San Francisco, California, and the San Francisco County Transportation Authority's advanced, state-of-the-art activity-based model SF-CHAMP (San Francisco Chained Activity Modeling Process) was not equipped to handle it gracefully. This paper documents a methodology used to create a schedule of the auto trip rates from the SF-CHAMP activity-based travel demand model. The linear regression methodology uses outputs from the SF-CHAMP model along with simple accessibility variables to account for the wide variations in vehicle trip rates across the city and to provide a nexus between trip generation rates and the context of their origins or destinations. This approach combines the desired simplicity of auto trip generation rates in the local context of San Francisco and sensitivity to a set of accessibility variables comprehensible to humans.


Zorn L.,San Francisco County Transportation Authority | Sall E.,San Francisco County Transportation Authority | Wu D.,Cambridge Systematics
Transportation | Year: 2012

Information produced by travel demand models plays a large role decision making in many metropolitan areas, and San Francisco is no exception. Being a transit first city, one of the most common uses for San Francisco's travel model SF-CHAMP is to analyze transit demand under various circumstances. SF-CHAMP v 4.1 (Harold) is able to capture the effects of several aspects of transit provision including headways, stop placement, and travel time. However, unlike how auto level of service in a user equilibrium traffic assignment is responsive to roadway capacity, SF-CHAMP Harold is unable to capture any benefit related to capacity expansion, crowding's effect on travel time nor or any of the real-life true capacity limitations. The failure to represent these elements of transit travel has led to significant discrepancies between model estimates and actual ridership. Additionally it does not allow decision-makers to test the effects of policies or investments that increase the capacity of a given transit service. This paper presents the framework adopted into a more recent version of SF-CHAMP (Fury) to represent transit capacity and crowding within the constraints of our current modeling software. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.


Wickland T.,San Francisco County Transportation Authority | Sall E.,San Francisco County Transportation Authority
Transportation Research Record | Year: 2014

Residents of San Francisco, California, have repeatedly cited transit reliability as one of their top concerns. As San Francisco has begun investing in projects to reduce travel time variability, the trade-offs between alternatives have been difficult to quantify with existing tools. This study Investigated and quantified the effects of modal conflicts on bus travel along a 3.6-mi study corridor and each conflict's contribution to unreliability. Instances of modal conflict were modeled as Bernoulli trials or other simple probabilistic events and included vehicles entering or exiting parking spaces, double-parked vehicles, and vehicles queuing for pedestrians while executing turning movements. Cumulative distributions of modal conflict resulted in estimates of average delay and variance of delay from bus to has. Sensitivity analyses illustrated and quantified the nonlincarity and variance of delay with respect to the number and severity of events. The convolution of distributions of delay for each conflict type could also be calculated, provided the causes of delay were independent. Modal conflict delay for a side-running bus rapid transit line in the study corridor was 1.9 min longer for buses with 95th percentile delays than for those with the mean delay of 4.2 min. Overall, the semi-standard deviation of delay compared with a no-modal-conflict reference point wus 4.3 min. Furthermore, eliminating the analyzed modal conflict types along the study corridor-for instance, by establishing centerrunning bus-only lanes-could reduce system operating costs by up to $2.5 million per year and could result in user time savings equivalent to as much as $10.5 million per year.


Brisson E.,San Francisco County Transportation Authority | Sall E.,San Francisco County Transportation Authority | Ang-Olson J.,ICF International
Transportation Research Record | Year: 2012

Although several studies analyze strategies for reducing transportation's contribution to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, few do so at the local level, particularly for a city such as San Francisco, California, that is already a leader in climate-friendly transportation. This study examined nine GHG-reducing strategies within the San Francisco context, where local ordinance establishes a goal to reduce the city's GHGs 80% below 1990 levels by 2050. Strategies that were analyzed included infrastructure improvements, expansion of demand management policies including pricing, and accelerated penetration of electric vehicle technology. The study used a combination of travel demand model and sketch-planning methods to estimate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of strategies in reducing GHGs and their cumulative ability to achieve San Francisco's goal. The analysis results showed roadway pricing and electric vehicle strategies to have had the largest potential to reduce GHGs, although these two strategies differed significantly in cost-effectiveness. The results also showed that strategies involving share costs between public sector, private sector, and individuals had great promise in delivering reductions. Although investments in transit alone may not produce large GHG reductions, they are necessary to accommodate the mode shift of other strategies and can be paired strategically with pricing strategies. According to analysis results, San Francisco's policy goals appeared unachievable, even with ambitious assumptions about funding and policy change. These findings point to the need for policy change at a higher scale and for unprecedented changes in individual behavior to achieve GHG goals.


Schneider R.,University of California at Berkeley | Henry T.,Fehr and Peers Transportation Consultants | Mitman M.,Fehr and Peers Transportation Consultants | Stonehill L.,San Francisco Municipal Transportation Agency | Koehler J.,San Francisco County Transportation Authority
Transportation Research Record | Year: 2012

The process of modeling pedestrian volume in San Francisco, California, refined the methodology used to develop previous intersection-based models and incorporated variables that were tailored to estimate walking activity in the local urban context. The methodology included two main steps. First, manual and automated pedestrian counts were taken at a sample of 50 study intersections with a variety of characteristics. A series of factor adjustments was applied to produce an estimate of annual pedestrian crossings at each intersection. Second, log-linear regression modeling was used to identify statistically significant relationships between the estimate of annual pedestrian volume and land use, transportation system, local environment, and socioeconomic characteristics near each intersection. Twelve alternative models were considered, and the preferred model had a good overall fit (adjusted R 2=.804). As identified in other communities, pedestrian volumes were positively associated with the number of households and the number of jobs near each intersection. This San Francisco model also found significantly higher pedestrian volumes at intersections (a) in high-activity zones with metered on-street parking, (b) in areas with fewer hills, (c) near university campuses, and (d) under the control of traffic signals. Because the model was based on a relatively small sample of intersections, the number of significant factors was limited to six. Results are being used by public agencies in San Francisco to understand the risks of pedestrian crossings better and to inform citywide pedestrian safety policy and investment.


News Article | November 14, 2016
Site: www.businesswire.com

SAN FRANCISCO--(BUSINESS WIRE)--Fitch Ratings has affirmed the following rating on the San Francisco County Transportation Authority (the authority) CA: --Implied sales tax revenue bonds at 'AA+'. The Rating Outlook is Stable. SECURITY The bonds will be secured by a first lien on the authority's one-half-cent sales tax collected in the city and county of San Francisco. As an implied rating, it is based on assumptions regarding legal structure and leveraging stated by the authority. The implied

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